Accumulating evidence has revealed that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression can affect the development of chemotherapy drug resistance by modulating the expression of relevant target proteins. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that miR-133a participates in the tumorigenesis of various cancers. However, whether miR-133a is associated with cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer remains unclear.
To investigate the role of miR-133a in the development of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.
MiR-133a expression in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines was assessed by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT–qPCR). A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to evaluate the viability of tumour cells treated with cisplatin in the presence or absence of miR-133a. A luciferase reporter assay was used to analyse the binding of miR-133a with the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of YES proto-oncogene 1 (YES1). The YES1 expression level was analysed using a dataset from the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and assessed by RT–qPCR and western blotting in vitro. The roles and mechanisms of YES1 in cell functions were further probed via gain- and loss-of-function analysis.
The expression of miR-133a was significantly decreased in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780-DDP and SKOV3-DDP), and the overexpression of the miR-133a mimic reduced cisplatin resistance in A2780-DDP and SKOV3-DDP cells. Treatment with the miR-133a inhibitor increased cisplatin sensitivity in normal A2780 and SKOV3 cells. MiR-133a binds the 3’UTR of YES1 and downregulates its expression. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that YES1 expression was upregulated in recurrent cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer tissue, and in vitro experiments also verified its upregulation in cisplatin-resistant cell lines. Furthermore, we discovered that miR-133a downregulated the expression of YES1 and thus inhibited cell autophagy to reduce cisplatin resistance. Yes1 knockdown significantly suppressed the cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells by inhibiting autophagy in vitro. Xenograft tumour implantation further demonstrated that Yes1 overexpression promoted ovarian tumour development and cisplatin resistance.
Our results suggest that the miR-133a/YES1 axis plays a critical role in cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer by regulating cell autophagy, which might serve as a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer chemotherapy treatment in the future.
AbstractTumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) which are closely associated with the tumor malignant progression. However, the regulatory mechanisms by which TAMs influence the progression of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remain unclear. Here, we report that hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) acts as a novel oncoprotein in TNBC. We found that HLF was regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) that is secreted by TAMs. Then, HLF transactivated gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1) to promote the ferroptosis resistance, thus driving TNBC cell proliferation, metastasis and cisplatin resistance. Reciprocally, IL-6 produced by TNBC cells activated the JAK2/STAT3 axis to induce TGF-β1 secretion by TAMs, thus constituted a feed-forward circuit. The accuracy of TNBC patient prognosis could be improved by employing a combination of HLF and GGT1 values. Thus, our findings document that the interactive dialogue between TNBC cells and TAMs promotes sustained activation of HLF in tumor cells through the IL-6-TGF-β1 axis. Subsequently, HLF promotes the ferroptosis resistance in TNBC cells via GGT1 and ultimately facilitates the malignant tumor progression. Our study provides a potential target for the treatment of TNBC.
Worldwide, the number of cancer-related deaths continues to increase due to the ability of cancer cells to become chemotherapy-resistant and metastasize. For women with ovarian cancer, a staggering 70% will become resistant to the front-line therapy, cisplatin. Although many mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been proposed, the key mechanisms of such resistance remain elusive. The RNA binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) binds to nascent RNA transcripts and regulates splicing, transport, localization, and stability. Evidence indicates that RBPMS also binds to protein members of the AP-1 transcription factor complex repressing its activity. Until now, little has been known about the biological function of RBPMS in ovarian cancer. Accordingly, we interrogated available Internet databases and found that ovarian cancer patients with high RBPMS levels live longer compared to patients with low RBPMS levels. Similarly, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis in a tissue array of ovarian cancer patient samples showed that serous ovarian cancer tissues showed weaker RBPMS staining when compared with normal ovarian tissues. We generated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated RBPMS knockout vectors that were stably transfected in the high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR3. The knockout of RBPMS in these cells was confirmed via bioinformatics analysis, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis. We found that the RBPMS knockout clones grew faster and had increased invasiveness than the control CRISPR clones. RBPMS knockout also reduced the sensitivity of the OVCAR3 cells to cisplatin treatment. Moreover, β-galactosidase (β-Gal) measurements showed that RBPMS knockdown induced senescence in ovarian cancer cells. We performed RNAseq in the RBPMS knockout clones and identified several downstream-RBPMS transcripts, including non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and protein-coding genes associated with alteration of the tumor microenvironment as well as those with oncogenic or tumor suppressor capabilities. Moreover, proteomic studies confirmed that RBPMS regulates the expression of proteins involved in cell detoxification, RNA processing, and cytoskeleton network and cell integrity. Interrogation of the Kaplan–Meier (KM) plotter database identified multiple downstream-RBPMS effectors that could be used as prognostic and response-to-therapy biomarkers in ovarian cancer. These studies suggest that RBPMS acts as a tumor suppressor gene and that lower levels of RBPMS promote the cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells.