Laser Powder Bed Fusion
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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 012016
Jyi Sheuan Jason Ten ◽  
Fern Lan Ng ◽  
Hang Li Seet ◽  
Mui Ling Sharon Nai

Kirstin Riener ◽  
Tino Pfalz ◽  
Florian Funcke ◽  
Gerhard Leichtfried

AbstractThe growing demand for more materials available for the LPBF-process, in particular high-strength aluminum alloys, is evident in the market. In the present work, a systematic investigation of the processability of aluminum 6182 series alloys, using LPBF, was carried out. For this purpose, the influence of process parameters, especially of enhanced preheating by heating the substrate plate during the LPBF process, on the microstructure of EN AW 6182 specimens was studied.Experiments were conducted at different preheating temperatures always using the same d-optimal design-of-experiments, the laser power, scanning speed, hatch distance, and laser focus position being varied over a wide range.It was found that the preheating temperature has the strongest impact on hot cracking. Higher temperatures result in a significantly reduced number of hot cracks in the microstructure. Moreover, an equiaxed microstructure of the specimens manufactured can be observed at preheating temperatures of 500 °C. In addition to the preheating temperature, the achievable part density is most strongly affected by the laser focus position and the laser power, whereas the hatch distance shows no discernible impact on the part density. Furthermore, neither the hatch distance nor the laser focus position shows any significant effect on hot cracking.In combination with the optimal scanning parameters, crack-free parts with a fully equiaxed grain structure and densities > 99.0% can be manufactured via LPBF at a preheating temperature of 500 °C.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 572
Constantin Böhm ◽  
Martin Werz ◽  
Stefan Weihe

The range of available aluminum alloy powders for laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is restricted to mainly Al–Si based alloys. Currently aluminum alloy powders, designed for lightweight application, based on Al–Mg (5000 series), Al–Si–Mg (6000 series), or Al–Zn–Mg (7000 series), cannot be processed by LPBF without solidification cracks. This has an impact on the potential of LPBF for lightweight applications. In fusion welding, solidification cracks are eliminated by using filler materials. This study aims to transfer the known procedure to LPBF, by supplementing EN AW-5083 (AlMg4.5Mn0.7) with AlSi10Mg. EN AW-5083 and two modifications (+7 wt.% and +15 wt.% AlSi10Mg) were produced by LPBF and analyzed. It was found that, in EN AW-5083, the solidification cracks have a length ≥200 µm parallel to the building direction. Furthermore, the solidification cracks can already be eliminated by supplementing 7 wt.% AlSi10Mg. The microstructure analysis revealed that, by supplementing AlSi10Mg, the melt pool boundaries become visible, and the grain refines by 40% relative to the base alloy. Therefore, adding a low melting point phase and grain refinement are the mechanisms that eliminate solidification cracking. This study illustrates a practical approach to eliminate solidification cracks in LPBF.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 551
Zdeněk Pitrmuc ◽  
Jan Šimota ◽  
Libor Beránek ◽  
Petr Mikeš ◽  
Vladislav Andronov ◽  

This paper aims at an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of mechanical and microstructural properties of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (W. Nr. 1.4404, CL20ES) produced by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) technology. The experiment in its first part includes an extensive study of the anisotropy of mechanical and microstructural properties in relation to the built orientation and the direction of loading, which showed significant differences in tensile properties among samples. The second part of the experiment is devoted to the influence of the process parameter focus level (FL) on mechanical properties, where a 48% increase in notched toughness was recorded when the level of laser focus was identical to the level of melting. The FL parameter is not normally considered a process parameter; however, it can be intentionally changed in the service settings of the machine or by incorrect machine repair and maintenance. Evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties was performed using the tensile test, Charpy impact test, Brinell hardness measurement, microhardness matrix measurement, porosity analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy. Across the whole spectrum of samples, performed analysis confirmed the high quality of LPBF additive manufactured material, which can be compared with conventionally produced material. A very low level of porosity in the range of 0.036 to 0.103% was found. Microstructural investigation of solution annealed (1070 °C) tensile test samples showed an outstanding tendency to recrystallization, grain polygonization, annealing twins formation, and even distribution of carbides in solid solution.

Anand Kumar S ◽  
Ajay Kushwaha ◽  
Nagesha B K ◽  
Sanjay Barad

Abstract The proposed work investigates the hybrid surface characterisation of intra thin-walled Ti6Al4V surfaces fabricated using laser powder bed fusion technology. The thin-walled samples were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and Opto-digital microscopy techniques. The fractal dimensional analysis was performed using ImageJ software integrated with an open-source MultiFrac plug-in. The surface microscopy analysis revealed satellites powder particles, partially melted powder particles, spherical balling, and pores on the thin-walled surface. The fractal dimension establishes a correlation between the surface roughness values. The surface areal surface parameters analysis suggested variation along the build direction of thin-walled Ti6Al4V sample. The development of sharp peaks and thus higher Ra, Sku and Ssk values were found along the build direction of the intra thin-walled samples. Therefore, the combination of areal surface topography analysis and fractal dimension approach can be a promising methodology towards surface characterisation of additively manufactured complex thin-walled surfaces.

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