severe pneumonia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Xiaoying Li ◽  
Zinan Jiang

Objectives: To assess the association of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) α-SMA and ß-catenin levels and the severity of pneumonia. Methods: The records of patients with severe pneumonia treated in our hospital from June 2019 to June 2020 were selected. The clinical outcome was observed within 10 days. For the purpose of analysis, patients were divided into two groups according to the outcome, 47 cases in the improvement group and 39 cases in the deterioration group. The intubation time, mechanical ventilation time and APACHE II score 10 days after admission were compared between the two groups; We assessed pulmonary infections using the clinical pulmonary infection score(CPIS). The levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at different time points were compared and analyzed, to analyze the association between the levels and the CPIS. Results: The APACHE II score in the improvement group were lower than those in the deterioration group (P<0.05). The expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in the BALF of patients in the improvement group were significantly lower than those of patients in the deterioration group on day 1, 3, and 7 (P<0.05); and the expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in the BALF of patients in the improvement group decreased with time, while those of patients in the deterioration group increased gradually with time(P<0.05). The expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in patients with CPIS>6 was significantly higher than those in patients with CPI≤6(P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in BALF were positively correlated with the CPIS. Conclusion: The levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in BALF are closely associated with the clinical condition of patients with severe pneumonia; the levels are positively associated with the severity of the disease and they increase with symptomatic worsening. doi: How to cite this:Li X, Jiang Z. Correlation between α-SMA and ß-catenin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and severity of pneumonia. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gangqiang Lin ◽  
Minlei Hu ◽  
Jiaying Song ◽  
Xueqian Xu ◽  
Haiwei Liu ◽  

Background: Stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is associated with poor prognosis after acute ischemic stroke (AIS).Purpose: This study aimed to describe the parameters of coagulation function and evaluate the association between the fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) and SAP in patients with AIS.Patients and methods: A total of 932 consecutive patients with AIS were included. Coagulation parameters were measured at admission. All patients were classified into two groups according to the optimal cutoff FAR point at which the sum of the specificity and sensitivity was highest. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance potential confounding factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of SAP.Results: A total of 100 (10.7%) patients were diagnosed with SAP. The data showed that fibrinogen, FAR, and D-dimer, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were higher in patients with SAP, while albumin was much lower. Patients with SAP showed a significantly increased FAR when compared with non-SAP (P &lt; 0.001). Patients were assigned to groups of high FAR (≥0.0977) and low FAR (&lt;0.0977) based on the optimal cut-off value. Propensity score matching analysis further confirmed the association between FAR and SAP. After adjusting for confounding and risk factors, multivariate regression analysis showed that the high FAR (≥0.0977) was an independent variable predicting the occurrence of SAP (odds ratio =2.830, 95% CI = 1.654–4.840, P &lt; 0.001). In addition, the FAR was higher in the severe pneumonia group when it was assessed by pneumonia severity index (P = 0.008).Conclusions: High FAR is an independent potential risk factor of SAP, which can help clinicians identify high-risk patients with SAP after AIS.

Esther Liu ◽  
Hudson Lee ◽  
Briana Lui ◽  
Robert S White ◽  
Jon D Samuels

This narrative review summarizes recent reports to provide an updated understanding of the multiorgan effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in obese individuals. A PubMed search of 528 primary articles was performed, with inclusion based on novelty, relevance and redundancy. Obesity confers an increased risk for hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, severe pneumonia, intubation and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients. Obesity is also associated with higher levels of inflammatory and thrombotic markers. However, the associations between obesity and mortality or cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. Obesity is a risk factor for several respiratory and nonrespiratory COVID-19 complications. Future work is needed to further explore these relationships and optimize the management of obese COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Alexis L. Mraz ◽  
Mark H. Weir

Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is a pathogenic bacterium of increasing concern, due to its ability to cause a severe pneumonia, Legionnaires’ Disease (LD), and the challenges in controlling the bacteria within premise plumbing systems. L. pneumophila can thrive within the biofilm of premise plumbing systems, utilizing protozoan hosts for protection from environmental stressors and to increase its growth rate, which increases the bacteria’s infectivity to human host cells. Typical disinfectant techniques have proven to be inadequate in controlling L. pneumophila in the premise plumbing system, exposing users to LD risks. As the bacteria have limited infectivity to human macrophages without replicating within a host protozoan cell, the replication within, and egress from, a protozoan host cell is an integral part of the bacteria’s lifecycle. While there is a great deal of information regarding how L. pneumophila interacts with protozoa, the ability to use this data in a model to attempt to predict a concentration of L. pneumophila in a water system is not known. This systematic review summarizes the information in the literature regarding L. pneumophila’s growth within and egress from the host cell, summarizes the genes which affect these processes, and calculates how oxidative stress can downregulate those genes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 327
Yeong-Nan Cheng ◽  
Wei-Chih Huang ◽  
Chen-Yu Wang ◽  
Pin-Kuei Fu

