Secondary Analysis
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2021 ◽  
pp. 088506662110281
Sadeq A. Quraishi ◽  
Ishir Bhan ◽  
Michael A. Matthay ◽  
Boyd T. Thompson ◽  
Carlos A. Camargo ◽  

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a highly morbid condition that has limited therapeutic options. Optimal vitamin D status has been linked to immunological effects that may benefit critically ill patients. Therefore, we investigated whether admission 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25OHD) are associated with clinical outcomes in ARDS patients. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized, controlled trial comparing oxygenation strategies in 549 patients with ARDS (NCT00000579). Baseline 25OHD was measured in stored plasma samples. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D status and ventilator-free days (VFD) as well as 90-day survival, using linear regression and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Analyses were adjusted for age, race, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score. Results: Baseline 25OHD was measured in 476 patients. 90% of these individuals had 25OHD <20 ng/ml and 40% had 25OHD <10 ng/ml. Patients with 25OHD <20 ng/ml were likely to be ventilated for 3 days longer than patients with levels ≥20 ng/ml (ß 3.41; 95%CI 0.42-6.39: P = 0.02). Patients with 25OHD <10 ng/ml were likely to be ventilated for 9 days longer (ß 9.27; 95%CI 7.24-11.02: P < 0.001) and to have a 34% higher risk of 90-day mortality (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.06-1.71: P = 0.02) compared to patients with levels >10 ng/ml. Conclusions: In patients with ARDS, vitamin D status is associated with duration of mechanical ventilation and 90-day mortality. Randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine whether vitamin D supplementation improves clinical outcomes in ARDS patients.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0253559
Yusuke Nagamine ◽  
Tsukasa Kamitani ◽  
Hajime Yamazaki ◽  
Yusuke Ogawa ◽  
Shunichi Fukuhara ◽  

Aim To clarify the association of poor oral function with loss of independence (LOI) or death in functionally independent older adults in the community. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study in two municipalities in Japan. We included participants who were older than 65 years of age and had no certification in long-term care at baseline. Poor oral function was evaluated by the Kihon Checklist. Among participants with poor oral function, they were further classified by the degree of quality of life (QOL) impairment due to dysphagia. Main outcome is LOI or death from all cause. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence of intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of 1,272 participants, 150 participants (11.8%) had poor oral function. The overall incidence of LOI or death was 10.0% in the participants with poor oral function, while 3.3% in the participants without. Participants with poor oral function were more likely to develop LOI or death than those without (crude HR = 3.17 [95% CIs 1.74–5.78], adjusted HR = 2.30 [95% CIs 1.22–4.36]). 10 participants (0.79%) were classified as poor oral function with QOL impairment, and were more likely to develop LOI or death than those without poor oral function (crude HR = 7.45 [95% CIs 1.80–30.91], adjusted HR = 8.49 [95% CIs 1.88–38.34]). Conclusions Poor oral function was associated with higher risk of LOI or death in functionally independent older adults in the community.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1357633X2110233
Sang Min Paik ◽  
Steven C Cramer

Introduction Telerehabilitation (TR) may be useful for rehabilitation therapy after stroke. However, stroke is a heterogeneous condition, and not all patients can be expected to derive the same benefit from TR, underscoring the need to identify predictors of response to TR. Methods A prior trial provided patients with 6 weeks of intensive rehabilitation therapy targeting arm movement, randomly assigned to be provided in the home via TR (current focus) or in clinic. Eligible patients had moderate arm motor deficits and were in the subacute–chronic stage post stroke. Behavioral gains were measured as change in the arm motor Fugl-Meyer score from baseline to 30 days post therapy. To delineate predictors of TR response, multivariable linear regression was performed, advancing the most significant predictor from each of eight categories: patient demographics, stroke characteristics, medical history, rehabilitation therapy outside of study procedures, motivation, sensorimotor impairment, cognitive/affective deficits, and functional status. Results The primary focus was on patients starting TR >90 days post stroke onset ( n = 44), among whom female sex, less spasticity, and less visual field defects predicted greater motor gains. This model explained 39.3% of the variance in treatment-related gains. In secondary analysis that also included TR patients enrolled ≤90 days post stroke (total n = 59), only female sex was a predictor of treatment gains. A separate secondary analysis examined patients >90 days post stroke ( n = 34) randomized to in-clinic therapy, among whom starting therapy earlier post stroke and less ataxia predicted greater motor gains. Discussion Response to TR varies across patients, emphasizing the need to identify characteristics that predict treatment-related behavioral gain. The current study highlights factors that might be important to patient selection for home-based TR after stroke.

Wolfgang Hasemann ◽  
Nikki Duncan ◽  
Caoimhe Clarke ◽  
Eva Nouzova ◽  
Lisa-Marie Süßenbach ◽  

Abstract Purpose To investigate performance of the Months of the Year Backwards (MOTYB) test in older hospitalised patients with delirium, dementia, and no cognitive impairment. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a case–control study of 149 hospitalised patients aged ≥ 65 years with delirium [with or without dementia (N = 50)], dementia [without delirium (N = 46)], and no cognitive impairment (N = 53). Verbatim transcripts of MOTYB audio recordings were analysed to determine group differences in response patterns. Results In the total sample [median age 85y (IQR 80–88), 82% female], patients with delirium were more often unable to recite months backward to November (36/50 = 72%) than patients with dementia (21/46 = 46%; p < 0.01) and both differed significantly from patients without cognitive impairment (2/53 = 4%; p’s < 0.001). 121/149 (81%) of patients were able to engage with the test. Patients with delirium were more often unable to engage with MOTYB (23/50 = 46%; e.g., due to reduced arousal) than patients with dementia (5/46 = 11%; p < 0.001); both groups differed significantly (p’s < 0.001) from patients without cognitive impairment (0/53 = 0%). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with delirium (2/27 = 7%) and patients with dementia (8/41 = 20%) in completing MOTYB to January, but performance in both groups differed (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively) from patients without cognitive impairment (35/53 = 66%). Conclusion Delirium was associated with inability to engage with MOTYB and low rates of completion. In patients able to engage with the test, error-free completion rates were low in delirium and dementia. Recording of engagement and patterns of errors may add useful information to MOTYB scoring.

