Cancer Growth
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shu Liu ◽  
Yewei Zhang ◽  
Shien Cui ◽  
Dajiang Song ◽  
Bo Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Muhammad Tufail ◽  
Changxin Wu

IGF-1Rs enact a significant part in cancer growth and its progress. IGF-1R inhibitors were encouraged in the early trials, but the patients did not benefit due to the unavailability of predictive biomarkers and IGF-1R system complexity. However, the linkage between IGF-1R and cancer was reported three decades ago. This review will shed light on the IGF-1R system, targeting IGF-1R through monoclonal antibodies, reasons behind IGF-1R trial failure and future directions. This study presented that targeting IGF-1R through monoclonal antibodies is still effective in cancer treatment, and there is a need to look for future directions. Cancer patients may benefit from using mAbs that target existing and new cancer targets, evidenced by promising results. It is also essential that the academician, trial experts and pharmaceutical companies play their role in finding a treatment for this deadly disease.

2022 ◽  
Felix Alonso-Valenteen ◽  
Sam Sances ◽  
HongQiang Wang ◽  
Simoun Mikhael ◽  
Jessica Sims ◽  

Abstract Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks selective biomarkers targeted by current clinical therapies and often metastasizes to the brain. Crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reaching intracranial tumors is a clinical challenge contributing to poor prognoses for patients. The human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 has emerged as a biomarker of metastasis and may provide a means of therapeutically targeting TNBC. We have developed HER3-targeted biological particles (bioparticles) that exhibit systemic homing to resistant and metastatic breast tumors. Here we show that HER3 is expressed on the brain endothelium and can mediate the passage of bioparticles across the BBB and into intracranial TNBC. Our findings show that the extravasation of systemic bioparticles in mice and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-based BBB chips corresponds to HER3 levels. Furthermore, systemically delivered bioparticles carrying tumoricidal agents reduced the growth of intracranial TNBC in mice and exhibited improved therapeutic profile compared to current therapies.

2022 ◽  
Kevin Tabury ◽  
Mehri Monavarian ◽  
Eduardo Listik ◽  
Abigail K Shelton ◽  
Alex Seok Choi ◽  

Metastatic growth of ovarian cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity requires adaptation to various cellular stress factors to facilitate cell survival and growth. Here we demonstrate the role of PVT1, one such stress induced long non-coding RNA, in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. PVT1 is an amplified and overexpressed lncRNA in ovarian cancer with strong predictive value for survival and response to targeted therapeutics. We find that expression of PVT1 is regulated by ovarian tumor cells in response to cellular stress, particularly loss of cell-cell contacts and changes in matrix rigidity occurring in a YAP1 dependent manner. Induction of PVT1 promotes tumor cell survival, growth, and migration. Conversely, reducing PVT1 levels robustly abrogates metastatic behavior and tumor cell dissemination in cell lines and syngeneic transplantation models in vivo. We find that reducing PVT1 causes widespread transcriptome changes leading to alterations in cellular stress response and metabolic pathways including doxorubicin metabolism, which directly impacts chemosensitivity. Together, these findings implicate PVT1 as a promising therapeutic target to suppress metastasis and avoid chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mary E. Law ◽  
Bradley J. Davis ◽  
Amanda F. Ghilardi ◽  
Elham Yaaghubi ◽  
Zaafir M. Dulloo ◽  