Lower respiratory tract sampling from endotracheal aspirate (EA) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are both common methods to identify pathogens in severe pneumonia. However, the difference between these two methods in microbiota profiles remains unclear. We compared the microbiota profiles of pairwise EA and BAL samples in ICU patients with respiratory failure due to severe pneumonia. We prospectively enrolled 50 ICU patients with new onset of pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. EA and BAL were performed on the first ICU day, and samples were analyzed for microbial community composition via 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing. Pathogens were identified in culture medium from BAL samples in 21 (42%) out of 50 patients. No difference was observed in the antibiotic prescription pattern, ICU mortality, or hospital mortality between BAL-positive and BAL-negative patients. The microbiota profiles in the EA and BAL samples are similar with respect to diversity, microbial composition, and microbial community correlations. The antibiotic treatment regimen was rarely changed based on the BAL findings. The samples from BAL did not provide more information than EA in the microbiota profiles. We suggest that EA is more useful than BAL for microbiome identification in mechanically ventilated patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Liqing Niu ◽  
Lu Xiao ◽  
Xuemin Zhang ◽  
Xuezheng Liu ◽  
Xinqiao Liu ◽  

Background: Severe pneumonia (SP) has a high mortality rate and is responsible for significant healthcare costs. Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) have been widely used in China as a novel and promising treatment option for SP. Therefore, this study assessed and ranked the effectiveness of CHIs to provide more sights for the selection of SP treatment.Method: Seven databases were searched from their inception up to April 1, 2021. The methodological quality of included study was evaluated by the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Then, a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed by OpenBUGS 3.2.3 and STATA 14.0 software. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probability values were applied to rank the examined treatments. A clustering analysis was utilized to compare the effect of CHIs between two different outcomes.Results: A total of 64 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 5,904 participants were identified for this analysis. Six CHIs including Xuebijing injection (XBJ), Tanreqing injection (TRQ), Reduning injection (RDN), Xiyanping injection (XYP), Shenfu injection (SF), and Shenmai injection (SM) were included. The results of the NMA showed that XBJ [odds ratio (OR) = 0.24, 95% credible interval (CI): 0.19, 0.30], TRQ (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.37), RDN (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.94), and SM (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.63) combined with conventional Western medicine (WM) improved the clinical effective rate more significantly than WM alone. Based on SUCRA values, TRQ + WM (SUCRA: 66.4%) ranked the highest in improving the clinical effective rate, second in four different outcomes, and third in only one. According to the cluster analysis, TRQ + WM exerted a positive effect on improving the efficacy of SP. As for safety, less than 30% (18 RCTs) of the included studies reported adverse drug reactions/adverse drug events (ADRs/ADEs), including 14 RCTs of XBJ, 3 RCTs of TRQ, and 1 RCT of RDN.Conclusion: In conclusion, the study found that the CHIs as co-adjuvant therapy could be beneficial for patients with SP. TRQ + WM showed an outstanding improvement in patients with SP considering both the clinical effective rate and other outcomes.Systematic Review Registration: [], identifier [CRD42021244587].

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 737
Kamyar Shirvanimoghaddam ◽  
Bożena Czech ◽  
Ram Yadav ◽  
Cemile Gokce ◽  
Laura Fusco ◽  

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a rapidly spreading pandemic and is severely threatening public health globally. The human-to-human transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is now well established. The reported clinical observations and symptoms of this infection in humans appear in the range between being asymptomatic and severe pneumonia. The virus can be transmitted through aerosols and droplets that are released into the air by a carrier, especially when the person coughs, sneezes, or talks forcefully in a closed environment. As the disease progresses, the use and handling of contaminated personal protective equipment and facemasks have become major issues with significant environmental risks. Therefore, providing an effective method for treating used/contaminated facemasks is crucial. In this paper, we review the environmental challenges and risks associated with the surge in facemask production. We also discuss facemasks and their materials as sources of microplastics and how disposal procedures can potentially lead to the contamination of water resources. We herein review the potential of developing nanomaterial-based antiviral and self-cleaning facemasks. This review discusses these challenges and concludes that the use of sustainable and alternative facemask materials is a promising and viable solution. In this context, it has become essential to address the emerging challenges by developing a new class of facemasks that are effective against the virus, while being biodegradable and sustainable. This paper represents the potentials of natural and/or biodegradable polymers for manufacturing facemasks, such as wood-based polymers, chitosan, and other biodegradable synthetic polymers for achieving sustainability goals during and after pandemics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tisungane Mvalo ◽  
Eric D. McCollum ◽  
Elizabeth Fitzgerald ◽  
Portia Kamthunzi ◽  
Robert H. Schmicker ◽  

