straw incorporation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 105865
J.H. Yang ◽  
H.Q. Liu ◽  
J.P. Zhang ◽  
A.E. Rahma ◽  
T.W. Lei

2022 ◽  
Vol 423 ◽  
pp. 127002
Tao Sun ◽  
Yongmin Wang ◽  
Chuxian Li ◽  
Jinyong Huang ◽  
Yingpeng Hua ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sarah Köbke ◽  
Hongxing He ◽  
Matthias Böldt ◽  
Haitao Wang ◽  
Mehmet Senbayram ◽  

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important bioenergy crop that contributes to the diversification of renewable energy supply and mitigation of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Typical oilseed rape crop management includes the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the incorporation of oilseed rape straw into soil after harvest. However, both management options risk increasing soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The aim of this 2-years field experiment was to identify the regulating factors of N cycling with emphasis on N2O emissions during the post-harvest period. As well as the N2O emission rates, soil ammonia (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3−) contents, crop residue and seed yield were also measured. Treatments included variation of fertilizer (non-fertilized, 90 and 180 kg N ha−1) and residue management (straw remaining, straw removal). Measured N2O emission data showed large intra- and inter-annual variations ranging from 0.5 (No-fert + str) to 1.0 kg N2O-N ha−1 (Fert-180 + str) in 2013 and from 4.1 (Fert-90 + str) to 7.3 kg N2O-N ha−1 (No-fert + str) in 2014. Cumulative N2O emissions showed that straw incorporation led to no difference or slightly reduced N2O emissions compared with treatments with straw removal, while N fertilization has no effect on post-harvest N2O emissions. A process-based model, CoupModel, was used to explain the large annual variation of N2O after calibration with measured environmental data. Both modeled and measured data suggest that soil water-filled pore space and temperature were the key factors controlling post-harvest N2O emissions, even though the model seemed to show a higher N2O response to the N fertilizer levels than our measured data. We conclude that straw incorporation in oilseed rape cropping is environmentally beneficial for mitigating N2O losses. The revealed importance of climate in regulating the emissions implies the value of multi-year measurements. Future studies should focus on new management practices to mitigate detrimental effects caused by global warming, for example by using cover crops.

Geoderma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 406 ◽  
pp. 115463
Jianying Qi ◽  
Johannes L. Jensen ◽  
Bent T. Christensen ◽  
Lars J. Munkholm

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 315
Reiner Wassmann ◽  
Nguyen Van-Hung ◽  
Bui Tan Yen ◽  
Martin Gummert ◽  
Katherine M. Nelson ◽  

In this study, we developed user-friendly software (CF-Rice) for calculating the carbon footprints (CF) of rice products. The approach follows the principles of Life Cycle Assessment while incorporating more flexibility for activities specific to rice production. The graphical user interface provides empirical emission and conversion factors obtained from the literature and from primary research studies of rice value chains. CF-Rice also allows the entering of new values for specific processes or practices. Data outputs distinguish among the contributions of individual stages of the value chain as well as different greenhouse gases (GHG), namely, CH4, N2O and CO2. The new tool was then applied to a scenario assessment of rice production in the regional context of Southeast Asia. The CF baseline of a typical rice value chain in the region accounted for a value of around 2300 g CO2e/kgProd. The CF can be reduced by about 27.4% through water-saving practices alone and can further be reduced up to 37.3% through interventions that increase product recovery rates and, thus, reduce food losses. In contrast, straw incorporation into the soil increased the CF by 26.0%. The tool is well suited for impact assessments of advanced practices and technologies of rice value chains.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 13753
Niamat Ullah Khan ◽  
Aftab Ahmad Khan ◽  
Muhammad Arif Goheer ◽  
Izwa Shafique ◽  
Sadam Hussain ◽  

Long-term conservation tillage and straw incorporation are reported to improve the soil health, growth, and yield traits of crops; however, little is known regarding the optimal nitrogen (N) supply under conservation tillage with straw incorporation. The present study evaluated the effects of conservation tillage practices (ZTsas: zero tillage plus wheat straw on the soil surface as such, and MTsi: minimum tillage plus wheat straw incorporated) and different N application rates (50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha−1) on the yield and quality traits of cotton and soil characteristics in a five-year field experiment. The results showed that ZTsas produced a higher number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield, 100-seed weight, ginning out-turn (GOT), fiber length, and strength than MTsi. Among different N application rates, the maximum number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield, GOT, 100-seed weight, fiber length, strength, and micronaire were recorded at 150 kg N ha−1. Averaged over the years, tillage × N revealed that ZTsas had a higher boll number plant−1, boll weight, 100-seed weight, GOT, fiber length, and strength with N application at 150 kg ha−1, as compared to other tillage systems. Based on the statistical results, there is no significant difference in total soil N and soil organic matter among different N rates. Further, compared to MTsi, ZTsas recorded higher soil organic matter (SOM, 8%), total soil N (TSN, 29%), water-stable aggregates (WSA, 8%), and mean weight diameter (MWD, 28.5%), particularly when the N application of 150 kg ha−1. The fiber fineness showed that ZTsas had no adverse impact on fiber fineness compared with MTsi. These results indicate that ZTsas with 150 kg N ha−1 may be the optimum and most sustainable approach to improve cotton yield and soil quality in the wheat–cotton system.

Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1233
Jifu Li ◽  
Guoyu Gan ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Jialong Zou

The present study aims to assess the influences of long-term crop straw returning and recommended potassium fertilization on the dynamic change in rice and oilseed rape yield, soil properties, bacterial and fungal alpha diversity, and community composition in a rice–oilseed rape system. A long-term (2011–2020) field experiment was carried out in a selected paddy soil farmland in Jianghan Plain, central China. There were four treatments with three replications: NP, NPK, NPS, and NPKS, where nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), potassium (K), and (S) denote N fertilizer, P fertilizer, K fertilizer, and crop straw, respectively. Results showed that long-term K fertilization and crop straw returning could increase the crop yield at varying degrees for ten years. Compared with the NP treatment, the long-term crop straw incorporation with K fertilizer (NPKS treatment) was found to have the best effect, and the yield rates increased by 23.0% and 20.5% for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. The application of NPK fertilizer for ten years decreased the bacterial and fungal alpha diversity and the relative abundance of dominant bacterial and fungal taxa, whereas continuous straw incorporation had a contradictory effect. NPKS treatment significantly increased the relative abundance of some copiotrophic bacteria (Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Proteobacteria) and fungi (Ascomycota). Available K, soil organic matter, dissolved organic carbon, and easily oxidized organic carbon were closely related to alterations in the composition of the dominant bacterial community; easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and slowly available K were significantly correlated with the fungal community. We conclude that long-term crop straw returning to the field accompanied with K fertilizer should be employed in rice-growing regions to achieve not only higher crop yield but also the increase in soil active organic carbon and available K content and the improvement of the biological quality of farmland.

Dr. (Mrs.) T. Geetha Jebarathnam Kuttibai ◽  

Laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of in corporation of rice straw on the germination of different rice cultivars viz: ADT 36,ADT 38,ADT49,CO43.Further the allelopathic impact of crop residues on weed count and weed biomass was also registered. Different rates of incorporation was tried and higher the rate of incorporation, higher the inhibitions on rice and weed observations. Reduction in the performance of rice seed germination and growth parameters was observed with increased rice straw incorporation in all the four rice cultivars tried. Perhaps the rice straw incorporation had an influence on the biomass of rice cultivars too. Supporting research evidences also reveals that allelopathic effect of rice straw on rice and weed performance can stand as a remarkable achievement for recycling rice straw in rice producing countries.

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