Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are growing public health problems that contribute to maternal morbidity, mortality, and future risk of cardiovascular disease. Given established rural‐urban differences in maternal cardiovascular health, we described contemporary trends in new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the United States.
Methods and Results
We conducted a serial, cross‐sectional analysis of 51 685 525 live births to individuals aged 15 to 44 years from 2007 to 2019 using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Natality Database. We included gestational hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia in individuals without chronic hypertension and calculated the age‐adjusted incidence (95% CI) per 1000 live births overall and by urbanization status (rural or urban). We used Joinpoint software to identify inflection points and calculate rate of change. We quantified rate ratios to compare the relative incidence in rural compared with urban areas. Incidence (95% CI) of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increased from 2007 to 2019 in both rural (48.6 [48.0–49.2] to 83.9 [83.1–84.7]) and urban (37.0 [36.8–37.2] to 77.2 [76.8–77.6]) areas. The rate of annual increase in new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was more rapid after 2014 with greater acceleration in urban compared with rural areas. Rate ratios (95% CI) comparing incidence of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in rural and urban areas decreased from 1.31 (1.30–1.33) in 2007 to 1.09 (1.08–1.10) in 2019.
Incidence of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy doubled from 2007 to 2019 with persistent rural‐urban differences highlighting the need for targeted interventions to improve the health of pregnant individuals and their offspring.
Background and Purpose:
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) comprise 4 subtypes. Previous studies have not investigated the relationship between stroke risk, different HDP subtypes, and follow-up time, which was the purpose of this study.
Data of 17 588 women aged 18 to 45 years who had a history of HDP in Taiwan from 2000 to 2017 was retrospectively reviewed. After matching with confounders, 13 617 HDP women and 54 468 non-HDP women were recruited.
HDP women had an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.71 (95% CI, 1.46−2.00) for stroke, and 1.60 (1.35−1.89) and 2.98 (2.13−4.18) for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively (
<0.001 for all). The overall stroke risk in the HDP group was still 2.04 times 10 to 15 years after childbirth (1.47−2.83,
<0.001). Although the risks of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke persisted, their risk time trends were different. The risk of ischemic stroke reached peak during 1 to 3 years after childbirth with an aHR of 2.14 (1.36–3.38), while hemorrhagic stroke risk gradually increased and had an aHR of 4.64 (2.47−8.73) after 10 to 15 years of childbirth (both
<0.001). Among the 4 HDP subtypes, chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia had the highest stroke risk (aHR=3.86, 1.91−7.82,
<0.001), followed by preeclampsia–eclampsia (aHR=2.00, 1.63−2.45,
<0.001), and gestational hypertension (aHR=1.68, 1.13−2.52,
<0.05); chronic preexisting hypertension had the lowest stroke risk (aHR=1.27, 0.97−1.68,
>0.05). Furthermore, multiple HDP combined with preeclampsia had aHR of 5.48 (1.14−26.42,
The effect of HDP on the risk of future stroke persisted for up to 17 years, both for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The presence of multiple HDP and preeclampsia further increase the stroke risk.