Over the years cloud computing has seen significant evolution in terms of improvement in infrastructure and resource provisioning. However the continuous emergence of new applications such as the Internet of Things (IoTs) with thousands of users put a significant load on cloud infrastructure. Load balancing of resource allocation in cloud-oriented IoT is a critical factor that has a significant impact on the smooth operation of cloud services and customer satisfaction. Several load balancing strategies for cloud environment have been proposed in the past. However the existing approaches mostly consider only a few parameters and ignore many critical factors having a pivotal role in load balancing leading to less optimized resource allocation. Load balancing is a challenging problem and therefore the research community has recently focused towards employing machine learning-based metaheuristic approaches for load balancing in the cloud. In this paper we propose a metaheuristics-based scheme
Data Format Classification using Support Vector Machine (DFC-SVM),
to deal with the load balancing problem. The proposed scheme aims to reduce the online load balancing complexity by offline-based pre-classification of raw-data from diverse sources (such as IoT) into different formats e.g. text images media etc. SVM is utilized to classify “n” types of data formats featuring audio video text digital images and maps etc. A one-to-many classification approach has been developed so that data formats from the cloud are initially classified into their respective classes and assigned to virtual machines through the proposed modified version of
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
which schedules the data of a particular class efficiently. The experimental results compared with the baselines have shown a significant improvement in the performance of the proposed approach. Overall an average of 94% classification accuracy is achieved along with 11.82% less energy 16% less response time and 16.08% fewer SLA violations are observed.
With the technology trend of hardware and workload consolidation for embedded systems and the rapid development of edge computing, there has been increasing interest in supporting parallel real-time tasks to better utilize the multi-core platforms while meeting the stringent real-time constraints. For parallel real-time tasks, the federated scheduling paradigm, which assigns each parallel task a set of dedicated cores, achieves good theoretical bounds by ensuring exclusive use of processing resources to reduce interferences. However, because cores share the last-level cache and memory bandwidth resources, in practice tasks may still interfere with each other despite executing on dedicated cores. Such resource interferences due to concurrent accesses can be even more severe for embedded platforms or edge servers, where the computing power and cache/memory space are limited. To tackle this issue, in this work, we present a holistic resource allocation framework for parallel real-time tasks under federated scheduling. Under our proposed framework, in addition to dedicated cores, each parallel task is also assigned with dedicated cache and memory bandwidth resources. Further, we propose a holistic resource allocation algorithm that well balances the allocation between different resources to achieve good schedulability. Additionally, we provide a full implementation of our framework by extending the federated scheduling system with Intel’s Cache Allocation Technology and MemGuard. Finally, we demonstrate the practicality of our proposed framework via extensive numerical evaluations and empirical experiments using real benchmark programs.
Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything communication is an important scenario of 5G technologies. Modes 3 and 4 of the wireless systems introduced in Release 14 of 3GPP standards are intended to support vehicular communication with and without cellular infrastructure. In the case of Mode 3, dynamic resource selection and semi-persistent resource scheduling algorithms result in a signalling cost problem between vehicles and infrastructure, therefore, we propose a means to decrease it. This paper employs Re-selection Counter in centralized resource allocation as a decremental counter of new resource requests. Furthermore, two new spectrum re-partitioning and frequency reuse techniques in Roadside Units (RSUs) are considered to avoid resource collisions and diminish high interference impact via increasing the frequency reuse distance. The two techniques, full and partial frequency reuse, partition the bandwidth into two sub-bands. Two adjacent RSUs apply these sub-bands with the Full Frequency Reuse (FFR) technique. In the Partial Frequency Reuse (PFR) technique, the sub-bands are further re-partitioned among vehicles located in the central and edge parts of the RSU coverage. The sub-bands assignment in the nearest RSUs using the same sub-bands is inverted concerning the current RSU to increase the frequency reuse distance. The PFR technique shows promising results compared with the FFR technique. Both techniques are compared with the single band system for different vehicle densities.