2021 ◽  
Ellen E Pauley ◽  
Thomas M Drake ◽  
David Griffith ◽  
Nazir I Lone ◽  
Ewen M Harrison ◽  

Background We aimed to compare the prevalence and severity of fatigue in survivors of Covid-19 versus non-Covid-19 critical illness, and to explore potential associations between baseline characteristics and worse recovery. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of two prospectively collected datasets. The population included was 92 patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with Covid-19, and 240 patients who received IMV with non-Covid-19 illness before the pandemic. Follow-up data was collected post-hospital discharge using self-reported questionnaires. The main outcome measures were self-reported fatigue severity and the prevalence of severe fatigue (severity >7/10) 3 and 12-months post-hospital discharge. Results Covid-19 IMV-patients were significantly younger with less prior comorbidity, and more males, than pre-pandemic IMV-patients. At 3-months, the prevalence (38.9% [7/18] vs. 27.1% [51/188]) and severity (median 5.5/10 vs. 5.0/10) of fatigue was similar between the Covid-19 and pre-pandemic populations respectively. At 6-months, the prevalence (10.3% [3/29] vs. 32.5% [54/166]) and severity (median 2.0/10 vs. 5.7/10) of fatigue was less in the Covid-19 cohort. In the Covid-19 population, women under 50 experienced more severe fatigue, breathlessness, and worse overall health state compared to other Covid-19 IMV-patients. There were no significant sex differences in long-term outcomes in the pre-pandemic population. In the total sample of IMV-patients included (i.e. all Covid-19 and pre-pandemic patients), having Covid-19 was significantly associated with less severe fatigue (severity <7/10) after adjusting for age, sex, and prior comorbidity (adjusted OR 0.35 (95%CI 0.15-0.76, p=0.01). Conclusion. Fatigue may be less severe after Covid-19 than after other critical illness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ellen Keizer ◽  
Oliver Senn ◽  
Morten Bondo Christensen ◽  
Linda Huibers

Abstract Background High demands create pressure on acute care services, such as emergency medical services (EMS), emergency departments (ED) and out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC) services. A variety of patient- and organisational factors have been discussed as reasons why especially non-western migrants more frequently contact an ED or OOH-PC service than native born. We aim to investigate whether persons with a non-western and western migrant background more often contact an acute care service than native born and how this relates to the number of contacts with their general practitioners (GPs). In addition, we aim to explore how possible differences in acute care use by migrants can be explained. Methods We performed secondary analysis of data collected for the EurOOHnet survey on OOH help-seeking behaviour in Denmark, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Differences in self-reported acute care use (sum of number of contacts with OOH-PC, the ED and 1–1-2/1–4-4) between non-western and western migrants and native born were tested with a quasi Poisson regression analysis. Mediation analyses were performed to examine the impact of factors related to help-seeking on the relation between self-reported acute care use and migrant background. Results Non-western migrants had more acute care contacts than native born (adjusted IRR 1.74, 95% CI 1.33–2.25), whereas no differences were found between western migrants and native born. Migrants who regularly contacted OOH-PC or the ED also regularly contacted their GP. Mediation analyses showed that the factors employment, anxiety, attitude towards use of OOH-PC and problems in accessing the own GP could partly explain the higher acute care use of non-western migrants. Conclusion The higher use of acute care services by non-western migrants compared with native born could partly be explained by feeling fewer barriers to contact these services, feeling more anxiety, more unemployment and problems making an appointment with the GP. Increasing awareness and improving GP access could help migrants in navigating the healthcare system.

2021 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 110378
Andres Zorrilla-Vaca ◽  
Alexander B. Stone ◽  
Javier Ripolles-Melchor ◽  
Ane Abad-Motos ◽  
Jose M. Ramirez-Rodriguez ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wolfgang Marx ◽  
David R. Skvarc ◽  
Mohammadreza Mohebbi ◽  
Adam J. Walker ◽  
Alcy Meehan ◽  

Background: Cognitive impairment is prevalent and often highly burdensome in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate if mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract may be an effective intervention to improve cognitive performance in this population.Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a larger randomized placebo-controlled trial that investigated a 24-weeks intervention of mangosteen pericarp extract supplementation in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. A subset of n = 114 participants with completed cognitive outcomes at follow up were included in this analysis. Using the Cogstate Brief Battery, the following cognitive outcomes were assessed: psychomotor function, attention, visual learning and memory (visual and working). Subgroup analyses investigated whether baseline clinical parameters (baseline cognitive functioning, illness severity and duration, depressive symptoms) moderated the relationship between mangosteen pericarp extract intervention and change in cognitive outcomes.Results: There were no significant between-group changes in any cognitive outcomes assessed. Subgroup analysis based on baseline cognition and clinical characteristics did not reveal any significant between-group difference in change.Conclusions: Mangosteen pericarp extract did not affect cognitive outcomes in people with schizophrenia. Further investigation regarding optimal dosing strategies for mangosteen interventions and the testing of additional cognitive domains may be warranted.Trial identifier: ACTRN12616000859482, registered 30 June 3 2016.

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