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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Suqing Liu ◽  
Qingqing Yang ◽  
Binbin Dong ◽  
Chunhui Qi ◽  
Tao Yang ◽  

Gypenosides (Gyps), the major active constituents isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that Gyps displayed potent ameliorative effects on liver fibrosis and renal fibrosis. In this study, we found that Gyps significantly reduced the mortality of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice (40% mortality rate of mice in the model group versus 0% in the treatment group). Masson staining showed that Gyps could reduce the content of collagen in the lung tissue of pulmonary fibrosis mice Masson staining and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of the collagen gene α-SMA and fibrosis gene Col1 markedly decreased after Gyps treatment. The active mitosis of fibroblasts is one of the key processes in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. RNA-seq showed that Gyps significantly inhibited mitosis and induced the G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The mTOR/c-Myc axis plays an important role in the pathological process of pulmonary fibrosis. RNA-seq also demonstrated that Gyps inhibited the mTOR and c-Myc signaling in pulmonary fibrosis mice, which was further validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. AKT functions as an upstream molecule that regulates mTOR. Our western blot data showed that Gyps could suppress the activation of AKT. In conclusion, Gyps exerted anti-pulmonary fibrosis activity by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/c-Myc pathway.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 184
Tim Pruimboom ◽  
Anouk A. M. A. Lindelauf ◽  
Eric Felli ◽  
John H. Sawor ◽  
An E. K. Deliaert ◽  

Mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) and partial DIEP (deep inferior epigastric artery perforator) flap loss represent two frequently reported complications in immediate autologous breast reconstruction. These complications could be prevented when areas of insufficient tissue perfusion are detected intraoperatively. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a relatively novel, non-invasive imaging technique, which could be used to objectively assess tissue perfusion through analysis of tissue oxygenation patterns (StO2%), near-infrared (NIR%), tissue hemoglobin (THI%), and tissue water (TWI%) perfusion indices. This prospective clinical pilot study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of HSI for tissue perfusion assessment and to identify a cut-off value for flap necrosis. Ten patients with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent immediate unilateral autologous breast reconstruction. Prior, during and up to 72 h after surgery, a total of 19 hyperspectral images per patient were acquired. MSFN was observed in 3 out of 10 patients. No DIEP flap necrosis was observed. In all MSFN cases, an increased THI% and decreased StO2%, NIR%, and TWI% were observed when compared to the vital group. StO2% was found to be the most sensitive parameter to detect MSFN with a statistically significant lower mean StO2% (51% in the vital group versus 32% in the necrosis group, p < 0.0001) and a cut-off value of 36.29% for flap necrosis. HSI has the potential to accurately assess mastectomy skin flap perfusion and discriminate between vital and necrotic skin flap during the early postoperative period prior to clinical observation. Although the results should be confirmed in future studies, including DIEP flap necrosis specifically, these findings suggest that HSI can aid clinicians in postoperative mastectomy skin flap and DIEP flap monitoring.

2022 ◽  
Tianwei Wang ◽  
Zhijun Liao ◽  
Ruizhi Wang ◽  
Ming Ye ◽  
Keman Liao ◽  

Abstract Purpose IDH1-wt glioblastoma patients with TERTp-mut had the worst prognosis, and no effective management strategy was established after tumor recurrence. The median overall survival (OS) of recurrent GBM patients who only received supportive therapy was approximately 1.0 month. We reported survival outcomes of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) treated with anlotinib combined with temozolomide therapy (ACTT), and to explore the management strategy of rGBM. Methods The clinical data of 14 rGBM patients treated with ACTT was collected. Therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects were evaluated in every 2 months of treatment. We also included 16 patients treated with bevacizumab (Bev), 22 with TMZ, 28 with re-operation, 21 with re-irradiation, and 75 with supportive care to make comparison. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival of ACTT group versus other treatment groups. Results Fourteen rGBM patients treated with ACTT were enrolled. After 2-month of ACTT, the overall response and disease control rate were 50.0% and 92.9%, respectively. The 6-months PFS rate was 78.6%, and the 1-year survival rate was 50.0%. The median PFS and OS in ACTT group were 11.0 and 13.0 months, respectively. The median PFS and OS in Bev-group was 4.0 and 8.0 months. The patients treated with ACTT had better PFS than that in Bev-group. And compared to all the others treatment groups, ACTT could prolong survival. Conclusion The treatment regimen of ACTT maybe reliable, safe, and effective for rGBM. The patients can gain survival benefits from ACTT, and prolonged survival were observed compared with other treatment regimens.

