Cancer Cell International
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1475-2867, 1475-2867

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiali Meng ◽  
Yuanchao Wei ◽  
Qing Deng ◽  
Ling Li ◽  
Xiaolong Li

Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer with a high mortality rate. However, the molecular mechanism of HCC formation remains to be explored and studied. Objective To investigate the expression of TOP2A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its prognosis. Methods The data set of hepatocellular carcinoma was downloaded from GEO database for differential gene analysis, and hub gene was identified by Cytoscape. GEPIA was used to verify the expression of HUB gene and evaluate its prognostic value. Then TOP2A was selected as the research object of this paper by combining literature and clinical sample results. Firstly, TIMER database was used to study TOP2A, and the differential expression of TOP2A gene between normal tissues and cancer tissues was analyzed, as well as the correlation between TOP2A gene expression and immune infiltration of HCC cells. Then, the expression of top2a-related antibodies was analyzed using the Human Protein Atlas database, and the differential expression of TOP2A was verified by immunohistochemistry. Then, SRTING database and Cytoscape were used to establish PPI network for TOP2A and protein–protein interaction analysis was performed. The Oncomine database and cBioPortal were used to express and identify TOP2A mutation-related analyses. The expression differences of TOP2A gene were identified by LinkedOmics, and the GO and KEGG pathways were analyzed in combination with related genes. Finally, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was performed to analyze the clinical and prognosis of HCC patients. Results TOP2A may be a new biomarker and therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tenghui Han ◽  
Jun Zhu ◽  
Xiaoping Chen ◽  
Rujie Chen ◽  
Yu Jiang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Liver is the most common metastatic site of colorectal cancer (CRC) and liver metastasis (LM) determines subsequent treatment as well as prognosis of patients, especially in T1 patients. T1 CRC patients with LM are recommended to adopt surgery and systematic treatments rather than endoscopic therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is still no effective model to predict the risk of LM in T1 CRC patients. Hence, we aim to construct an accurate predictive model and an easy-to-use tool clinically. Methods We integrated two independent CRC cohorts from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER, training dataset) and Xijing hospital (testing dataset). Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) methods were adopted to establish the predictive model. Results A total of 16,785 and 326 T1 CRC patients from SEER database and Xijing hospital were incorporated respectively into the study. Every single ML model demonstrated great predictive capability, with an area under the curve (AUC) close to 0.95 and a stacking bagging model displaying the best performance (AUC = 0.9631). Expectedly, the stacking model exhibited a favorable discriminative ability and precisely screened out all eight LM cases from 326 T1 patients in the outer validation cohort. In the subgroup analysis, the stacking model also demonstrated a splendid predictive ability for patients with tumor size ranging from one to50mm (AUC = 0.956). Conclusion We successfully established an innovative and convenient AI model for predicting LM in T1 CRC patients, which was further verified in the external dataset. Ultimately, we designed a novel and easy-to-use decision tree, which only incorporated four fundamental parameters and could be successfully applied in clinical practice.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nabamita Boruah ◽  
Chongtham Sovachandra Singh ◽  
Pooja Swargiary ◽  
Hughbert Dkhar ◽  
Anupam Chatterjee

