hemorrhagic stroke
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Andrew Fu Wah Ho ◽  
Mervyn Jun Rui Lim ◽  
Huili Zheng ◽  
Aloysius Sheng-Ting Leow ◽  
Benjamin Yong-Qiang Tan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 41-48
Hidayatullah Hidayatullah ◽  
Shobihatus Syifak ◽  
Choirotussanijjah Choirotussanijjah

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage or ICH or hemorrhagic stroke is caused by bleeding within brain parenchyma. Riskesdas reported that stroke patients in Indonesia experienced an increase from 7 permil in 2013 to 10.9 permil in 2018. Mortality rate for ICH is estimated 40% in 1 month and 54% in 1 year. Rumah sakit Islam Jemursari (RSI) is the only type B hospital in Wonocolo sub-district, Surabaya city. This study aimed to analyze the pattern of incidents and variations of ICH at RSI Jemursari Surabaya.Method: This was a descriptive observational study. Medical record data is collected  from 2017-2019. The data were obtained from medical records section of total number of ICH, gender, age and outcome of patients. Furthermore, data is analyzed and illustrated through a bar chart and the frequency of mortality is calculated.Results: Total ICH patients at Jemursari Hospital were 310 with 192 male patients and 118 female patients over 3 years. Meanwhile, the most groups experienced ICH were 45-64 years, followed by +65 age group. This is consistent with several epidemiological studies related to ICH, where the incidence of ICH increases with increasing age. The mortality rate for ICH patients, in the 2017-2019 periode, was around 23-30%.Conclusion: It can be concluded that male more susceptible to ICH than female subjects. Meanwhile, the mortality rate for ICH patients ranged from 23-30% in the 2017-2019 period. It is necessary to carry out further evaluation related to other data from the patient. So it could describe incidence rate as well as an overview of the ICH profile at RSI Jemursari.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cinzia Costa ◽  
Elena Nardi Cesarini ◽  
Paolo Eusebi ◽  
David Franchini ◽  
Paola Casucci ◽  

Introduction: Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) requires long-term treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs). However, epidemiology of PSE and long-term compliance with ASM in this population are still unclear. Here we report, through population-level healthcare administrative data, incidence, risk factors, ASM choice, and ASM switch over long-term follow-up.Materials and Methods: This is a population-based retrospective study using Umbria healthcare administrative database. Population consisted of all patients with acute stroke, either ischaemic or hemorrhagic, between 2013 and 2018. ICD-9-CM codes were implemented to identify people with stroke, while PSE was adjudicated according to previously validated algorithm, such as EEG and ≥1 ASM 7 days after stroke.Results: Overall, among 11,093 incident cases of acute stroke (75.9% ischemic), 275 subjects presented PSE, for a cumulative incidence of 2.5%. Patients with PSE were younger (64 vs. 76 years), more frequently presented with hemorrhagic stroke, and had longer hospital stay (15.5 vs. 11.2 days) compared with patients without PSE. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models confirmed that PSE associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer duration of hospital stay. Levetiracetam was the most prescribed ASM (55.3%), followed by valproate and oxcarbazepine. Almost 30% of patients prescribed with these ASMs switched treatment during follow-up, mostly toward non-enzyme-inducing ASMs. About 12% of patients was prescribed ASM polytherapy over follow-up.Conclusions: Post-stroke epilepsy is associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer hospital stay. First ASM is switched every one in three patients, suggesting the need for treatment tailoring in line with secondary prevention.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zhaoxia Li ◽  
Zixiao Li ◽  
Qi Zhou ◽  
Hongqiu Gu ◽  
Yongjun Wang ◽  

Abstract Background The influence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the severity and prognosis of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to explore the association of admission estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels with hemorrhagic stroke severity and outcomes in ICH patients. Materials and methods The patients enrolled in this study were from the China Stroke Center Alliance study (CSCA). Patients were divided into four groups according to differences in eGFR at admission (≥90; 60–89; 45–59; < 45). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of the eGFR at admission with hemorrhagic stroke severity, in-hospital complications, discharge disposition, and in-hospital mortality after ICH. Results A total of 85,167 patients with acute ICH were included in the analysis. Among them, 9493 (11.1%) had a baseline eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2. A low eGFR was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality [eGFR 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2, odds ratio (OR) 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–1.53); eGFR 45–59, 2.35 (1.97–2.82); eGFR<45, 4.18 (3.7–4.72); P for trend < 0.0001], non-routine discharge [eGFR 60–89, 1.11 (1.03–1.2); eGFR 45–59, 1.16 (1–1.35); eGFR<45, 1.37 (1.23–1.53); P for trend < 0.0001], hemorrhagic stroke severity [eGFR 60–89, 1 (0.95–1.05); eGFR 45–59, 1.39 (1.26–1.53); eGFR<45, 1.81 (1.67–1.96); P for trend < 0.0001], in-hospital complications of pneumonia [eGFR 60–89, 1.1 (1.05–1.14); eGFR 45–59, 1.3 (1.2–1.4); eGFR<45, 1.66 (1.57–1.76); P for trend < 0.0001] and hydrocephalus [eGFR 60–89, 0.99 (0.87–1.12); eGFR 45–59, 1.37 (1.1–1.7); eGFR<45, 1.54 (1.32–1.8); P for trend = 0.0139] after adjusting for confounding factors. With the decline in eGFR, the risk of hematoma evacuation increased in patients with an eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.37–1.61). No significant association between differences in eGFR at baseline and in-hospital complication of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage was observed. Conclusions Low eGFR at baseline was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality, non-routine discharge, hemorrhagic stroke severity and in-hospital complications such as pneumonia, hydrocephalus and hematoma evacuation in acute ICH patients.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013263
Dang Wei ◽  
Jiong Li ◽  
Hua Chen ◽  
Fang Fang ◽  
Imre Janszky ◽  

