Mountainous Areas
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 93-100
Z. Aliyev ◽  
M. Ziyadov ◽  
E. Mamedova

The cultivation of perennial grasses in mountainous areas protects the slopes from erosion and provides animals with good food. According to the results of the studies, it was determined that the restoration of fertility and the ecological balance of erosional lands and the implementation of soil and agrotechnical measures is of great importance for increasing yields. Thanks to the application of these measures, as a result of the improvement of the water-physical properties of the affected lands, runoff of surface waters is prevented. Perennial grasses accumulate the nitrogen atmosphere of legumes, enrich the soil with organic substances, accelerate the formation of a water-resistant granular-fuel structure and improve its water-physical properties, which in turn contributes to the rapid assimilation of minerals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-36
Hayat Ait inoh ◽  
Mohamed Tayebi ◽  
Rajji Abdelatif

In view of the progressive retreat of groundwater due to rarity, continuous depletion and overexploitation of water, especially in mountainous areas, which are a major source of water, there is a need for artificial recharge for better management of these resources to ensure their long-term sustainability. The approach used is a contribution of new geomatic technologies; Remote Sensing coupled with Geographic Information Systems, for the mapping of potential areas of artificial recharge in the fractured medium of the Talmakent region, which is located in the western high atlas and is characterized by the presence of impermeable rocks. This study requires the consideration of different factors influencing the recharge potential, which are the characteristics of the land surface such as geology lineaments, geomorphology and drainage system. All these criteria are grouped in a GIS prototype in which a multi-criteria overlay analysis has been done for the cartographic restitution of the potential areas for artificial groundwater recharge. The existing basins in the area revealed that only 6% of the total area was identified as having a high potential for groundwater recharge, hence suitable for the implementation of new artificial recharge structures. While 94% of the area has a low to moderate recharge potential, hence unsuitable for groundwater recharge processes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 86-92
S. Seifaddinov

Cultivation of soil on the slopes of mountainous areas leads to a decrease in organic matter and nutrients in the soil and severe soil erosion. Grazing is one of the main reasons for the degradation of pastures and natural landscape, which increases the sensitivity of the soil to erosion. Soil erosion, in turn, pollutes water by increasing its turbidity and sometimes causes atrophy due to leakage of phosphorus and nitrogen. An average of 30.6 quintals of green mass or 7.8 quintals of dry grass per hectare was produced in the variant of grass seed sowing (without fertilizer), compared to the control variant, in the variant of grass seed sowing + N60P60K40 this indicator averaged 39.9 centners/ha of green mass. or more than 15.0%, resulting in the production of 10.0 quintals of dry or 14.7% more dry grass. Experimental field studies to improve pastures have shown that the fodder produced in each of the tested variants; green mass and dry grass supply and their nutritional value were higher than control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-84
Haiying Feng ◽  
Victor Squires

Cropland abandonment because of rural depopulation or policy interventions has become a key issue in Chinese mountainous areas. One such region is the Guangxi Karst Mountainous Area (GKMA), a zone where more than 59% of total land area is hilly and arable land of a commercially viable size is almost non-existent. The rugged terrain and land fragmentation in upland karst areas result in the scarcity of land suitable for cultivation. Although depopulation and declining agriculture since 2000 within the GKMA have led to vast areas of abandoned cropland, the spatiotemporal distribution that underlies this pattern as well as its causes remain little understood. Geomorphic features also bring about differences in the distribution of settlements. Settlements with different degrees of distribution are accompanied by spatial differences in cultivated land resources, which lead to differences in the sufficiency of cultivated land resources. In this paper we provide an overview of the magnitude of the problem of arable land loss. settlements and analyze the spatial distribution and the spatial agglomeration of the cultivated land.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 865
Guannan Zhu ◽  
Xingsui Cao ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Kai Zhang ◽  
Qingwen Min

The ecological value encapsulated in the term “spiritual ecology” is drawing more and more attention from ethnology, folklore, ecology, and other related disciplines. The custom of respecting and pacifying forest spirits has distinct regional and ethnic characteristics, and many scholars have discovered samples from different studies around the world. Qingyuan County, located in the mountainous region of southwest Zhejiang, is a very typical case of the practice of respecting and pacifying forest spirits. The mushroom-cultivation technology invented by the chthonic people there more than 900 years ago made this the global birthplace of artificial mushroom cultivation. The Qingyuan Forest–Mushroom Co-cultivation System (QFMCS) has been listed as an important agricultural heritage system by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, Beijing, China and a candidate project by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy for Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). Additionally, the QFMCS is currently an important part of the Baishanzu National Park under construction. The authors made an in-depth field study in the mountainous areas of Qingyuan and used theoretical methods of ecology, anthropology, and folklore to reveal the function spiritual ecology plays in ecological conservation, forest protection, identity, and the maintenance of community interests. In the “traditional-modern” transformation of Qingyuan County, the practice of respecting and pacifying the Spirits is still being propagated, resulting in expansion and social cohesion.

