lc50 value
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Nguyen Thi Hong Chuong Nguyen

Aralia armata is one of the common herb species in mountainous areas, especially in the northern mountainous areas of Vietnam, which has potential in pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. Herein, we report that an oleanolic acid saponin named pseudogisenoside RT1 methyl ester (A) was isolated from the roots of the species Aralia armata. The fractionated extracts of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, water and compound A were investigated for their molluscicidal effects, specifically on Pomacea canaliculata. The tests showed that the extracts and compound A from A. armata roots had good activity against P. canaliculata snail. In particular, compound A had a Lethal concentration of 50 (LC50) value of 16.443 µg/mL.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 62-75
Adedamola Akinbadewa ◽  
Henry Adewole ◽  
Stephen Adeyeni ◽  
Victor Olaleye

This study used a static bioassay to investigate the histological effects of glyphosate on the gill, liver and muscle of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. This was done with a view of further characterising the effect of glyphosate on C. gariepinus fingerlings and other aquatic life forms. Six-week old C. gariepinus fingerlings with an average weight of 10.02 ± 0.2 g were stocked into three exposure sets (control, 2.75 ppm (25% of the 96 h LC50 value) and 5.50 ppm (50% of the 96 h LC50 value)) in triplicate at 30 fish per tank for 70 days. The 96 h LC50  value was 11.00 mg/L. Histological examination of the C. gariepinus exposed to various sublethal concentrations of glyphosate showed that major histological changes in their organs were concentration dependent such as gill arch vacuolation, excessive mucosal secretions, lifting of epithelial, and epithelium thickening, hyperplasia and telangiectasis in the gills, discolouration, change in form and consistent alterations involving hyperplasia, narrowing of the central nerve, necrosis, pkynosis, blood congestion and vacuolation of the liver, mild hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the muscle of the fish. The severity of histological alteration was more pronounced in fish organs exposed to 5.50 ppm of glyphosate concentration. This study concluded that the toxicant (glyphosate) is highly toxic to C. gariepinus particularly at a concentration of 5.50 ppm, therefore its use near farm lands or adjacent water bodies should be discouraged.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 49-55
Gunawan Pratama Yoga ◽  
Kristin Noni Riyanti Buraen ◽  
Sutanto Sutanto

Ammonia is one of the nutrient wastes products which can be toxic to all vertebrates, including fish. Usually, ammonia toxicity is expressed as Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN, mgN/L). Tambra fish (Tor tambroides) is freshwater fish with important economic value in some areas in Indonesia. According to overfishing and forest degradation, the fish has become threatened. This research aimed to calculate the LC50 value of ammonia to Tambra fish (Tor tambroides) and estimate  NOEC,  LOEC, and MATC values of ammonia to Tambra fish (Tor tambroides). This study was conducted using the static test method with two steps. The first stage is a preliminary test, where the preliminary test is observed for 24 hours With five concentrations excluding control. Whereas in the second stage that is carried out, observation for 96 hours with four concentrations excluding control. The Probit test is Performed to obtain LC50 value results, then proceed with ammonia analysis using the Salicylate Test Kit method. The results showed that ammonia had acute toxicity with LC50-96 hour value of NH4Cl against Tambra fish fry (Tor tambroides) in the amount of 354.615 mg/L. Ammonia caused acute toxicity to Tambra fish fry (Tor tambroides).The LC50-96 hour value was 354.615 mg/L in the form of Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) or it was equivalent to un-ionized Ammonia (NH3) of 9.8937 mg/L, while values of the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of ammonia on Tambra fish (Tor tambroides) were 578.24 mg/L and 280.18 mg/L, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 757-765
Samar A. Khan ◽  
Jazem A. Mahyoub ◽  
Khalid M. Al-Ghamdi ◽  
Samia Q. Alghamdi ◽  
Tariq S. Alghamdi ◽  

