Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Single-nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of both obstructive and nonobstructive HCM patient samples has revealed alterations in communication between various cell types, but no direct and integrated comparison between the two HCM phenotypes has been reported. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of HCM snRNA-seq datasets from obstructive and nonobstructive patient samples to identify differentially expressed genes and distinctive patterns of intercellular communication. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 37 differentially expressed genes, predominantly in cardiomyocytes but also in other cell types, relevant to aging, muscle contraction, cell motility, and the extracellular matrix. Intercellular communication was generally reduced in HCM, affecting the extracellular matrix, growth factor binding, integrin binding, PDGF binding, and SMAD binding, but with increases in adenylate cyclase binding, calcium channel inhibitor activity, and serine-threonine kinase activity in nonobstructive HCM. Increases in neuron to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, in fibroblast to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, and in endothelial cell communication to other cell types, largely through changes in the expression of integrin-β1 and its cognate ligands, were also noted. These findings indicate both common and distinct physiological mechanisms affecting the pathogenesis of obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and provide opportunities for the personalized management of different HCM phenotypes.
AbstractHeme is an erythrocyte-derived toxin that drives disease progression in hemolytic anemias, such as sickle cell disease. During hemolysis, specialized bone marrow-derived macrophages with a high heme-metabolism capacity orchestrate disease adaptation by removing damaged erythrocytes and heme-protein complexes from the blood and supporting iron recycling for erythropoiesis. Since chronic heme-stress is noxious for macrophages, erythrophagocytes in the spleen are continuously replenished from bone marrow-derived progenitors. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation to heme stress progressively shifts differentiation trajectories of bone marrow progenitors to expand the capacity of heme-handling monocyte-derived macrophages at the expense of the homeostatic generation of dendritic cells, which emerge from shared myeloid precursors. This heme-induced redirection of differentiation trajectories may contribute to hemolysis-induced secondary immunodeficiency. We performed single-cell RNA-sequencing with directional RNA velocity analysis of GM-CSF-supplemented mouse bone marrow cultures to assess myeloid differentiation under heme stress. We found that heme-activated NRF2 signaling shifted the differentiation of bone marrow cells towards antioxidant, iron-recycling macrophages, suppressing the generation of dendritic cells in heme-exposed bone marrow cultures. Heme eliminated the capacity of GM-CSF-supplemented bone marrow cultures to activate antigen-specific CD4 T cells. The generation of functionally competent dendritic cells was restored by NRF2 loss. The heme-induced phenotype of macrophage expansion with concurrent dendritic cell depletion was reproduced in hemolytic mice with sickle cell disease and spherocytosis and associated with reduced dendritic cell functions in the spleen. Our data provide a novel mechanistic underpinning of hemolytic stress as a driver of hyposplenism-related secondary immunodeficiency.
We developed a personalized Monocyte-Derived Dendritic-cell Therapy (MDDCT) for HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral treatment and evaluated HIV-specific T-cell responses.
PBMCs were obtained from 10 HIV+ individuals enrolled in trial NCT02961829. Monocytes were differentiated into DCs using IFN-α and GM-CSF. After sequencing each patient’s HIV-1 Gag and determining HLA profiles, autologous Gag peptides were selected based on the predicted individual immunogenicity and used to pulse MDDCs. Three doses of the MDDCT were administered every 15 days. To assess immunogenicity, patients’ cells were stimulated in vitro with autologous peptides, and intracellular IL-2, TNF, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production were measured in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells.
The protocol of ex-vivo treatment with IFN-α and GM-CSF was able to induce maturation of MDDCs, as well as to preserve their viability for reinfusion. MDDCT administration was associated with increased expression of IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells at 15 and/or 30 days after the first MDDCT administration. Moreover, intracellular TNF and IFN-γ expression was significantly increased in CD4+ T-cells. The number of candidates that increased in vitro the cytokine levels in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon stimulation with Gag peptides from baseline to day 15 and from baseline to day 30 and day 120 after MDDCT was significant as compared to Gag unstimulated response. This was accompanied by an increasing trend in the frequency of polyfunctional T-cells over time, which was visible when considering both cells expressing two and three out of the three cytokines examined.
MDDC had a mature profile, and this MDDCT promoted in-vitro T-cell immune responses in HIV-infected patients undergoing long-term suppressive antiretroviral treatment.
Trial registration NCT02961829: (Multi Interventional Study Exploring HIV-1 Residual Replication: a Step Towards HIV-1 Eradication and Sterilizing Cure, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02961829, posted November 11th, 2016)