hypertensive disorders
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2022 ◽  
Daniel A. Nnate ◽  
Kobi Vannessa Ajayi ◽  
Md Mahbub Hossain ◽  
Paul Guerby

Objective: Studies on psychosocial interventions for perinatal mental health and wellbeing are mostly limited to the postpartum period. However, the physiological changes associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy predisposes women to severe psychological distress and adverse birth outcomes. This review investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Methods: Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase, MEDLINE, MIDIRS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, and Web of Science were searched up to 22nd August 2021. Effect sizes on relevant health outcomes were pooled in a meta‐analysis using STATA software. Results: Eight randomised trials involving 460 participants met the inclusion criteria. Included studies adopted several interventions ranging from music, exercise, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), spiritual care education and psychoeducation. The pooled effect showed a significant reduction in anxiety (d= −0.35 [−0.58, −0.11], p=0.004) and depression (d= −0.37 [−0.57, −0.17], p=0.0003). Spiritual care education significantly reduced postpartum stress disorder (d= −62.00 [−93.10, −30.90], p= 0.0001). However, CBT showed no effect on gestational stress (d= −2.20 [-4.89, 0.48], p= 0.11). Conclusion: This study provides satisfactory evidence that psychosocial interventions may likely reduce anxiety and depression associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. However, the evidence is very uncertain about its effect on neonatal outcomes.

Natalie A. Cameron ◽  
Ian Everitt ◽  
Laura E. Seegmiller ◽  
Lynn M. Yee ◽  
William A. Grobman ◽  

Background Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are growing public health problems that contribute to maternal morbidity, mortality, and future risk of cardiovascular disease. Given established rural‐urban differences in maternal cardiovascular health, we described contemporary trends in new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the United States. Methods and Results We conducted a serial, cross‐sectional analysis of 51 685 525 live births to individuals aged 15 to 44 years from 2007 to 2019 using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Natality Database. We included gestational hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia in individuals without chronic hypertension and calculated the age‐adjusted incidence (95% CI) per 1000 live births overall and by urbanization status (rural or urban). We used Joinpoint software to identify inflection points and calculate rate of change. We quantified rate ratios to compare the relative incidence in rural compared with urban areas. Incidence (95% CI) of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increased from 2007 to 2019 in both rural (48.6 [48.0–49.2] to 83.9 [83.1–84.7]) and urban (37.0 [36.8–37.2] to 77.2 [76.8–77.6]) areas. The rate of annual increase in new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was more rapid after 2014 with greater acceleration in urban compared with rural areas. Rate ratios (95% CI) comparing incidence of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in rural and urban areas decreased from 1.31 (1.30–1.33) in 2007 to 1.09 (1.08–1.10) in 2019. Conclusions Incidence of new‐onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy doubled from 2007 to 2019 with persistent rural‐urban differences highlighting the need for targeted interventions to improve the health of pregnant individuals and their offspring.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Ioannis Kakoulidis ◽  
Costas Thomopoulos ◽  
Ioannis Ilias ◽  
Stefanos Stergiotis ◽  
Stefanos Togias ◽  

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Alpha-methyl-DOPA (αMD) is a commonly used medication for hypertension in pregnant women. This medication may be associated with alteration in insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate in 152 pregnant women whether the demands of exogenous insulin in glucocorticoid-treated women during pregnancy are different between those with GDM and hypertension treated with αMD and those without hypertension. In the group of women with GDM under insulin treatment, who received αMD for hypertension, the increase in insulin needs was relatively lower by at least 30% of the pre-admission insulin dose compared to all of the remaining women not receiving αMD in the same group (9 women vs. 50 women, p = 0.035). Our work raises the hypothesis that αMD can favorably modulate insulin sensitivity in the third trimester of pregnancy in previously insulin-treated women with gestational diabetes who receive glucocorticoids.

Stroke ◽  
2022 ◽  
Shih-Kai Hung ◽  
Moon-Sing Lee ◽  
Hon-Yi Lin ◽  
Liang-Cheng Chen ◽  
Chi-Jou Chuang ◽  

Background and Purpose: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) comprise 4 subtypes. Previous studies have not investigated the relationship between stroke risk, different HDP subtypes, and follow-up time, which was the purpose of this study. Methods: Data of 17 588 women aged 18 to 45 years who had a history of HDP in Taiwan from 2000 to 2017 was retrospectively reviewed. After matching with confounders, 13 617 HDP women and 54 468 non-HDP women were recruited. Results: HDP women had an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.71 (95% CI, 1.46−2.00) for stroke, and 1.60 (1.35−1.89) and 2.98 (2.13−4.18) for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively ( P <0.001 for all). The overall stroke risk in the HDP group was still 2.04 times 10 to 15 years after childbirth (1.47−2.83, P <0.001). Although the risks of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke persisted, their risk time trends were different. The risk of ischemic stroke reached peak during 1 to 3 years after childbirth with an aHR of 2.14 (1.36–3.38), while hemorrhagic stroke risk gradually increased and had an aHR of 4.64 (2.47−8.73) after 10 to 15 years of childbirth (both P <0.001). Among the 4 HDP subtypes, chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia had the highest stroke risk (aHR=3.86, 1.91−7.82, P <0.001), followed by preeclampsia–eclampsia (aHR=2.00, 1.63−2.45, P <0.001), and gestational hypertension (aHR=1.68, 1.13−2.52, P <0.05); chronic preexisting hypertension had the lowest stroke risk (aHR=1.27, 0.97−1.68, P >0.05). Furthermore, multiple HDP combined with preeclampsia had aHR of 5.48 (1.14−26.42, P <0.05). Conclusions: The effect of HDP on the risk of future stroke persisted for up to 17 years, both for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The presence of multiple HDP and preeclampsia further increase the stroke risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S459-S460
Katelyn Pratt ◽  
Amy H. Crockett ◽  
Jessica Britt ◽  
Emily Doherty ◽  
Moonseong Heo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S462-S463
Madushka De Zoysa ◽  
Judith H. Chung ◽  
Katlynn Adkins ◽  
Jonathan Steller

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