physical model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Wei He ◽  
Jian Li ◽  
Zeliang Liao ◽  
Feng Lin ◽  
Junye Wu ◽  

AbstractIn this work, a vertical gallium nitride (GaN)-based trench MOSFET on 4-inch free-standing GaN substrate is presented with threshold voltage of 3.15 V, specific on-resistance of 1.93 mΩ·cm2, breakdown voltage of 1306 V, and figure of merit of 0.88 GW/cm2. High-quality and stable MOS interface is obtained through two-step process, including simple acid cleaning and a following (NH4)2S passivation. Based on the calibration with experiment, the simulation results of physical model are consistent well with the experiment data in transfer, output, and breakdown characteristic curves, which demonstrate the validity of the simulation data obtained by Silvaco technology computer aided design (Silvaco TCAD). The mechanisms of on-state and breakdown are thoroughly studied using Silvaco TCAD physical model. The device parameters, including n−-GaN drift layer, p-GaN channel layer and gate dielectric layer, are systematically designed for optimization. This comprehensive analysis and optimization on the vertical GaN-based trench MOSFETs provide significant guide for vertical GaN-based high power applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jiajie Jiang ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Zhiwei Mao ◽  
Fengchun Liu ◽  
Jinjie Zhang ◽  

AbstractCondition monitoring and fault diagnosis of diesel engines are of great significance for safety production and maintenance cost control. The digital twin method based on data-driven and physical model fusion has attracted more and more attention. However, the existing methods lack deeper integration and optimization facing complex physical systems. Most of the algorithms based on deep learning transform the data into the substitution of the physical model. The lack of interpretability of the deep learning diagnosis model limits its practical application. The attention mechanism is gradually developed to access interpretability. In this study, a digital twin auxiliary approach based on adaptive sparse attention network for diesel engine fault diagnosis is proposed with considering its signal characteristics of strong angle domain correlation and transient non-stationary, in which a new soft threshold filter is designed to draw more attention to multi decentralized local fault information dynamically in real time. Based on this attention mechanism, the distribution of fault information in the original signal can be better visualized to help explain the fault mechanism. The valve failure experiment on a diesel engine test rig is conducted, of which the results show that the proposed adaptive sparse attention mechanism model has better training efficiency and clearer interpretability on the premise of maintaining performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Kiernan Kelty ◽  
Tori Tomiczek ◽  
Daniel Thomas Cox ◽  
Pedro Lomonaco ◽  
William Mitchell

This study investigates the potential of a Rhizophora mangrove forest of moderate cross-shore thickness to attenuate wave heights using an idealized prototype-scale physical model constructed in a 104 m long wave flume. An 18 m long cross-shore transect of an idealized red mangrove forest based on the trunk-prop root system was constructed in the flume. Two cases with forest densities of 0.75 and 0.375 stems/m2 and a third baseline case with no mangroves were considered. LiDAR was used to quantify the projected area per unit height and to estimate the effective diameter of the system. The methodology was accurate to within 2% of the known stem diameters and 10% of the known prop root diameters. Random and regular wave conditions seaward, throughout, and inland of the forest were measured to determine wave height decay rates and drag coefficients for relative water depths ranging 0.36 to 1.44. Wave height decay rates ranged 0.008–0.021 m–1 for the high-density cases and 0.004–0.010 m–1 for the low-density cases and were found to be a function of water depth. Doubling the forest density increased the decay rate by a factor two, consistent with previous studies for other types of emergent vegetation. Drag coefficients ranged 0.4–3.8, and were found to be dependent on the Reynolds number. Uncertainty in the estimates of the drag coefficient due to the measured projected area and measured wave attenuation was quantified and found to have average combined standard deviations of 0.58 and 0.56 for random and regular waves, respectively. Two previous reduced-scale studies of wave attenuation by mangroves compared well with the present study when their Reynolds numbers were re-scaled by λ3/2 where λ is the prototype-to-model geometric scale ratio. Using the combined data sets, an equation is proposed to estimate the drag coefficient for a Rhizophora mangrove forest: CD = 0.6 + 3e04/ReDBH with an uncertainty of 0.69 over the range 5e03 < ReDBH < 1.9e05, where ReDBH is based on the tree diameter at breast height. These results may improve engineering guidance for the use of mangroves and other emergent vegetation in coastal wave attenuation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 685
Zeljko Kos ◽  
Yevhenii Klymenko ◽  
Irina Karpiuk ◽  
Iryna Grynyova

