Cisplatin Resistance
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2021 ◽  
pp. canres.1518.2021
Author(s):  
Wenjie Wei ◽  
Jiayin Sun ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Xingyuan Xiao ◽  
Chao Huang ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yali Cheng ◽  
Shaoming Li ◽  
Ling Gao ◽  
Keqian Zhi ◽  
Wenhao Ren

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a kind of malignant tumors with low survival rate and prone to have early metastasis and recurrence. Cisplatin is an alkylating agent which induces DNA damage through the formation of cisplatin-DNA adducts, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the management of advanced OSCC, cisplatin-based chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy has been considered as the first-line treatment. Unfortunately, only a portion of OSCC patients can benefit from cisplatin treatment, both inherent resistance and acquired resistance greatly limit the efficacy of cisplatin and even cause treatment failure. Herein, this review outline the underlying mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in OSCC from the aspects of DNA damage and repair, epigenetic regulation, transport processes, programmed cell death and tumor microenvironment. In addition, this review summarizes the strategies applicable to overcome cisplatin resistance, which can provide new ideas to improve the clinical therapeutic outcome of OSCC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Hou ◽  
Rong Yu ◽  
Haiping Zhao ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
Yuchong Hu ◽  
...  

Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers. Cisplatin resistance remains a major hurdle in the successful treatment of cervical cancer. Aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in cisplatin resistance. However, the regulatory functions of lncRNAs and miRNAs in cervical cancer cisplatin resistance and the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Our qRT-PCR assays verified that miR-206 levels were down-regulated in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells. The introduction of miR-206 sensitized cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells to cisplatin. Our qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter assays showed that Cyclin D2 (CCND2) was the direct target for miR-206 in cervical cancer cells. The cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells expressed higher CCND2 expression than the parental cells, whereas inhibition of CCND2 could sensitize the resistant cells to cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that lncRNA OTUD6B-AS1 was up-regulated in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells, and knocking down OTUD6B-AS1 expression induced re-acquirement of chemosensitivity to cisplatin in cervical cancer cells. We also showed that OTUD6B-AS1 up-regulated the expression of CCND2 by sponging miR-206. Low miR-206 and high OTUD6B-AS1 expression were associated with significantly poorer overall survival. Taken together, these results suggest that OTUD6B-AS1-mediated down-regulation of miR-206 increases CCND2 expression, leading to cisplatin resistance. Modulation of these molecules may be a therapeutic approach for cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 4837
Author(s):  
Yohei Sekino ◽  
Quoc Thang Pham ◽  
Kohei Kobatake ◽  
Hiroyuki Kitano ◽  
Kenichiro Ikeda ◽  
...  

Kinesin family member C1 (KIFC1), a minus end-directed motor protein, is reported to play an essential role in cancer. This study aimed to analyze KIFC1 expression and examine KIFC1 involvement in cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer (BC). Immunohistochemistry showed that 37 of 78 (47.4%) BC cases were positive for KIFC1. KIFC1-positive cases were associated with high T stage and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that KIFC1-positive cases were associated with poor prognosis, consistent with the results from public databases. Molecular classification in several public databases indicated that KIFC1 expression was increased in basal type BC. Immunohistochemistry showed that KIFC1-positive cases were associated with basal markers 34βE12, CK5 and CD44. KIFC1 expression was increased in altered TP53 compared to that in wild-type TP53. Immunohistochemistry showed that KIFC1-positive cases were associated with p53-positive cases. P53 knockout by CRISPR-Cas9 induced KIFC1 expression in BC cell lines. Knockdown of KIFC1 by siRNA increased the sensitivity to cisplatin in BC cells. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that prognosis was poor among KIFC1-positive BC patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Immunohistochemistry showed that KIFC1-positive cases were associated with PD-L1-positive cases. High KIFC1 expression was associated with a favorable prognosis in patients treated with atezolizumab from the IMvigor 210 study. These results suggest that KIFC1 might be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target in BC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Weiwei Wang ◽  
Linxia Chen ◽  
Wenjin Zhu ◽  
Xianjin Huang ◽  
Lin Lin ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
jingxuan peng ◽  
Yali Xiang ◽  
Wenfei Lian ◽  
Hanfei Chen ◽  
Dongyi Peng ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) involves in promoting tumor progression through tumor-related genes N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification. Our previous study found that METTL3 plays an important role in seminoma chemosensitivity. BCL-2 is a key cause of cisplatin resistance in many tumors. Therefore, we want to explore whether METTL3 affects cisplatin resistance of seminoma by regulating BCL-2.Methods: In this study, we downregulated and overexpressed METTL3 in TCam-2 cisplatin resistant cells (TCam-2/CDDP). Then, m6A RNA methylation quantification of BCL-2 and cell viability assay, cell apoptosis analysis and cell invasion assay were investigated under the condition of with or without cis‐dichlorodiammine platinum (CDDP) treatment. Results: Consistent with our previous results, METTL3 significantly affects the chemosensitivity of TCam-2/CDDP. After METTL3 downregulated, the proliferation and anti-apoptosis ability of TCam-2/CDDP cells significantly weakened. Correspondingly, overexpression of METTL3 could promote the chemoresistance. However, the phenotype could be partly reversed by decreasing the expression of BCL-2. Moreover, we found that the m6A modification of BCL-2 is more abundant in cisplatin-resistant strains. Knockdown and overexpression of METTL3 significantly affected the m6A modification and the protein level of BCL-2 in TCam-2/CDDP. Finally, we found that METTL3 also promoted the invasion ability of TCam-2/CDDP cells via BCL2.Conclusion: This study revealed that METTL3 promotes anti-apoptosis and invasion of TCam-2/CDDP through BCL-2. And it indicated that METTL3 and BCL-2 may be an effective treatment target for CDDP-resistance seminoma.