Abstract Snow is a fundamental component of global and regional water budgets, particularly in mountainous areas and regions downstream that rely on snowmelt for water resources. Land surface models (LSMs) are commonly used to develop spatially distributed estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff. However, LSMs are limited by uncertainties in model physics and parameters, among other factors. In this study, we describe the use of model calibration tools to improve snow simulations within the Noah-MP LSM as the first step in an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). Noah-MP is calibrated against the University of Arizona (UA) SWE product over a Western Colorado domain. With spatially varying calibrated parameters, we run calibrated and default Noah-MP simulations for water years 2010-2020. By evaluating both simulations against the UA dataset, we show that calibration decreases domain averaged temporal RMSE and bias for snow depth from 0.15 to 0.13 m and from -0.036 to -0.0023 m, respectively, and improves the timing of snow ablation. Increased snow simulation performance also improves estimates of model-simulated runoff in four of six study basins, though only one has statistically significant improvement. Spatially distributed Noah-MP snow parameters perform better than default uniform values. We demonstrate that calibrating variables related to snow albedo calculations and rain-snow partitioning, among other processes, is a necessary step for creating a nature run that reasonably approximates true snow conditions for the OSSEs. Additionally, the inclusion of a snowfall scaling term can address biases in precipitation from meteorological forcing datasets, further improving the utility of LSMs for generating reliable spatiotemporal estimates of snow.

2022 ◽  
Xiaozhong Wang ◽  
Tao Liang ◽  
Dunxiu Liao ◽  
Weilin Tao ◽  
Rui Jiang ◽  

Abstract Global warming has driven the expansion of cultivated land to high-altitude areas. Intensive vegetable production, which is generally considered to be a high economic value and high environmental risk system, has expanded greatly in high-altitude mountainous areas of China. However, the environmental cost of vegetable production in these areas is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated pepper production at low (traditional pepper production area) and high (newly expanded area) altitudes in Shizhu, a typical pepper crop area. The output and environmental cost at the two altitudes were identified. We evaluated the influence of resource inputs, climate, and soil properties on pepper production. There were obvious differences in output and environmental cost between the two altitudes. High-altitude pepper production achieved a 16.2% lower yield, and had a higher fertilizer input, resulting in a 22.3% lower net ecosystem economic benefit (NEEB), 23.0% higher nitrogen (N) footprint and 24.0% higher carbon (C) footprint compared to low-altitude farming. There is potential for environmental mitigation with both high- and low-altitude pepper production; Compared to average farmers, high yield farmers groups reduced their N and C footprints by 16.9–24.8% and 18.3–25.2%, respectively, with 30.6–34.1% higher yield. A large increase in yield could also be achieved by increasing the top-dress fertilizer rate and decreasing the plant density. Importantly, high-altitude pepper production was achieved despite less advanced technology and inferior conditions (e.g., a poor road system and uneven fields). It provides a reference for the study on environmental cost of other high-altitude regions or other crop systems at high altitude area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 787 ◽  
pp. 146-181
Sujeephon Athibai ◽  
Koraon Wongkamhaeng ◽  
Chaichat Boonyanusith

Metacyclops sakaeratensis sp. nov. and M. brancelji sp. nov. are described as being present in the mountainous areas of Northeastern and Southern Thailand, respectively. Two new species resemble M. woni in both sexes, but they are easily distinguished from their Cambodian relative by having: 1) transverse suture on the dorsal surface of the genital double-somite, 2) serrated hyaline frill on the posterior margin of third pedigerous somite, 3) different length / width ratio of caudal ramus, and 4) a row of spinule on caudal surface of intercoxal sclerite of the third swimming legs. The significant differences between M. sakaeratensis sp. nov. and M. brancelji sp. nov. are present in both sexes, including the body size, integumental ornamentation of the body surface, length / width ratio of caudal ramus, armature of the fifth swimming leg, and the male sixth swimming leg. In addition, an up-to-date key to the female of all fifteen species of Metacyclops recorded in Asia is provided.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 163-170
Ravidho Ramadhan ◽  
Marzuki Marzuki ◽  
Helmi Yusnaini ◽  
Ayu Putri Ningsih ◽  
Hiroyuki Hashiguchi ◽  

Accurate satellite precipitation estimates over areas of complex topography are still challenging, while such accuracy is of importance to the adoption of satellite data for hydrological applications. This study evaluated the ability of Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM -Final (IMERG) V06 product to observe the extreme rainfall over a mountainous area of Sumatra Island. Fifteen years of optical rain gauge (ORG) observation at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia (100.32°E, 0.20°S, 865 m above sea level), were used as reference surface measurement. The performance of IMERG-F was evaluated using 13 extreme rain indexes formulated by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The IMERG-F overestimated the values of all precipitation amount-based indices (PRCPTOT, R85P, R95P, and R99P), three precipitation frequency-based indices (R1mm, R10mm, R20mm), one precipitation duration-based indices (CWD), and one precipitation intensity-based indices (RX5day). Furthermore, the IMERG-F underestimated the values of precipitation frequency-based indices (R50mm), one precipitation duration-based indices (CDD), one precipitation intensity-based indices (SDII). In terms of correlation, only five indexes have a correlation coefficient (R) > 0.5, consistent with Kling–Gupta Efficiency (KGE) value. These results confirm the need to improve the accuracy of the IMERG-F data in mountainous areas.

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