Abstract Background Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children aged under 5 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). World Health Organization (WHO) pneumonia diagnosis guidelines rely on non-specific clinical features. We explore chest radiography (CXR) findings among select children in the Innovative Treatments in Pneumonia (ITIP) project in Malawi in relation to clinical outcomes. Methods When clinically indicated, CXRs were obtained from ITIP-enrolled children aged 2 to 59 months with community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized with treatment failure or relapse. ITIP1 (fast-breathing pneumonia) and ITIP2 (chest-indrawing pneumonia) trials enrolled children with non-severe pneumonia while ITIP3 enrolled children excluded from ITIP1 and ITIP2 with severe pneumonia and/or selected comorbidities. A panel of trained pediatricians classified the CXRs using the standardized WHO CXR research methodology. We analyzed the relationship between CXR classifications, enrollee characteristics, and outcomes. Results Between March 2016 and June 2018, of 114 CXRs obtained, 83 met analysis criteria with 62.7% (52/83) classified as having significant pathology per WHO standardized interpretation. ITIP3 (92.3%; 12/13) children had a higher proportion of CXRs with significant pathology compared to ITIP1 (57.1%, 12/21) and ITIP2 (57.1%, 28/49) (p-value = 0.008). The predominant pathological CXR reading was “other infiltrates only” in ITIP1 (83.3%, 10/12) and ITIP2 (71.4%, 20/28), while in ITIP3 it was “primary endpoint pneumonia”(66.7%, 8/12,; p-value = 0.008). The percent of CXRs with significant pathology among children clinically cured (60.6%, 40/66) vs those not clinically cured (70.6%, 12/17) at Day 14 was not significantly different (p-value = 0.58). Conclusions In this secondary analysis we observed that ITIP3 children with severe pneumonia and/or selected comorbidities had a higher frequency of CXRs with significant pathology, although these radiographic findings had limited relationship to Day 14 outcomes. The proportion of CXRs with “primary endpoint pneumonia” was low. These findings add to existing data that additional diagnostics and prognostics are important for improving the care of children with pneumonia in LMICs. Trial registration ITIP1, ITIP2, and ITIP3 were registered with (NCT02760420, NCT02678195, and NCT02960919, respectively).

2022 ◽  
Sebastien P. Faucher ◽  
Sara Matthews ◽  
Arvin Nickzad ◽  
Passoret Vounba ◽  
Deeksha Shetty ◽  

Legionella pneumophila is a natural inhabitant of water systems. From there, it can be transmitted to humans by aerosolization resulting in severe pneumonia. Most large outbreaks are caused by cooling towers contaminated with L. pneumophila. The resident microbiota of the cooling tower is a key determinant for the colonization and growth of L. pneumophila. The genus Pseudomonas correlates negatively with the presence of L. pneumophila, but it is not clear which species is responsible. Therefore, we identified the Pseudomonas species inhabiting 14 cooling towers using a Pseudomonas-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing strategy. Cooling towers free of L. pneumophila contained a high relative abundance of members from the Pseudomonas alcaliphila/oleovorans phylogenetic cluster. In vitro, P. alcaliphila JCM 10630 inhibited the growth of L. pneumophila on agar plates. Analysis of the P. alcaliphila genome revealed the presence of a genes cluster predicted to produce toxoflavin. L. pneumophila growth was inhibited by pure toxoflavin and by extract from P. alcaliphila culture found to contain toxoflavin by LC-ESI-MS. In addition, toxoflavin inhibits growth of Vermameoba vermiformis, a host cell of L. pneumophila. Our study indicates that P. alcaliphila may be important to restrict growth of L. pneumophila in water systems through the production of toxoflavin. A sufficiently high concentration is likely not achieved in the bulk water but might have a local inhibitory effect such as in biofilm.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jing Lei ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Qian Li ◽  
Lin Gao ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  

Objective. To investigate efficiency of RAGE and OSM as new prognosis biomarkers of severe pneumonia. Methods. Eligible patients were classified into hypoxemia and nonhypoxemia groups. Meanwhile, the same cohort was divided into survival and nonsurvival groups after a post-hospital stay of 30 days. We analyzed risk factors for the hypoxia and death among these patients. Results. Compared with nonsurvival group, significant increase was noticed in PH, lymphocyte, albumin and platelet level in survival group, while significant decline was noticed in neutrophils, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, creatinine, total bilirubin, CRP, PCT, OSM, RAGE and neutrophils/lymphocyte level. Oxygenation index level was related to APACHE II, LIS, SOFA, NUTRIC score, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte, RAGE, and albumin level ( p < 0.05 ). LIS, SOFA, NUTRIC score, lac, lymphocyte, platelet, BUN, total bilirubin, PCT, and OSM levels were associated with mortality rate ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusions. RAGE and OSM may serve as a new biomarker for poor prognosis in pneumonia patients.

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