aerial vehicles
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Jingyu He ◽  
Yao Xiao ◽  
Corina Bogdan ◽  
Shahin Nazarian ◽  
Paul Bogdan

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have rapidly become popular for monitoring, delivery, and actuation in many application domains such as environmental management, disaster mitigation, homeland security, energy, transportation, and manufacturing. However, the UAV perception and navigation intelligence (PNI) designs are still in their infancy and demand fundamental performance and energy optimizations to be eligible for mass adoption. In this article, we present a generalizable three-stage optimization framework for PNI systems that (i) abstracts the high-level programs representing the perception, mining, processing, and decision making of UAVs into complex weighted networks tracking the interdependencies between universal low-level intermediate representations; (ii) exploits a differential geometry approach to schedule and map the discovered PNI tasks onto an underlying manycore architecture. To mine the complexity of optimal parallelization of perception and decision modules in UAVs, this proposed design methodology relies on an Ollivier-Ricci curvature-based load-balancing strategy that detects the parallel communities of the PNI applications for maximum parallel execution, while minimizing the inter-core communication; and (iii) relies on an energy-aware mapping scheme to minimize the energy dissipation when assigning the communities onto tile-based networks-on-chip. We validate this approach based on various drone PNI designs including flight controller, path planning, and visual navigation. The experimental results confirm that the proposed framework achieves 23% flight time reduction and up to 34% energy savings for the flight controller application. In addition, the optimization on a 16-core platform improves the on-time visit rate of the path planning algorithm by 14% while reducing 81% of run time for ConvNet visual navigation.

Seong-In Hwang ◽  
Kwang-Jin Yang ◽  
Jihyun Oh ◽  
Hyeonju Seol

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 895
Laura Pierucci

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have attracted increasing attention in acting as a relay for effectively improving the coverage and data rate of wireless systems, and according to this vision, they will be integrated in the future sixth generation (6G) cellular network. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and mmWave band are planned to support ubiquitous connectivity towards a massive number of users in the 6G and Internet of Things (IOT) contexts. Unfortunately, the wireless terrestrial link between the end-users and the base station (BS) can suffer severe blockage conditions. Instead, UAV relaying can establish a line-of-sight (LoS) connection with high probability due to its flying height. The present paper focuses on a multi-UAV network which supports an uplink (UL) NOMA cellular system. In particular, by operating in the mmWave band, hybrid beamforming architecture is adopted. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) spectral estimation method is considered at the hybrid beamforming to detect the different direction of arrival (DoA) of each UAV. We newly design the sum-rate maximization problem of the UAV-aided NOMA 6G network specifically for the uplink mmWave transmission. Numerical results point out the better behavior obtained by the use of UAV relays and the MUSIC DoA estimation in the Hybrid mmWave beamforming in terms of achievable sum-rate in comparison to UL NOMA connections without the help of a UAV network.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 662
Tala Talaei Khoei ◽  
Shereen Ismail ◽  
Naima Kaabouch

Unmanned aerial vehicles are prone to several cyber-attacks, including Global Positioning System spoofing. Several techniques have been proposed for detecting such attacks. However, the recurrence and frequent Global Positioning System spoofing incidents show a need for effective security solutions to protect unmanned aerial vehicles. In this paper, we propose two dynamic selection techniques, Metric Optimized Dynamic selector and Weighted Metric Optimized Dynamic selector, which identify the most effective classifier for the detection of such attacks. We develop a one-stage ensemble feature selection method to identify and discard the correlated and low importance features from the dataset. We implement the proposed techniques using ten machine-learning models and compare their performance in terms of four evaluation metrics: accuracy, probability of detection, probability of false alarm, probability of misdetection, and processing time. The proposed techniques dynamically choose the classifier with the best results for detecting attacks. The results indicate that the proposed dynamic techniques outperform the existing ensemble models with an accuracy of 99.6%, a probability of detection of 98.9%, a probability of false alarm of 1.56%, a probability of misdetection of 1.09%, and a processing time of 1.24 s.

2022 ◽  
Rahul Bharadwaj Laxman

The paper is about the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the field of smart agriculture

Kuo Zhu ◽  
Jie Huang ◽  
Sergey Gnezdilov

Quadrotors suspended water containers may be used for fire-fighting services. Unfortunately, the complicated dynamics in this type of system degrade the flight safety because of coupling effects among the quadrotor attitude, container swing, and liquid sloshing. However, few effects have been directed at the attitude-pendulum-sloshing dynamics in this type of aerial cranes. A novel planar model of a quadrotor carrying a liquid tank under dual-hoist mechanisms is presented. The model includes vehicle-attitude dynamics, load-swing dynamics, and fluid-sloshing dynamics. Resulting from the model, a new method is proposed to control coupled oscillations among the vehicle attitude, load swing, and fluid sloshing. Numerous simulations on the nonlinear model demonstrate that the control method can reduce the undesirable oscillations, stabilize the quadrotor’s attitude, and reject the external disturbances. The theoretical findings may also extend to the three-dimensional dynamics of quadrotors slung liquid tanks, and other types of aerial vehicles transporting liquid containers including helicopters or tiltrotors.

Matthew Mo ◽  
Katarina Bonatakis

Drones or unoccupied aerial vehicles are rapidly being used for a spectrum of applications, including replacing traditional occupied aircraft as a means of approaching wildlife from the air. Though less intrusive to wildlife than occupied aircraft, drones can still cause varying levels of disturbance. Policies and protocols to guide lowest-impact drone flights are most likely to succeed if considerations are derived from knowledge from scientific literature. This study examines trends in the scientific literature on using drones to approach wildlife between 2000 and 2020, specifically in relation to the type of publications, scientific journals works are published in, the purposes of drone flights reported, taxa studied, and locations of studies. From 223 publications, we observed a large increase in relevant scientific literature, the majority of which were peer-reviewed articles published across 87 scientific journals. The largest proportions of peer-reviewed research articles related to aquatic mammals or aquatic birds, and the use or trial of drone flights for conducting population surveys, animal detection or investigations of animal responses to drone flights. The largest proportion of articles were studies conducted in North America and Australia. Since animal responses to drone flights vary between taxa, populations, and geographic locations, we encourage further growth in the volume of relevant scientific literature needed to inform policies and protocols for specific taxa and/or locations, particularly where knowledge gaps exist.

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