This work presents a proposed engineering method for calculating the bearing capacity of the supporting sections of continuous monolithic reinforced concrete tape beams, which combine pressed or driven reinforced concrete piles into a single foundation design. According to the mechanics of reinforced concrete, it is recommended to consider the grillage to be a continuous reinforced concrete beam, which, as a rule, collapses according to the punching scheme above the middle support (pile caps), with the possible formation of a plastic hinge above it. The justification for the proposed method included the results of experimental studies, comparisons of the experimental tensile shear force with the results of calculations according to the design standards of developed countries, and modeling of the stress-strain state of the continuous beam grillage in the extreme span and above the middle support-pile adverse transverse load in the form of concentrated forces. The work is important, as it reveals the physical essence of the phenomenon and significantly clarifies the physical model of the operation of inclined sections over the middle support. The authors assessed the influence of design factors in continuous research elements, and on the basis of this, the work of the investigated elements under a transverse load was simulated in the Lira-Sapr PC to clarify the stress-strain state and confirm the scheme of their destruction adopted in the physical model by the finite element method in nonlinear formulation. Based on the analysis and comparison of the experimental and simulation results, a design model was proposed for bearing capacity near the supporting sections of continuous reinforced concrete beams and high grillages that is capable of adequately determining their strength.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 14-26
Alessandro de Freitas D’ercole ◽  
Gabriel Tessarin Menin Silva ◽  
João Guilherme Barbosa Dos Santos ◽  
Eduarda Regina Carvalho

Nowadays the search for new forms of energy generation is one of the great challenges of humanity. Decentralized energy production as well as material recycling, in order to obtain low-cost environmental gains, are extremely important points, as they are issues that must be evaluated in parallel with sustainable development, being extremely discussed and disseminated for their relevance and importance, since the main focus certainly corresponds the environmental preservation of the planet. In view of this theme, in the present work, a prototype was built using Tesla turbine and a dynamo couplet, aiming at the decentralized energy generation model, for the recharge of lead-acid batteries concomitantly with the challenge of reaching an innovative and unprecedented device with economic and environmental gains. The developed system was made and structured from the manufacture of various accessories obtained from recyclable materials attached to its structure, through the improvement of the physical model during its manufacture until the performance of experimental tests investigating its functionality. The results show that the projected system responded significantly to what was proposed, where the dynamo generated current for the system, providing 12 V in the physical model, recharging the battery. In view of the results obtained, it is believed that the prototype has great potential, in a characteristic line and direction, where with the improvement of the structure and diversification of components it is possible to become a new proposal, that is, an innovative device that meets expectations at an affordable price, being a decentralized model of energy generation and environmentally friendly.

2022 ◽  
pp. 073168442110602
Rui Xiao ◽  
Wang Wang ◽  
Jiaqi Shi ◽  
Jun Xiao

While Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) of thermoset matrix composites are widely used in the aviation industry, there is little conclusive research on the relationship between the physical model of bonding interface formation process and the actual bonding strength between prepreg layers formed in AFP process. Although massive amounts of experimental data on prepreg tack have been achieved from existing research, engineers are unable to use these data as a decisive criterion in choosing process parameters. In this research, a prepreg layup physical model based on reptation model and viscoelastic mechanical model is built, in which the bonding interface formation process is divided into two stages, namely, diffusion and viscous stage. Layup-peeling experiments are conducted via a special designed high-speed layup experimental platform so that practical AFP process parameters can be imitated, and a logarithmic curve of layup velocity-peeling energy under different layup pressure is achieved. The slope of the logarithmic curve and the surface morphology of the sample after peeling prove the correctness of the established model. Simultaneously, the experimental data proves that when prepreg is peeled off, the transition from the cohesive failure mode to the interface failure mode occurs at the laying speed between 100 mm/s and 200 mm/s. These results can be used as a reference for choosing AFP process parameters to realize the balance between good bonding quality and harmless separation of adjacent prepreg layers.

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