Absorptivity measurements during laser powder bed fusion of pure copper with a 1 kW cw green laser

2022 ◽  
Vol 147 ◽  
pp. 107612
G. Nordet ◽  
C. Gorny ◽  
Y. Mayi ◽  
J. Daligault ◽  
M. Dal ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 102417
Shuo Qu ◽  
Junhao Ding ◽  
Jin Fu ◽  
Mingwang Fu ◽  
Baicheng Zhang ◽  

2019 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 100831 ◽  
Cassidy Silbernagel ◽  
Leonidas Gargalis ◽  
Ian Ashcroft ◽  
Richard Hague ◽  
Michael Galea ◽  

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7260
Anna Martín Vilardell ◽  
Pavel Krakhmalev ◽  
Ina Yadroitsava ◽  
Igor Yadroitsev ◽  
Natalia Garcia-Giralt

The intensive cytotoxicity of pure copper is effectively kills bacteria, but it can compromise cellular behavior, so a rational balance must be found for Cu-loaded implants. In the present study, the individual and combined effect of surface composition and roughness on osteoblast cell behavior of in situ alloyed Ti6Al4V(ELI)-3 at.% Cu obtained by laser powder bed fusion was studied. Surface composition was studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Surface roughness measurements were carried out using confocal microscopy. In vitro osteoblast performance was evaluated by means of cell morphology observation of cell viability, proliferation, and mineralization. In vitro studies were performed at 1, 7, and 14 days of cell culture, except for cell mineralization at 28 days, on grounded and as-built (rough) samples with and without 3 at.% Cu. The addition of 3 at.% Cu did not show cell cytotoxicity but inhibited cell proliferation. Cell mineralization tends to be higher for samples with 3 at.% Cu content. Surface roughness inhibited cell proliferation too, but showed enhanced cell mineralization capacity and therefore, higher osteoblast performance, especially when as-built samples contained 3 at.% Cu. Cell proliferation was only observed on ground samples without Cu but showed the lowest cell mineralization.

Thomas Stoll ◽  
Pascal Trautnitz ◽  
Samuel Schmiedeke ◽  
Joerg Ernst Franke ◽  
Nahum Travitzky

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Jieren Guan ◽  
Qiuping Wang ◽  
Chao Chen ◽  
Jingyu Xiao

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze and investigate heat accumulation caused by temperature changes and interface microstructure effected by element diffusion. Design/methodology/approach Al/Cu bimetallic structure is initially manufactured through laser powder bed fusion process. To minimize trial and error, finite element modeling is adopted to simulate temperature changes on the Al-based and Cu-based substrate. Findings The results show that forming pure copper on Al-based substrate can guarantee heat accumulation, providing enough energy for subsequent building. The instantaneous laser energy promotes increase of diffusion activation energy, resulting in the formation of transition zone derived from interdiffusion between Al and Cu atoms. The interface with a thickness of about 22 µm dominated by Kirkendall effect moves towards Al-rich side. The interface microstructure is mainly composed of a-Al, a-Cu and CuAl2 phase. Originality/value The bonding mechanism of Al/Cu interface is atom diffusion-induced chemical reaction. The theoretical basis provides guidance for structural design and production application.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 ◽  
pp. 924-938
Martin Malý ◽  
Daniel Koutný ◽  
Libor Pantělejev ◽  
Laurent Pambaguian ◽  
David Paloušek

Materials ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 538 ◽  
Fabrizia Caiazzo ◽  
Vittorio Alfieri ◽  
Giuseppe Casalino

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) can fabricate products with tailored mechanical and surface properties. In fact, surface texture, roughness, pore size, the resulting fractional density, and microhardness highly depend on the processing conditions, which are very difficult to deal with. Therefore, this paper aims at investigating the relevance of the volumetric energy density (VED) that is a concise index of some governing factors with a potential operational use. This paper proves the fact that the observed experimental variation in the surface roughness, number and size of pores, the fractional density, and Vickers hardness can be explained in terms of VED that can help the investigator in dealing with several process parameters at once.

2020 ◽  
Vol 106 (7-8) ◽  
pp. 3367-3379 ◽  
Shahriar Imani Shahabad ◽  
Zhidong Zhang ◽  
Ali Keshavarzkermani ◽  
Usman Ali ◽  
Yahya Mahmoodkhani ◽  

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