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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 66-75
Gail Denise Hughes ◽  
Oluwaseyi Mayode Aboyade ◽  
Osaretin Christabel Okonji ◽  
Bobby Clark ◽  
Walter Agbor Bawa ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
S. Khan ◽  
S. N. Khan ◽  
M. Rauf ◽  
M. F. Khan ◽  

Abstract Rotavirus is the main infective agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children under the age of five years and causing significant morbidity as well as mortality throughout the world. The study was carried out to detect the prevalence rate, genotypes strain and risk factors of Rotavirus among the children of rural and urban areas of district Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 180 stool samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years from two major hospitals of Bannu from January to December (2015). The samples were analyzed by Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Rotavirus, positive samples were further processed for genotyping (G and P type) through specific PCR. Of the total, 41 (23%) samples were positive for Rotavirus. The most prevalent G genotypes found were: G3, G8, G9 (each 29%), followed by G10 (15%), and G11 (10%). Whereas the prevalent P genotypes were: P-8 (25%), P-4 and P-10 (each 20%), P-9 (15%), followed by P-6 and P-11 (each 10%). Moreover, Rotavirus infection was more prevalent in summer (23.73%) and winter (22.7%) than spring (20%) and autumn (21.4%). Rotavirus infection exhibited high frequency in June (14%), October (8%) and November (6%). It is concluded that Rotavirus is more prevalent in children and various genotypes (G and P) of Rotavirus are present in the study area. Lack of studies, awareness and rarer testing of Rotavirus are the principal reasons of virus prevalence in district Bannu, Pakistan.

Alison Gustafson ◽  
Rachel Gillespie ◽  
Emily DeWitt ◽  
Brittany Cox ◽  
Brynnan Dunaway ◽  

Online grocery shopping has the potential to improve access to food, particularly among low-income households located in urban food deserts and rural communities. The primary aim of this pilot intervention was to test whether a three-armed online grocery trial improved fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchases. Rural and urban adults across seven counties in Kentucky, Maryland, and North Carolina were recruited to participate in an 8-week intervention in fall 2021. A total of 184 adults were enrolled into the following groups: (1) brick-and-mortar “BM” (control participants only received reminders to submit weekly grocery shopping receipts); (2) online-only with no support “O” (participants received weekly reminders to grocery shop online and to submit itemized receipts); and (3) online shopping with intervention nudges “O+I” (participants received nudges three times per week to grocery shop online, meal ideas, recipes, Facebook group support, and weekly reminders to shop online and to submit itemized receipts). On average, reported food spending on F/V by the O+I participants was USD 6.84 more compared to the BM arm. Online shopping with behavioral nudges and nutrition information shows great promise for helping customers in diverse locations to navigate the increasing presence of online grocery shopping platforms and to improve F&V purchases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Barbara Agueli ◽  
Giovanna Celardo ◽  
Ciro Esposito ◽  
Caterina Arcidiacono ◽  
Fortuna Procentese ◽  

The study investigates how the territorial community can influence the individual and social well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) youth and especially the recognition of their feelings and the construction of their own identity as well as their needs to be socially recognized. This research focuses on the experiences of 30 LGB individuals (23 males and 7 females), with a mean age of 25.07 years (SD = 4,578), living in urban and rural areas of Southern Italy. Focalized open interviews were conducted, and the Grounded Theory Methodology, supported by the Atlas.ti 8.0 software, was used for data analysis. The textual material was first coded, and then codes were grouped into five macro-categories: Freedom of identity expression in the urban and rural context, identity construction and acceptance process, need of aggregation and identification with the LGB community, role of the interpersonal relationship in the process of identity acceptance, socio-cultural context, and LGB psychological well-being. The results showed a condition common to the two contexts that we can define as “ghettoization.” The young LGB is alone in the rural area due to a lack of places and people to identify with and greater social isolation. On the contrary, although there are more opportunities in the urban area, young people feel stigmatized and ghettoized because “their places” are frequented exclusively by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transexual, queer (LGBTQ) community. The work will extensively discuss the limitations of the research, future proposals, and the practical implications of the results.

Tri Siswati ◽  
Joko Susilo ◽  
Hari Kusnanto ◽  
Lukman Waris

The article's abstract is not available.