Abstract Background Raw areca nut (RAN) consumption induces oral, esophageal and gastric cancers, which are significantly associated with the overexpression of pituitary tumor transforming gene 1/securin and chromosomal instability (CIN). An association of Securin/PTTG1 upregulation and gastric cancer in human was also demonstrated earlier. Since the molecular mechanism underlying securin upregulation remains unclear, this study intended to investigate the association of securin upregulation with the Rb-E2F1 circuit and epigenetic histone (H3) modification patterns both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene. Methods Six groups of mice were used, and in the treated group, each mouse consumed 1 mg of RAN extract with lime per day ad libitum in the drinking water for 60 days, after which the dose was increased by 1 mg every 60 days. Histopathological evaluation of stomach tissues was performed and securin expression was analysed by immunoblotting as well as by immunohistochemistry. ChIP-qPCR assays were performed to evaluate the recruitment of different histone modifications in the core promoter region of securin gene as well as its upstream and downstream regions. Results All mice developed gastric cancer with securin overexpression after 300 days of feeding. Immunohistochemistry data revealed hyperphosphorylation of Rb and upregulation of E2F1 in the RAN-treated samples. Increased trimethylation of H3 lysine 4 and acetylation of H3 lysine 9 and 18 both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene were observed by increasing the levels of lysine-N-methyltransferase 2A, lysine-acetyltransferase, EP-300 and PCAF after RAN treatment. ChIP-qPCR data revealed that the quantity of DNA fragments retrieved from the immunoprecipitated samples was maximum in the -83 to -192 region than further upstream and the downstream of the promoter for H3K4Me3, H3K9ac, H3K18ac and H3K9me3. Conclusions RAN-mediated pRb-inactivation induced securin upregulation, a putative E2F1 target, by inducing misregulation in chromatin remodeling in its promoter region, which led to transcriptional activation and subsequent development of chromosomal instability. Therefore, present results have led to the hypothesis that RAN-induced changes in the epigenetic landscape, securin overexpression and subsequent elevation of chromosomal instability is probably byproducts of inactivation of the pRb pathway.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Hongwei Zhang ◽  
Zhibin Liao ◽  
Jiacheng Zhang ◽  
Huifang Liang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The Src homology and collagen 4 (SHC4) is an important intracellular adaptor protein that has been shown to play a pro-cancer role in melanoma and glioma. However, the biological function and detailed mechanisms of SHC4 in hepatocellular carcinoma progression are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential prognostic and treatment value of SHC4 in patients with HCC. Methods The expression status of SHC4 in HCC tissues were investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Clinical significance of SHC4 was evaluated in a large cohort of HCC patients. The effects of SHC4 repression or overexpression on migration, invasion, and tumor growth were detected by colony formation assay, wound healing, transwell assays, and xenograft assay. Cell cycle and EMT-related proteins were detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence. In addition, the molecular regulation between SHC4 and STAT3 signaling in HCC were discovered by western blotting, immunofluorescence and xenograft assay. Results SHC4 was overexpressed in HCC compared to adjacent normal liver tissues and increased SHC4 expression was associated with high AFP level, incomplete tumor encapsulation, poor tumor differentiation and poor prognosis. SHC4 was shown to enhance cell proliferation, colony formation, cells migration and invasion in vitro, and promotes cell cycle progression and EMT process in HCC cells. Tumor xenograft model assay confirmed the oncogenic role of SHC4 in tumorigenicity in nude mice. Moreover, activation of STAT3 signaling was found in the SHC4 overexpressed HCC cells and HCC tissues. Further intervention of STAT3 confirmed STAT3 as an important signaling pathway for the oncogenic role of SHC4 in HCC. Conclusions Together, our results reveal that SHC4 activates STAT3 signaling to promote HCC progression, which may provide new clinical ideas for the treatment of HCC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zijian Ma ◽  
Ganyi Chen ◽  
Yiqian Chen ◽  
Zizhang Guo ◽  
Hao Chai ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still one of the diseases with the highest mortality and morbidity, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for more than half of all NSCLC cases in most countries. miRNA can be used as a potential biological marker and treatment for lung adenocarcinoma. However, the effect of miR-937-3p to the invasion and metastasis of LUAD cells is not clear. Methods miRNA microarray is used to analyze the expression of miRNA in lung adenocarcinoma tissue. Transwell migration, Wound-healing assay and Western blot analysis are used to analyze cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) capabilities. Tube formation is used to assess angiogenesis ability. In addition, dual luciferase reporter gene detection is used to identify the potential binding between miRNA and target mRNA. In vivo experiments were performed on male NOD/SCID nude mice by tail vein injection to establish a transplanted tumor model. The CHIP experiment is used to verify the transcription factors of miRNA. Result In our study, miR-937-3p was high-regulated in LUAD cell lines and tissues, and its expression level was related to tumor progression. We found that miR-937-3p high-expression has an effect on cell invasion and metastasis. In molecular mechanism, miR-937-3p causes SOX11 reduction by directly binding to the 3′-UTR of SOX11.In addition, MYC affects miR-937-3p transcription by binding to its promoter region. Conclusions Our research shows that miR-937-3p is mediated by MYC and can control the angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of LUAD by regulating SOX11, thereby promoting the progress of LUAD. We speculate that miR-937-3p can be used as a therapeutic target and potential biomarker for LUAD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jihua Yang ◽  
XiaoHong Wei ◽  
Fang Hu ◽  
Wei Dong ◽  
Liao Sun