Bed bugs, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are small insects that are considered public health pests and cause many health and economic problems. The efficacy of Organophosphorus insecticides (Safrotin and Actikill) and pyrethroids (Project and Cyper Safe) in controlling C. hemipterus adults and nymphs were investigated using contact and dipping methods. The WHO protocol was followed for insecticides application. The results of the current study showed that the project pesticide from the pyrethroids group gave the highest effectiveness against bed bugs, as the value of the concentration that killed 50% (LC50) of insects was of the adults (264.8, 337.5 ppm) when using dipping and contact methods, respectively. while the LC50 value when applying the two methods of the same insecticide against nymphs was 254.7 and 329.3ppm, respectively. However, Safrotin the more effective organophosphorus insecticide. The dipping method was more effective than the contact method for all insecticides, and the nymphs were more susceptible than the adults (LC50= 1502.6 and 1065.28ppm). The pesticides can be arranged in descending order according to their effect as follows: Project> Cyper Safe > Safrotin > Actikill. Our findings suggest that bed bugs in Jeddah Province may have developed resistance to common pesticides used in public health pest management programs. For this reason, this study recommends a periodic evaluation of the effectiveness of pesticides to be used during emergency pest outbreaks

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
pp. 49-55
Mariam Bozhilova

Galium odoratum (L.) is a medicinal plant with a number of health benefits, used in traditional and modern medicine. The toxicity of the coumarin in Galium odoratum is classified as high, however, no experimental data or data on toxic effects in humans following intake of Galium odoratum are available. The potential toxic effect can be estimated based on the content of coumarin and knowledge of its toxicity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the acute toxicity effects of a range of concentrations of Galium odoratum water extract on Moina macrocopa and calculate the LC50 within 24 hours. In order to compare the toxicity with those of other, well-known and widely used medicinal plants, extracts of Matricaria chamomilla and Tribulus terrestris are also tested.  The results show that LC50 value of Galium odoratum is comparable with those of Matricaria chamomilla and Tribulus terrestris, and Galium odoratum has intermediate toxicity between the two other studied species. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 09-17
Dedy Suprayogi ◽  
Sri Hidayati L ◽  
M.Ratodi ◽  
Farhana Fitri Ardilla

Water pollution can become dangerous if consumed. River could be polluted with some materials namely heavy metal of chopper (Cu). Heavy metals that are accidentally consumed by  human body through the skin surface, some through the respiratory or digestive tract and then accumulate in the body over time. To make an early detection of heavy metal and water quality in water bodies, some animals or plants were used. Several types of crustaceans such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna or commonly referred to as bio indicators. This study analyze comparison of acute toxicity test that represented by LC50 value of Cu in Artemia salina and Daphnia magna. From the research result it was found that Artemia salina and Daphnia magna gave a toxic effect with LC50 values of 11.78 ppm and 7.87 ppm, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Farzana Hossain ◽  
S. M. Majharul Islam ◽  
Mohammad Ashaf-Ud-Doulah ◽  
Md Shaha Ali ◽  
Md Sadiqul Islam ◽  

Salinity intrusion in coastal areas due to climate change is alarming. In this study, the effects of salinity on embryonic and larval development of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) were studied experimentally. Embryos and larvae were exposed to seven salinity treatments (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 ppt), each with three replications. Considerable survivability of embryos was recorded up to 6 ppt salinity. Mortality of embryos significantly increased at 8 and 10 ppt salinity, and 100% mortality was displayed within 12 h of exposure at 12 ppt salinity. The rate of hatching was significantly reduced at 8 and 10 ppt salinity. The 24 h lethal concentration (LC50) value of salinity for embryo was 11.24 ppt. Different types of deformities, such as undeveloped yolk sac, elongated gastrula yolk sac, and yolk sac bud, were highest at 10 ppt salinity. Similar to the embryo, considerable survivability of larvae was recorded up to 6 ppt salinity, and 100% mortalities were found within 24 h of exposure at 12 ppt salinity. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values of salinity for larvae were 10.63 and 8.48 ppt, respectively. Several types of deformities, including yolk sac ulceration, spine scoliosis, tail bent, yolk sac edema, and compromised swim bladder inflation, were highest at 10 ppt salinity after 48 h of exposure. Within 24 h of exposure, about 80% yolk sac of the larvae was absorbed at 8 and 10 ppt salinity, while 30%–50% yolk sac was absorbed at 0–6 ppt salinity. Growth rates in terms of length and weight were higher at 0, 2, and 4 ppt salinity and moderate at 6 and 8 ppt salinity. Overall, the current findings define the limits to optimize hatchery procedures for the culture of this species in low saline brackish water.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 977-985
O.O. Oghale ◽  
A.C. Okoboshi ◽  
A.P. Chinedu-Ndukwe ◽  
K.C. Kanu ◽  
M. Beka ◽  