Hand ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 155894472110650
Matthew Novak ◽  
Jordan Blough ◽  
Reuben Falola ◽  
Wendy Czerwinski

Background: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is a standardized approach to care of the surgical patient. Postoperative patient instructions, an aspect of ERAS protocols, are difficult to standardize in hand surgery because of the diversity of procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of standardized hand surgery postoperative instructions on the number of unscheduled postoperative patient encounters. Methods: The study was an institutional review board-approved prospective cohort in which all hand surgery patients from 6 surgeons at a single, hospital-based academic institution were included. For a 6-month period, both before and after establishing a standardized postoperative instructional handout, data were collected on unscheduled postoperative encounters within 14 days of surgery. Results: There were 330 patients in the control group versus 282 who received standardized postoperative instructions. Trauma comprised 24.6% of cases in comparison to 75.4% elective. Individual surgeons did not significantly influence whether patients had an encounter. Overall, patients who received standardized instructions were just as likely as the control group to have unscheduled encounters (41.5% vs 43.9%, respectively). Notably, elective patients were significantly more likely to have encounters (46%) versus trauma patients (33.1%; P = .007); however, the standardized instructions did not influence the number of encounters for either group. Conclusions: This study did not demonstrate a difference in unscheduled postoperative encounters after initiation of standardized postoperative instructions for hand surgery patients. These findings may help providers save time and resources by tailoring the use of ERAS in this distinct patient population.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110636
Adriana R. Carrillo ◽  
Kirsten Elwood ◽  
Chris Werth ◽  
Jessica Mitchell ◽  
Preeyaporn Sarangarm

Background: Large volume resuscitation with normal saline (NS) may be associated with iatrogenic hyperchloremia and renal injury. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess clinical outcomes associated with the use of Lactated Ringer’s (LR) compared to NS as resuscitative fluid in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Methods: Single-center, retrospective analysis of patients admitted for DKA. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of iatrogenic hyperchloremia associated with fluid resuscitation using balanced crystalloid compared to NS. Results Iatrogenic hyperchloremia occurred more frequently in the NS group compared to the LR group (74.4% vs 64.2%; P = 0.05). Mean maximum serum chloride was higher in the NS group (115.7 mmol/L vs 113.7 mmol/L; P = 0.004). Incidence of hypernatremia was higher in the NS group (18.3% vs 9.3%; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the incidence of AKI; however, mean change in serum creatinine at 48 hours showed a significantly greater decrease in the LR group (-0.15 mg/dL vs -0.04 mg/dL; P = 0.002). No significant differences were found in intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay or total hospital length of stay. Conclusion and Relevance This study found a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of iatrogenic hyperchloremia with the use of LR compared to NS as fluid resuscitation in DKA. Serum creatinine was more improved in the LR group versus NS group at 48 hours. Preferential use of balanced crystalloid for fluid resuscitation in DKA may reduce incidence of hyperchloremia and support renal recovery in this population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Gusnedi Gusnedi ◽  
Umi Fahmida ◽  
Fiastuti Witjaksono ◽  
Fariz Nurwidya ◽  
Muchtaruddin Mansyur ◽  

Abstract Background In women of Minangkabau ethnicity, a high prevalence of dyslipidemia, overweight, and obesity is thought to be closely related to poor dietary practices. Promotion of local specific food-based recommendations (FBRs) was previously found to be effective in improving dietary practice and nutrient intakes related to dyslipidemia. This study aimed to describe the effects of the FBR promotion on the nutritional status and lipid profiles of Minangkabau women with dyslipidemia. Methods We used a cluster-randomized design with a total subject of 123 Minangkabau women of reproductive age with dyslipidemia. They were recruited from 16 sub-villages and assigned to either the FBR group (n = 61) or the non-FBR group (n = 62). Data on body weight, height, waist circumference, and lipid profiles were collected at the baseline and the end of the trial. Linear mixed model analysis was used to analyze the effect of the intervention on nutritional status and lipid profiles. Results The mean effect (95% confidence interval) of the intervention on body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference for the FBR group versus the non-FBR group were -1.1 (-1.8; -0.39) kg, -0.43(-0.76; -0.11) kg/m2 and -2.1(-3.7;-0.46) mm respectively (p <0.05). The Castelli’s index in the FBR group improved, but there was no significant between-group difference in the change of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides at the end of the intervention. Conclusion The promotion of the FBRs positively impact the nutritional status but did not significantly affect the blood lipid profile of Minangkabau women with dyslipidemia. Trial Registration The trial was retrospectively registered at Protocol Registration and Result System (PRS) as NCT04085874, in September 2019.

