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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Muhammad Junaid ◽  
Adnan Sohail ◽  
Fadi Al Turjman ◽  
Rashid Ali

Over the years cloud computing has seen significant evolution in terms of improvement in infrastructure and resource provisioning. However the continuous emergence of new applications such as the Internet of Things (IoTs) with thousands of users put a significant load on cloud infrastructure. Load balancing of resource allocation in cloud-oriented IoT is a critical factor that has a significant impact on the smooth operation of cloud services and customer satisfaction. Several load balancing strategies for cloud environment have been proposed in the past. However the existing approaches mostly consider only a few parameters and ignore many critical factors having a pivotal role in load balancing leading to less optimized resource allocation. Load balancing is a challenging problem and therefore the research community has recently focused towards employing machine learning-based metaheuristic approaches for load balancing in the cloud. In this paper we propose a metaheuristics-based scheme Data Format Classification using Support Vector Machine (DFC-SVM), to deal with the load balancing problem. The proposed scheme aims to reduce the online load balancing complexity by offline-based pre-classification of raw-data from diverse sources (such as IoT) into different formats e.g. text images media etc. SVM is utilized to classify “n” types of data formats featuring audio video text digital images and maps etc. A one-to-many classification approach has been developed so that data formats from the cloud are initially classified into their respective classes and assigned to virtual machines through the proposed modified version of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) which schedules the data of a particular class efficiently. The experimental results compared with the baselines have shown a significant improvement in the performance of the proposed approach. Overall an average of 94% classification accuracy is achieved along with 11.82% less energy 16% less response time and 16.08% fewer SLA violations are observed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Joel Mandebi Mbongue ◽  
Danielle Tchuinkou Kwadjo ◽  
Alex Shuping ◽  
Christophe Bobda

Cloud deployments now increasingly exploit Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) accelerators as part of virtual instances. While cloud FPGAs are still essentially single-tenant, the growing demand for efficient hardware acceleration paves the way to FPGA multi-tenancy. It then becomes necessary to explore architectures, design flows, and resource management features that aim at exposing multi-tenant FPGAs to the cloud users. In this article, we discuss a hardware/software architecture that supports provisioning space-shared FPGAs in Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) clouds. The proposed hardware/software architecture introduces an FPGA organization that improves hardware consolidation and support hardware elasticity with minimal data movement overhead. It also relies on VirtIO to decrease communication latency between hardware and software domains. Prototyping the proposed architecture with a Virtex UltraScale+ FPGA demonstrated near specification maximum frequency for on-chip data movement and high throughput in virtual instance access to hardware accelerators. We demonstrate similar performance compared to single-tenant deployment while increasing FPGA utilization, which is one of the goals of virtualization. Overall, our FPGA design achieved about 2× higher maximum frequency than the state of the art and a bandwidth reaching up to 28 Gbps on 32-bit data width.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 660
Marios Avgeris ◽  
Dimitrios Spatharakis ◽  
Dimitrios Dechouniotis ◽  
Aris Leivadeas ◽  
Vasileios Karyotis ◽  

Mobile applications are progressively becoming more sophisticated and complex, increasing their computational requirements. Traditional offloading approaches that use exclusively the Cloud infrastructure are now deemed unsuitable due to the inherent associated delay. Edge Computing can address most of the Cloud limitations at the cost of limited available resources. This bottleneck necessitates an efficient allocation of offloaded tasks from the mobile devices to the Edge. In this paper, we consider a task offloading setting with applications of different characteristics and requirements, and propose an optimal resource allocation framework leveraging the amalgamation of the edge resources. To balance the trade-off between retaining low total energy consumption, respecting end-to-end delay requirements and load balancing at the Edge, we additionally introduce a Markov Random Field based mechanism for the distribution of the excess workload. The proposed approach investigates a realistic scenario, including different categories of mobile applications, edge devices with different computational capabilities, and dynamic wireless conditions modeled by the dynamic behavior and mobility of the users. The framework is complemented with a prediction mechanism that facilitates the orchestration of the physical resources. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is evaluated via modeling and simulation and is shown to outperform a well-known task offloading solution, as well as a more recent one.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 351
Fang Yuan ◽  
Marko Repse ◽  
Alex Leith ◽  
Ake Rosenqvist ◽  
Grega Milcinski ◽  