Amal Saad-Hussein ◽  
Eman M. Shahy ◽  
Khadiga S. Ibrahim ◽  
Heba Mahdy-Abdallah ◽  
Mona M. Taha ◽  

Natalie A. Cameron ◽  
Ian Everitt ◽  
Laura E. Seegmiller ◽  
Lynn M. Yee ◽  
William A. Grobman ◽  

Background Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are growing public health problems that contribute to maternal morbidity, mortality, and future risk of cardiovascular disease. Given established rural‐urban differences in maternal cardiovascular health, we described contemporary trends in new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the United States. Methods and Results We conducted a serial, cross‐sectional analysis of 51 685 525 live births to individuals aged 15 to 44 years from 2007 to 2019 using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Natality Database. We included gestational hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia in individuals without chronic hypertension and calculated the age‐adjusted incidence (95% CI) per 1000 live births overall and by urbanization status (rural or urban). We used Joinpoint software to identify inflection points and calculate rate of change. We quantified rate ratios to compare the relative incidence in rural compared with urban areas. Incidence (95% CI) of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increased from 2007 to 2019 in both rural (48.6 [48.0–49.2] to 83.9 [83.1–84.7]) and urban (37.0 [36.8–37.2] to 77.2 [76.8–77.6]) areas. The rate of annual increase in new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was more rapid after 2014 with greater acceleration in urban compared with rural areas. Rate ratios (95% CI) comparing incidence of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in rural and urban areas decreased from 1.31 (1.30–1.33) in 2007 to 1.09 (1.08–1.10) in 2019. Conclusions Incidence of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy doubled from 2007 to 2019 with persistent rural‐urban differences highlighting the need for targeted interventions to improve the health of pregnant individuals and their offspring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 721
Youzhi Xiao ◽  
Xuemin Liu ◽  
Ting Ren

An imbalanced distribution of income and welfare characterizes a developing or transitional economy such as China’s. Even after forty years of reform and rapid economic growth, there is still considerable disparity in wellbeing across different institutional settings in China. Major inequalities exist between rural and urban areas, public and for profit sectors, and state-owned and private enterprises. This paper presents the descriptive differences in individual wellbeing across these kinds of institutional settings from objective and subjective perspectives, enabled by the five waves of the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS; the years of 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015). The results show that: (1) people in urban China enjoy more objective wellbeing than people in rural China, but less subjective wellbeing; (2) people who work for the public sector enjoy more objective and subjective wellbeing than those for the for profit sector; (3) people who work for the state owned enterprises enjoy more objective wellbeing than those for the for profit sector, but subjective happiness is not significantly different. Furthermore, people’s perception of subjective wellbeing not only relies upon substantive objective wellbeing, but also an affiliation with a certain type of institution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 687-696
Claudia Sălceanu ◽  
Mariana Floricica Călin

The COVID-19 pandemic had an unprecedented impact on Romanian people. For almost two years the changes in the everyday life of the inhabitants of our country happened with such speed and dramatic consequences, that it raised the question about the perception of Romanian people regarding their perceived quality of life. A sample of 1796 young people, all residents of Constanta County, aged between 18 and 25 years old, was assessed with a survey made by the authors, concerning their perception on the quality of their life in the fields of health, self-esteem, goals and values, financial, professional, leisure, learning, family and social environment, and emotional regulation. Of all the themes we studied, this research tries to identify the differences regarding the quality of life between rural and urban residents. We obtained statistical significant differences regarding goals and values, learning opportunities and emotional regulation. Results are discussed in the end of the paper in the context of the on-going changes still caused by the Covid-19 pandemic

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 33-42
Suyanto Suyanto ◽  
Shashi Kandel ◽  
Rahmat Azhari Kemal ◽  
Arfianti Arfianti

This study assesses the status of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among coronavirus survivors living in rural and urban districts in Riau province, Indonesia. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 468 and 285 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors living in rural and urban areas, respectively in August 2021. The St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to measure the HRQOL of COVID-19 survivors. A higher total score domain corresponds to worse quality of life status. Quantile regression with the respect to 50th percentile found a significant association for the factors living in rural areas, being female, having comorbidities, and being hospitalized during treatment, with total score of 4.77, 2.43, 7.22, and 21.27 higher than in their contra parts, respectively. Moreover, having received full vaccination had the score 3.96 in total score. The HRQOL of COVID-19 survivors living in rural areas was significantly lower than in urban areas. Factors such as living in rural areas, female sex, having comorbidities, and history of symptomatic COVID-19 infection were identified as significant predictors for lower quality of life. Meanwhile, having full vaccination is a significant predictor for a better quality of life. The results of this study can provide the targeted recommendations for improvement of HRQOL of COVID-19 survivors.

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