Background and Objectives:The death of a child is an extreme life event with potentially long-term health consequences. Accumulating evidence suggests that parents who lost a child have increased risks of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation. Whether bereaved parents have an increased risk of stroke is unclear and was investigated in this study.Methods:We conducted a population-based cohort study including parents who had a child born during 1973-2016 or 1973-2014 and recorded in the Danish and the Swedish Medical Birth Registers, respectively. We obtained information on child’s death, parent’s stroke and socioeconomic and health-related characteristics through linkage between several population-based registers. We used Poisson regression to examine the association between the death of a child and the risk of stroke.Results:Of the 6,711,955 study participants, 128,744 (1.9%) experienced the death of a child and 141,840 (2.1%) had a stroke during the follow-up. Bereaved parents had an increased risk of stroke; the corresponding incidence rate ratio (95% confidence intervals) was 1.23 (1.19-1.27). The association was present for all analyzed categories of causes of child death (cardiovascular, other natural and unnatural death), did not differ substantially according to the age of the deceased child, but was stronger if the parent had no or ≥3 than 1-2 live children at the time of the loss. The association was similar for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The risk for hemorrhagic stroke was highest immediately after the death of a child and decreased afterwards. In contrast, there was no clear pattern over time in case of ischemic stroke.Discussion:The death of a child was associated with a modestly increased risk of stroke. The finding that an association was observed in case of unnatural deaths is suggestive of the explanation that bereavement-related stress may contribute to the development of stroke. Though the death of a child can often not be avoided, an understanding of its health-related consequences may highlight the need for improved support and attention from family members and healthcare professionals.

Rania S. Nageeb ◽  
Amr M. Azmy ◽  
Heba F. Tantawy ◽  
Ghada S. Nageeb ◽  
Alaa A. Omran

Abstract Background Data regarding the relation between both subclinical thyroid dysfunction, thyroid autoantibodies and clinical outcomes in stroke patients are limited. This study aimed to evaluate subclinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoantibodies production in acute stroke patients and their relation to long term stroke outcome. We recruited 138 patients who were subjected to thorough general, neurological examination and brain imaging. Blood samples were collected for measurement of levels of serum thyroid function [free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)], thyroid autoantibodies within 48 h after hospital admission. FT4 and TSH after 1 year were done. The stroke severity was assessed at admission by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The stroke outcome was assessed at 3 months and after 1 year by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We divided the patients into two groups according to thyroid autoantibodies (positive and negative groups). Results Subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 23% of patients, and subclinical hypothyroidism in 10% of patients. Euthyroidism was detected in 67% of patients. 34% patients had positive thyroid autoantibody. Positive thyroid autoantibodies were commonly found in those with subclinical hyperthyroidism (28%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism (21%) and euthyroidism (14%). 73% and 59% of stroke patients had poor outcomes (mRS was > 2) at 3 months and 1 year respectively with no significant difference between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients. In the positive group final TSH level, NIHSS score at admission, and disability at 1 year were significantly higher compared with the negative group. Poor outcome was significantly associated with higher NIHSS score at admission, positive thyroid autoantibodies, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and atrial fibrillation. Conclusions Subclinical thyroid dysfunction could be found in stroke patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroid autoantibodies were associated with a poor outcome at 1 year in first-ever acute stroke patients especially in those presented with atrial fibrillation and higher NIHSS score at admission.

2022 ◽  
pp. JN-RM-0923-20
Marietta Zille ◽  
Juan A. Oses-Prieto ◽  
Sara R. Savage ◽  
Saravanan S. Karuppagounder ◽  
Yingxin Chen ◽  

Stroke ◽  
2022 ◽  
Shih-Kai Hung ◽  
Moon-Sing Lee ◽  
Hon-Yi Lin ◽  
Liang-Cheng Chen ◽  
Chi-Jou Chuang ◽  

Background and Purpose: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) comprise 4 subtypes. Previous studies have not investigated the relationship between stroke risk, different HDP subtypes, and follow-up time, which was the purpose of this study. Methods: Data of 17 588 women aged 18 to 45 years who had a history of HDP in Taiwan from 2000 to 2017 was retrospectively reviewed. After matching with confounders, 13 617 HDP women and 54 468 non-HDP women were recruited. Results: HDP women had an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.71 (95% CI, 1.46−2.00) for stroke, and 1.60 (1.35−1.89) and 2.98 (2.13−4.18) for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively ( P <0.001 for all). The overall stroke risk in the HDP group was still 2.04 times 10 to 15 years after childbirth (1.47−2.83, P <0.001). Although the risks of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke persisted, their risk time trends were different. The risk of ischemic stroke reached peak during 1 to 3 years after childbirth with an aHR of 2.14 (1.36–3.38), while hemorrhagic stroke risk gradually increased and had an aHR of 4.64 (2.47−8.73) after 10 to 15 years of childbirth (both P <0.001). Among the 4 HDP subtypes, chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia had the highest stroke risk (aHR=3.86, 1.91−7.82, P <0.001), followed by preeclampsia–eclampsia (aHR=2.00, 1.63−2.45, P <0.001), and gestational hypertension (aHR=1.68, 1.13−2.52, P <0.05); chronic preexisting hypertension had the lowest stroke risk (aHR=1.27, 0.97−1.68, P >0.05). Furthermore, multiple HDP combined with preeclampsia had aHR of 5.48 (1.14−26.42, P <0.05). Conclusions: The effect of HDP on the risk of future stroke persisted for up to 17 years, both for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The presence of multiple HDP and preeclampsia further increase the stroke risk.

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