Digital Earth Africa is now providing an operational Sentinel-1 normalized radar backscatter dataset for Africa. This is the first free and open continental scale analysis ready data of this kind that has been developed to be compliant with the CEOS Analysis Ready Data for Land (CARD4L) specification for normalized radar backscatter (NRB) products. Partnership with Sinergise, a European geospatial company and Earth observation data provider, has ensured this dataset is produced efficiently in the cloud infrastructure and can be sustained in the long term. The workflow applies radiometric terrain correction (RTC) to the Sentinel-1 ground range detected (GRD) product, using the Copernicus 30 m digital elevation model (DEM). The method is used to generate data for a range of sites around the world and has been validated as producing good results. This dataset over Africa is made available publicly as a AWS public dataset and can be accessed through the Digital Earth Africa platform and its Open Data Cube API. We expect this dataset to support a wide range of applications, including natural resource monitoring, agriculture, and land cover mapping across Africa.

2022 ◽  
Maninderpal Singh ◽  
Gagangeet Singh Aujla ◽  
Rasmeet Singh Bali

AbstractInternet of Drones (IoD) facilitates the autonomous operations of drones into every application (warfare, surveillance, photography, etc) across the world. The transmission of data (to and fro) related to these applications occur between the drones and the other infrastructure over wireless channels that must abide to the stringent latency restrictions. However, relaying this data to the core cloud infrastructure may lead to a higher round trip delay. Thus, we utilize the cloud close to the ground, i.e., edge computing to realize an edge-envisioned IoD ecosystem. However, as this data is relayed over an open communication channel, it is often prone to different types of attacks due to it wider attack surface. Thus, we need to find a robust solution that can maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of the data while providing desired services. Blockchain technology is capable to handle these challenges owing to the distributed ledger that store the data immutably. However, the conventional block architecture pose several challenges because of limited computational capabilities of drones. As the size of blockchain increases, the data flow also increases and so does the associated challenges. Hence, to overcome these challenges, in this work, we have proposed a derived blockchain architecture that decouples the data part (or block ledger) from the block header and shifts it to off-chain storage. In our approach, the registration of a new drone is performed to enable legitimate access control thus ensuring identity management and traceability. Further, the interactions happen in the form of transactions of the blockchain. We propose a lightweight consensus mechanism based on the stochastic selection followed by a transaction signing process to ensure that each drone is in control of its block. The proposed scheme also handles the expanding storage requirements with the help of data compression using a shrinking block mechanism. Lastly, the problem of additional delay anticipated due to drone mobility is handled using a multi-level caching mechanism. The proposed work has been validated in a simulated Gazebo environment and the results are promising in terms of different metrics. We have also provided numerical validations in context of complexity, communication overheads and computation costs.