D. Skafar ◽  
D. Shumeyko

Purpose: to study the effect of ethanol on the parameters of THC, the percentage of granulocytes and total protein in the hemolymph of the Red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).Materials and methods. The object of this experiment was 26 males of the Australian red-clawed crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) weighing from 23 to 83 g. The individuals were evenly divided into two experimental groups - with an injection of ethanol and a control group without an injection of 13 crayfish for each group. The injection dose was 2515 mg per 100 g of body weight. A day after the introduction of ethanol, hemolymph was taken with a syringe from the ventral sinus, the syringe was pre-washed with a 4% EDTA-Na2 solution. Three parameters were determined: the total hemocyte count (THC), percent granulocytes and percent total protein content. Counting of hemocytes and determination of granulocytes were performed in a Goryaev chamber under a light microscope. The total protein was determined by the refractometric method.Results. Differences in THC and total protein between the groups were statistically unreliable (p>0,05). THC in the experimental group is 36% more than in the control group. The total protein after the introduction of ethanol actually increased by 0,7%, and relatively by 14%. There were statistically different indicators of the proportion of granulocytes (p<0,05) - the average value of 33,1% in the experimental group versus 24,5% in the control group. A reliable (p<0,05) strong feedback was revealed between the total protein and the mass of individuals in both experimental groups, while in the experimental group there is a visible shift in the values of dependent hemolymph indicators towards an increase in smaller individuals.Conclusion. A single injection of ethyl alcohol with a dosage of 2515 mg per 100 g of body weight into the hemolymph of C. quadricarinatus does not cause significant changes in the THC and total protein after 24 hours. At the same time, the proportion of granulocytes actually increases by 9%, relative to 37%. This may indicate that granulocytes are involved in the formation of cancer defense mechanisms when exposed to toxic substances. The effect of different dosages of ethanol injections and the duration of its effect on hematological parameters requires additional consideration. It is necessary to investigate its effect on other indicators, such as the pH and buffer capacity of the hemolymph, the concentration of hemocyanin, glucose, lactates and calcium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S459-S460
Katelyn Pratt ◽  
Amy H. Crockett ◽  
Jessica Britt ◽  
Emily Doherty ◽  
Moonseong Heo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S699
Ann Borders ◽  
Lauren S. Keenan-Devlin ◽  
Britney P. Smart ◽  
Alexa A. Freedman ◽  
Lavisha Singh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-111
Lishuai Xu ◽  
Qian Shi ◽  
Dan Liao ◽  
Zhen Yang ◽  
Xiaoli Yang ◽  

To explore the changes in the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the process of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the macular area of cases with form deprivation myopia (FDM), in this study, 36 healthy mice were selected as research subjects for analysis. Specifically, they were randomly divided into test group (n = 18) and control group (n = 18). The right eye of the test group mice underwent form deprivation for 6 weeks to induce FDM, also known as FDM group. Five mice were randomly selected from FDM group and control group at 6 time points (before photocoagulation, at 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, 28 d, and 35 d after photocoagulation), respectively, for fluorescein angiography and hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) staining to observe differences in the retina. It was found that the retina of Control group mice was well-structured with clear stratification, while that of the test group mice was severely damaged with a disordered structure, manifested as edema and swelling and damaged Bruch membrane and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. Furthermore, macrophages and RPE cells were observed in the photocoagulation area, and there was a high-fluorescence area with a blurred margin in the fundus, indicating the formation of new blood vessels. The immunohistochemical experiment revealed that within three weeks after the surgery, HIF-1α was highly expressed in the test group, and the expression level was obviously higher than the Control group. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results showed that the expression level of VEGF and HIF-α in the test group was obviously higher than the Control group within three weeks after the surgery. The Western blot experiment was performed 1 week after the surgery, and it was noted that the expression level of VEGF and HIF-1α were higher in the test group versus the Control group. In summary, HIF-1α is instrumental in ocular CNV, which is also associated with VEGF.

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