Tranexamic Acid (TA) is a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent that acts as a Lys mimetic to block binding of Plasminogen with Plasminogen activators, preventing conversion of Plasminogen to its proteolytically activated form, Plasmin. Previous studies suggested that TA may exhibit anticancer activity by blockade of extracellular Plasmin formation. Plasmin-mediated cleavage of the CDCP1 protein may increase its oncogenic functions through several downstream pathways. Results presented herein demonstrate that TA blocks Plasmin-mediated excision of the extracellular domain of the oncoprotein CDCP1. In vitro studies indicate that TA reduces the viability of a broad array of human and murine cancer cell lines, and breast tumor growth studies demonstrate that TA reduces cancer growth in vivo. Based on the ability of TA to mimic Lys and Arg, we hypothesized that TA may perturb multiple processes that involve Lys/Arg-rich protein sequences, and that TA may alter intracellular signaling pathways in addition to blocking extracellular Plasmin production. Indeed, TA-mediated suppression of tumor cell viability is associated with multiple biochemical actions, including inhibition of protein synthesis, reduced activating phosphorylation of STAT3 and S6K1, decreased expression of the MYC oncoprotein, and suppression of Lys acetylation. Further, TA inhibited uptake of Lys and Arg by cancer cells. These findings suggest that TA or TA analogs may serve as lead compounds and inspire the production of new classes of anticancer agents that function by mimicking Lys and Arg.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 363
Carolin Siech ◽  
Jochen Rutz ◽  
Sebastian Maxeiner ◽  
Timothy Grein ◽  
Marlon Sonnenburg ◽  

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-related signaling is associated with prostate cancer progression. Links were explored between IGF-1 and expression of integrin adhesion receptors to evaluate relevance for growth and migration. Androgen-resistant PC3 and DU145 and androgen-sensitive LNCaP and VCaP prostate cancer cells were stimulated with IGF-1 and tumor growth (all cell lines), adhesion and chemotaxis (PC3, DU145) were determined. Evaluation of Akt/mTOR-related proteins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin α and β subtype expression followed. Akt knock-down was used to investigate its influence on integrin expression, while FAK blockade served to evaluate its influence on mTOR signaling. Integrin knock-down served to investigate its influence on tumor growth and chemotaxis. Stimulation with IGF-1 activated growth in PC3, DU145, and VCaP cells, and altered adhesion and chemotactic properties of DU145 and PC3 cells. This was associated with time-dependent alterations of the integrins α3, α5, αV, and β1, FAK phosphorylation and Akt/mTOR signaling. Integrin blockade or integrin knock-down in DU145 and PC3 cells altered tumor growth, adhesion, and chemotaxis. Akt knock-down (DU145 cells) cancelled the effect of IGF-1 on α3, α5, and αV integrins, whereas FAK blockade cancelled the effect of IGF-1 on mTOR signaling (DU145 cells). Prostate cancer growth and invasion are thus controlled by a fine-tuned network between IGF-1 driven integrin-FAK signaling and the Akt-mTOR pathway. Concerted targeting of integrin subtypes along with Akt-mTOR signaling could, therefore, open options to prevent progressive dissemination of prostate cancer.

Oncogene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Klaire Yixin Fjæstad ◽  
Anne Mette Askehøj Rømer ◽  
Victor Goitea ◽  
Astrid Zedlitz Johansen ◽  
Marie-Louise Thorseth ◽  

AbstractThe development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) marks an important breakthrough of cancer therapies in the past years. However, only a limited fraction of patients benefit from such treatments, prompting the search for immune modulating agents that can improve the therapeutic efficacy. The nonselective beta blocker, propranolol, which for decades has been prescribed for the treatment of cardiovascular conditions, has recently been used successfully to treat metastatic angiosarcoma. These results have led to an orphan drug designation by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas. The anti-tumor effects of propranolol are suggested to involve the reduction of cancer cell proliferation as well as angiogenesis. Here, we show that oral administration of propranolol delays tumor progression of MCA205 fibrosarcoma model and MC38 colon cancer model and increases the survival rate of tumor bearing mice. Propranolol works by reducing tumor angiogenesis and facilitating an anti-tumoral microenvironment with increased T cell infiltration and reduced infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Using T cell deficient mice, we demonstrate that the full anti-tumor effect of propranolol requires the presence of T cells. Flow cytometry-based analysis and RNA sequencing of FACS-sorted cells show that propranolol treatment leads to an upregulation of PD-L1 on tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and changes in their chemokine expression profile. Lastly, we observe that the co-administration of propranolol significantly enhances the efficacy of anti-CTLA4 therapy. Our results identify propranolol as an immune modulating agent, which can improve immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies in soft tissue sarcoma patients and potentially in other cancers.

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