Abstract Background Molecular markers play an important role in predicting clinical outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) patients. Analysis of the ferroptosis-related genes may provide novel potential targets for the prognosis and treatment of PAAD. Methods RNA-sequence and clinical data of PAAD was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public databases. The PAAD samples were clustered by a non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between different subtypes were used by “limma_3.42.2” package. The R software package clusterProfiler was used for functional enrichment analysis. Then, a multivariate Cox proportional and LASSO regression were used to develop a ferroptosis-related gene signature for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A nomogram and corrected curves were constructed. Finally, the expression and function of these signature genes were explored by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and proliferation, migration and invasion assays. Results The 173 samples were divided into 3 categories (C1, C2, and C3) and a 3-gene signature model (ALOX5, ALOX12, and CISD1) was constructed. The prognostic model showed good independent prognostic ability in PAAD. In the GSE62452 external validation set, the molecular model also showed good risk prediction. KM-curve analysis showed that there were significant differences between the high and low-risk groups, samples with a high-risk score had a worse prognosis. The predictive efficiency of the 3-gene signature-based nomogram was significantly better than that of traditional clinical features. For comparison with other models, that our model, with a reasonable number of genes, yields a more effective result. The results obtained with qPCR and IHC assays showed that ALOX5 was highly expressed, whether ALOX12 and CISD1 were expressed at low levels in tissue samples. Finally, function assays results suggested that ALOX5 may be an oncogene and ALOX12 and CISD1 may be tumor suppressor genes. Conclusions We present a novel prognostic molecular model for PAAD based on ferroptosis-related genes, which serves as a potentially effective tool for prognostic differentiation in pancreatic cancer patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ruoyan Cao ◽  
Lin Cui ◽  
Jiayu Zhang ◽  
Xianyue Ren ◽  
Bin Cheng ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, we aimed to identify ideal subtypes for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) based on immune-related lncRNAs. Methods TCGA HNSCC cohort was divided into two datasets (training and validation dataset), and 960 previously characterized immune-related lncRNAs were extracted for non-negative matrix factorization analysis. We characterized our HNSCC subtypes based on biological behaviors, immune landscape and response to immunotherapy in both training and validation cohort. A lncRNA-signature was generated to predict our HNSCC subtypes, and essential lncRNAs involved in tumor microenvironment (TME) were identified. Results We developed and validated two HNSCC subtypes (C1 and C2) based on the 70 lncRNAs in the training and validation cohort. C2 subtype displayed good prognosis, high immune cell infiltration, immune-related genes expression and sensitivity to PD-1 blockade. C1 subtype was associated with high activity of mTORC1 signaling and glycolysis as well as high fraction of inactive immune cells. Finally, we generated a 31-lncRNA signature that could predict our above subtypes with high accurate. Additionally, TRG-AS1 was identified as the essential lncRNA involving TME formation. Knockdown of TRG-AS1 inhibited the expression of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. High expression of TRG-AS1 indicated a favorable prognosis in HNSCC and anti-PD-L1 cohort (IMvigor210). Conclusions Our study establishes a novel HNSCC classification on the basis of 31-lncRNA, helping to identify beneficiaries for anti-PD-1 treatment. In addition, a critical lncRNA TRG-AS1 is identified as a new potential prognosis biomarker as well as therapeutic target.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ke-Yun Zhu ◽  
Yao Tian ◽  
Ying-Xi Li ◽  
Qing-Xiang Meng ◽  
Jie Ge ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Krüppel‐like factors (KLFs) are zinc finger proteins which participate in transcriptional gene regulation. Although increasing evidence indicate that KLFs are involved in carcinogenesis and progression, its clinical significance and biological function in breast cancer are still limited. Methods We investigated all the expression of KLFs (KLF1-18) at transcriptional levels by using Oncomine and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). The mRNA and protein expression levels of KLFs were also determined by using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CBioPortal, GeneMANIA and STRING were used to comprehensive analysis of the molecular characteristics of KLFs. The clinical value of prognostic prediction based on the expression of KLFs was determined by using the KM plotter. The relevant molecular pathways of KLFs were further analyzed by using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. Finally, we investigated the effect of KLF2 and KLF15 on biological behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro. Results The expression of KLF2/4/6/8/9/11/15 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer. The patients with high KLF2, KLF4 or KLF15 expression had a better outcome, while patients with high KLF8 or KLF11 had a poor prognosis. Furthermore, our results showed that KLF2 or KLF15 can be used as a prognostic factor independent on the other KLFs in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of KLF2 or KLF15 inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and blocked cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, resulting in cell apoptosis. Conclusions KLF2 and KLF15 function as tumor suppressors in breast cancer and are potential biomarkers for prognostic prediction in patients with breast cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Baibei Li ◽  
Huachu Deng ◽  
Ziyan Zhou ◽  
Bo Tang

Abstract Background In recent years, the Fibrinogen to pre-albumin ratio (FPR) has been reported in many studies to be significantly associated with the prognosis of various cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the prognostic value of FPR in malignant tumors of the digestive system based on available evidence. Methods The relevant articles published before July 1, 2021, were systematically retrieved from electronic databases to evaluate the effect of Fibrinogen to pre-albumin ratio (FPR) on the prognosis of patients with malignant digestive system tumors and calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Result Thirteen articles, all from China, including 15 cohort studies and a total of 5116 cases, were included in this study. A high FPR was associated with poor overall survival (HR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.53–2.32, P < 0.001), recurrence-free survival (HR = 2.29, 95%CI 1.91–2.76, P < 0.001), progression-free survival (HR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.33–2.90, P = 0.001), complications (HR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.06–3.00, P = 0.029), disease-free survival (HR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.08–1.97, P = 0.013) was significantly associated with cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.15–1.79, P = 0.001). Even though intergroup differences were present, FPR was strongly associated with overall and relapse-free survival, and sensitivity analysis suggested that our results were stable. Conclusion FPR can be used as a valuable indicator to predict the prognosis of patients with malignant digestive system tumors.


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