2021 ◽  

Abstract The full text of this preprint has been withdrawn by the authors due to author disagreement with the posting of the preprint. Therefore, the authors do not wish this work to be cited as a reference. Questions should be directed to the corresponding author.


EMBO Reports ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lin Xin ◽  
Li‐Qiang Zhou ◽  
Chuan Liu ◽  
Fei Zeng ◽  
Yi‐Wu Yuan ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Cristian Prieto-Garcia ◽  
Oliver Hartmann ◽  
Michaela Reissland ◽  
Thomas Fischer ◽  
Carina R. Maier ◽  
...  

Abstract Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) frequently have an exceptionally high mutational burden. As consequence, they rapidly develop resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy and overall survival is limited. Novel therapeutic strategies are therefore urgently required. SCC express ∆Np63, which regulates the Fanconi Anemia (FA) DNA-damage response in cancer cells, thereby contributing to chemotherapy-resistance. Here we report that the deubiquitylase USP28 is recruited to sites of DNA damage in cisplatin-treated cells. ATR phosphorylates USP28 and increases its enzymatic activity. This phosphorylation event is required to positively regulate the DNA damage repair in SCC by stabilizing ∆Np63. Knock-down or inhibition of USP28 by a specific inhibitor weakens the ability of SCC to cope with DNA damage during platin-based chemotherapy. Hence, our study presents a novel mechanism by which ∆Np63 expressing SCC can be targeted to overcome chemotherapy resistance. Limited treatment options and low response rates to chemotherapy are particularly common in patients with squamous cancer. The SCC specific transcription factor ∆Np63 enhances the expression of Fanconi Anemia genes, thereby contributing to recombinational DNA repair and Cisplatin resistance. Targeting the USP28-∆Np63 axis in SCC tones down this DNA damage response pathways, thereby sensitizing SCC cells to cisplatin treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Simona Laurino ◽  
Pellegrino Mazzone ◽  
Vitalba Ruggieri ◽  
Pietro Zoppoli ◽  
Giovanni Calice ◽  
...  

Gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by poor efficacy and modest clinical impact of current therapies, in which apoptosis evasion is relevant. Intracellular calcium homeostasis dysregulation is associated with apoptosis escaping, and aberrant expression of calcium regulator genes could promote GC drug resistance. Since we previously found a prognostic value for TRPV2 calcium channel expression in GC, we aimed to characterize the role of TRPV2 in cisplatin resistance. Using the TCGA-STAD dataset, we performed a differential gene expression analysis between GC samples in upper and lower tertiles of TRPV2 expression, and then through a gene set analysis, we highlighted the enriched ontology and canonical pathways. We used qRT-PCR to assess TRPV2 expression in three GC cell lines and flow cytometry to evaluate cisplatin-induced cell death rates. Calcium green-1-AM assay was used to estimate differences in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations after inhibition of TRPV2. We engineered AGS cell line to overexpress TRPV2 and used confocal microscopy to quantify its overexpression and localization and flow cytometry to evaluate their sensitivity to cisplatin. Consistent with our hypothesis, among enriched gene sets, we found a significant number of those involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Subsequently, we found an inverse correlation between TRPV2 expression and sensitivity to cisplatin in GC cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated that inhibition of TRPV2 activity by tranilast blocks the efflux of Ca2+ ions and, in combination with cisplatin, induced a significant increase of apoptotic cells (p = 0.004). We also demonstrated that TRPV2 exogenous expression confers a drug-resistant phenotype, and that tranilast is able to revert this phenotype, restoring cisplatin sensitivity. Our findings consistently suggested that TRPV2 could be a potential target for overcoming cisplatin resistance by promoting apoptosis. Notably, our data are a prerequisite for the potential reposition of tranilast to the treatment of GC patients and anticipate the in vivo evaluation.


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