Olexander Melnikov ◽  
Konstantin Petrov ◽  
Igor Kobzev ◽  
Viktor Kosenko ◽  

The article considers the development and implementation of cloud services in the work of government agencies. The classification of the choice of cloud service providers is offered, which can serve as a basis for decision making. The basics of cloud computing technology are analyzed. The COVID-19 pandemic has identified the benefits of cloud services in remote work Government agencies at all levels need to move to cloud infrastructure. Analyze the prospects of cloud computing in Ukraine as the basis of e-governance in development. This is necessary for the rapid provision of quality services, flexible, large-scale and economical technological base. The transfer of electronic information interaction in the cloud makes it possible to attract a wide range of users with relatively low material costs. Automation of processes and their transfer to the cloud environment make it possible to speed up the process of providing services, as well as provide citizens with minimal time to obtain certain information. The article also lists the risks that exist in the transition to cloud services and the shortcomings that may arise in the process of using them.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Virtual Machine Image (VMI) is the building block of cloud infrastructure. It encapsulates the various applications and data deployed at the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) end. With the leading advances of cloud computing, comes the added concern of its security. Securing the Cloud infrastructure as a whole is based on the security of the underlying Virtual Machine Images (VMI). In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the various risks faced by the CSP and Cloud Service Consumer (CSC) in the context of VMI related operations. Later, in this article a formal model of the cloud infrastructure has been proposed. Finally, the Ethereum blockchain has been incorporated to secure, track and manage all the vital operations of the VMIs. The immutable and decentralized nature of blockchain not only makes the proposed scheme more reliable but guarantees auditability of the system by maintaining the entire VMI history in the blockchain.

2021 ◽  
Ivana Stupar ◽  
Darko Huljenić

Abstract Many of the currently existing solutions for cloud cost optimisation are aimed at cloud infrastructure providers, and they often deal only with specific types of application services, leaving the providers of cloud applications without the suitable cost optimization solution, especially concerning the wide range of different application types. In this paper, we present an approach that aims to provide an optimisation solution for the providers of applications hosted in the cloud environments, applicable at the early phase of a cloud application lifecycle and for a wide range of application services. The focus of this research is development of the method for identifying optimised service deployment option in available cloud environments based on the model of the service and its context, with the aim of minimising the operational cost of the cloud service, while fulfilling the requirements defined by the service level agreement. A cloud application context metamodel is proposed that includes parameters related to both the application service and the cloud infrastructure relevant for the cost and quality of service. By using the proposed optimisation method, the knowledge is gained about the effects that the cloud application context parameters have on the service cost and quality of service, which is then used to determine the optimised service deployment option. The service models are validated using cloud application services deployed in laboratory conditions, and the optimisation method is validated using the simulations based on proposed cloud application context metamodel. The experimental results based on two cloud application services demonstrate the ability of the proposed approach to provide relevant information about the impact of cloud application context parameters on service cost and quality of service, and use this information in the optimisation aimed at reducing service operational cost while preserving the acceptable service quality level. The results indicate the applicability and relevance of the proposed approach for cloud applications in the early service lifecycle phase since application providers can gain useful insights regarding service deployment decision without acquiring extensive datasets for the analysis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2 (114)) ◽  
pp. 117-124
Olga Prila ◽  
Volodymyr Kazymyr ◽  
Volodymyr Bazylevych ◽  
Oleksandr Sysa

The study of modern frameworks and means of using virtualization in a grid environment confirmed the relevance of the task of automated configuration of the environment for performing tasks in a grid environment. Setting up a task execution environment using virtualization requires the implementation of appropriate algorithms for scheduling tasks and distributed storage of images of virtual environments in a grid environment. Existing cloud infrastructure solutions to optimize the process of deploying virtual machines on computing resources do not have integration with the Arc Nordugrid middleware, which is widely used in grid infrastructures. An urgent task is to develop tools for scheduling tasks and placing images of virtual machines on the resources of the grid environment, taking into account the use of virtualization tools. The results of the implementation of services of the framework are presented that allow to design and perform computational tasks in a grid environment based on ARC Nordugrid using the virtual environment of the Docker platform. The presented results of the implementation of services for scheduling tasks in a grid environment using a virtual computing environment are based on the use of a scheduling algorithm based on the dynamic programming method. Evaluations of the effectiveness of the solutions developed on the basis of a complex of simulation models showed that the use of the proposed algorithm for scheduling and replicating virtual images in a grid environment can reduce the execution time of a computational task by 88 %. Such estimates need further refinement; it is predicted that planning efficiency will increase over time with an increase in the number of running tasks due to the redistribution of the storage of virtual images

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