alloying elements
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2022 ◽  
Vol 141 ◽  
pp. 107434
Daniel Vidal ◽  
Guy Hillel ◽  
Itzhak Edry ◽  
Malki Pinkas ◽  
David Fuks ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 208 ◽  
pp. 114323
B.M. Jenkins ◽  
J. Haley ◽  
M.P. Moody ◽  
J.M. Hyde ◽  
C.R.M. Grovenor

S Dhayaneethi ◽  
J Anburaj ◽  
S Arivazhagan

High Chromium White Cast Iron (HCWCI) plays a major role in manufacturing of wear-resistant components. Due to unique wear resistance property, attribution to the additions of carbide forming elements, they have been used for mill liner applications. By varying the wt% of alloying elements such as Cr, Ti, and Mo, the wear resistance and impact strength of High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI) can be increased. To enhance the wear resistance property according to Central Composite Design (CCD), 16 samples were fabricated by varying the wt% of alloying elements. To fabricate the samples, furan sand molds were prepared and used for the further casting process. The properties of Furan sand mold enhance the mechanical properties and reduce the mold rejection rate, production time, etc. To attain the optimum Wear Rate (WR) and Impact Strength (IS) value without dominance, optimization techniques such as Response Surface Methodological (RSM) and Particle swarm optimization (PSO) are employed to solve the multi-objective problem. The RSM and PSO predicted optimum solutions are compared by using the Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment (WASPAS) ranking method. The WASPAS result revealed that when compared to the RSM result, the PSO predicted optimal wt% of chemical composition (22 wt % Cr, 3 wt % Ti, and 2.99 wt % Mo) gives the optimum WR value (53 mm3/min) and IS value (3.77 J). To validate the PSO result, experiments were carried out for the predicted wt% of alloying elements and tested. The difference between the PSO predicted result and experimental result is less than 5% error which clearly shows that PSO is an effective method to solve the multi-objective problem.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
T. E. Graedel ◽  
Barbara K. Reck ◽  
Alessio Miatto

AbstractMaterials scientists employ metals and alloys that involve most of the periodic table. Nonetheless, materials scientists rarely take material criticality and reuse potential into account. In this work, we expand upon lists of “critical materials” generated by national and regional governments by showing that many materials are employed predominantly as alloying elements, which can be a deterrent to recovery and reuse at end of product life and, likely as a consequence, have low functional end-of-life recycling rates, among other problematic characteristics. We thereby single out six metals for enhanced concern: dysprosium, samarium, vanadium, niobium, tellurium, and gallium. From that perspective, the use of critical metals in low concentrations in alloys unlikely to be routinely recycled should be avoided if possible. If not, provision should be made for better identification and more efficient recycling so that materials designated as critical can have increased potential for more than a single functional use.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 426
Zhao Yang ◽  
Xiaolong He ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Andrej Atrens ◽  
Xuyue Yang ◽  

The influence of Si, Cu, B, and trace alloying elements on the conductivity of aluminum die cast 12 (ADC12) alloy was investigated. The conductivity decreased linearly with increasing volume fraction of the Si phase attributed to a linear decrease of the volume of the more conductive Al phase through a rule of mixtures. The conductivity also decreased with increasing Cu content, between 0~3%. The conductivity increased with increasing B content, reached the peak at 0.02% B and thereafter decreased somewhat. The mechanism was that B reacted with the transition element in the Al phase to form boride, decreasing the transition element concentration in the Al lattice, and decreasing the lattice constant. The thermal conductivity, λ, was related to the electrical conductivity, σ, by means of λ=LTσ+λg, where L is the apparent Lorentz constant, 1.86 × 10−8; T is the absolute temperature, 293 K; λg is the lattice conductivity, 42.3 W/(m·K).

Solids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Sheng Li ◽  
Minshi Wang ◽  
Khamis Essa ◽  
Chunlei Gan ◽  
Chunyan Liu ◽  

A novel Ti-Ni-Hf-Cu-Nb shape memory alloy has been developed by a new combinatorial alloy synthesis method, the Suspended Droplet Alloying. The influence of alloying elements on the transformation temperature, the microstructure and the shape memory effect of this alloy have also been studied. It was found that Cu has a greater negative influence on the transformation temperature of Ti-Ni-Hf-CuX alloys (about −5 K/at.%) than on the Ti-Ni-CuX alloys (−0.67 K/at.%). In addition, the negative effect intensifies with increasing Hf content. The transformation temperature rapidly decreases with increasing Nb composition in the Ti-Ni-Cu-Nb and Ti-Ni-Hf-Cu-Nb alloys, with the solid solution of Nb in the matrix being 1 at.%. A Ti-Ni-Cu-Hf-Nb alloy with high thermal cycle stability has been developed, where the alloying elements affect the transformation behaviour via altering the slipping energy and forming different types of precipitations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 60 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-45
Hye Rin Bang ◽  
Jin-seong Park ◽  
Hwan Goo Seong ◽  
Sung Jin Kim

This study examined the effects of minor alloying elements (C, Ni, Cr, and Mo) on the long-term corrosion behaviors of ultrahigh-strength automotive steel sheets with a tensile strength of more than 1800 MPa. A range of experimental and analytical results showed that the addition of Ni, Cr, and Mo decreased the corrosion current density and weight loss in electrochemical and immersion tests, respectively, in a neutral aqueous condition. This suggests that the minor addition of elements to steel can result in improved corrosion resistance even for long-term immersion periods. This is closely associated with the formation of thin and stable corrosion scale on the surface, which was enriched with the alloying elements (Ni, Cr, and Mo). On the other hand, their beneficial effects did not persist during the prolonged immersion periods in steel with a higher C content, suggesting that the beneficial effects of the minor addition of Ni, Cr, and Mo were overridden by the detrimental effects of a higher C content as the immersion time was increased. Based on these results, lower C and the optimal use of Ni, Cr, and Mo are suggested as a desirable alloy design strategy for developing ultrahigh-strength steel sheets that can be exposed frequently to a neutral aqueous environment.

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