The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of  dimethoate on juvenile Clarias gariepinus. Catfish with mean weight and length of 24.01 ± 11.60 g and 13.98 ± 5.66 cm respectively were exposed to sub-lethal levels of dimethoate in static bioassay system for 28 days and mortality data was statistically evaluated using Finney’s Probit analysis. The 96-hour LC50 value for C. gariepinus was estimated as 29.05 mg/l. The value for the LC50 was used in deducing the sub-lethal concentrations (0.01, 0.15and 0.29 mg/l). Biochemical changes in the serum such as glycogen, total protein, cholesterol, urea and creatinine were analyzed after the exposure period (28 days). The glycogenlevel decreased in all sublethal exposures. An increase in cholesterol at lower exposure concentration, followed by slight increase in urea and creatinine among treated groups was recorded. Behavioural changes which includes changes in skin colour, jerking, restlessness, erratic swimming, among others were observed. Based on the result of this study, it was concluded that C. gariepinus juveniles are very sensitive to low concentration of dimethoate. Dimethoate is highly toxic to juvenile catfishes and as such measures must be taken to avoid its run-off into our aquatic environment thus jeopardizing the recruitment of juvenile catfishes into the fishery.

2021 ◽  
Olugbenga John Owojori ◽  
Michael Awodiran ◽  
Oluwadunsin Ajana ◽  
Olukayode Jegede

Abstract Snails are an important link in the transfer of contaminants, especially metals in the food chain. Yet, few studies have examined the toxicity and accumulation of metals in snails in the tropics. This study assessed the toxicity and accumulation of two non-essential metals (cadmium and lead) to the tropical snail Archachatina papyracea. Specimens of the snail A. papyracea were exposed in a loamy soil collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria and spiked with varying concentrations of Cd and Pb over 28 days. Survival and weight change of snails were monitored weekly while tissue accumulation was assessed at the end of the 28-day period. Survival was a more sensitive endpoint than the weight change of snails. The Cd median lethal concentration (LC50) value was 93 ± 4.4 mg/kg, while the median effect concentration (EC50) for snail weight change was 131 ± 41mg/kg. For Pb, LC50 value was 1121 ± 457 mg/kg while the EC50 value for weight change was higher at 4541 ± 1180 mg/kg. Therefore, Cd was a factor of about 10 to 30 more toxic than Pb, consistent with findings on the relative toxicity of Cd and Pb to other soil organisms, including earthworms, springtails, and mites. Although not included initially as an endpoint, egg production in the snails decreased with increasing Cd and Pb concentrations in the substrate. Metal analysis of the foot and visceral mass of surviving snails showed progressive accumulation of Cd and Pb as concentration increased, showing the tendency to use body residue of A. papyracea as an indicator of metal pollution. It further suggests the role of this snail species in above-ground metal transfer in the food chain and highlights the potential danger for human consumption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-15
Anggraeni In Oktavia ◽  
Mardiyah Mardiyah ◽  
Anisa Lailatusy Syarifah

Cestrum nocturnum with white flowers has potential as a medicine, so it is possible that yellow, red and purple flowering plants also have bioactivity. Toxicity tests on plants can increase research on new sources of ingredients for food additives, drugs, pesticides, etc., so as to find the prospective economic value of these plants and maintain plant biodiversity. The aims of this research were to determine the differences in the toxicity of terpasan leaves (Cestrum elegans) of yellow, red and purple flowers. Steps of this research were made the simplicial of terpasan leaves, phytochemical screening, and toxicity test using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method. The yield of ethanol extract terpasan leaves with yellow, red and purple was 16.58%, 22.06% and 22.14%, respectively. The results of phytochemicals screening of three types terpasan leaves using the third tube method attached contain secondary metabolites of alkaloids and terpenoids. Based on the toxicity test with the BSLT method using a variation of 150; 200; 250; 300 and 350 ppm mortality percentages were 0.77%, 5.71%, 8.64%, 22.38% and 42.3%. The C50 of the red-pressed ethanol extract was 458.00 ppm, the LC50 of the purple-pressed ethanol extract was 180.127 ppm, the LC50 of the yellow-pressed ethanol extract is 30 – 200 ppm. Conclusion:Based on the LC50 value, the ethanolic extract of the yellow and red leaves has activity as a pesticide, because it has an LC50 value of 200 -1000ppm. The ethanolic extract of purple terpasan leaves has antimicrobial activity because it has an LC50 value of 30-200 ppm

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