Temperature Distribution
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Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2560
Junhwi So ◽  
Sungyong Joe ◽  
Seonho Hwang ◽  
Soojin Jun ◽  
Seunghyun Lee

The main purpose of cold chain is to keep the temperature of products constant during transportation. The internal temperature of refrigerated truck body is mainly measured with a temperature sensor installed at the hottest point on the body. Hence, the measured temperature cannot represent the overall temperature values of transported products in the body. Moreover, the airflow pattern in the refrigerated body can vary depending on the arrangement of loaded logistics, resulting temperature differences between the transported products. In this study, the airflow and temperature change in the refrigerated body depending on the loading patterns of box were analyzed using experimental and numerical analysis methods. Ten different box loading patterns were applied to the body of 0.5 ton refrigerated truck. The temperatures inside boxes were measured depending on the loading patterns. CFD modeling with two different turbulence models (k-ε and SST k-ω) was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting the temperatures inside boxes loaded with different patterns, and the predicted data were compared to the experimental data. The k-ε turbulence model showed a higher temperature error than the SST k-ω model; however, the highest temperature point inside the boxes was almost accurately predicted. The developed model derived an approximate temperature distribution in the boxes loaded in the refrigerated body.

Denise Estrada-Wiese ◽  
Argelia Balbuena-Ortega ◽  
J Antonio del Rio

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 9806
Brayan L. Pérez Escobar ◽  
Germán Pérez Hernández ◽  
Arturo Ocampo Ramírez ◽  
Lizeth Rojas Blanco ◽  
Laura L. Díaz Flores ◽  

In this paper, the gradient temperature and the thermomechanical stresses of a photovoltaic panel has been studied with and without heatsink. For this purpose, a three-dimensional analysis was carried out. Accordingly, a heat transfer analysis was developed. The numerical results show a cooling close to 26.7% with the proposed triangle fins compared with the rectangular fins studied before by another author, and the temperature distribution was determined. With this information, the stress analysis was carried out in order to find the effect on the panel due to the thermomechanical stresses. The aluminium frame was restricted to move freely. The resulting stresses field established the magnitude of the alternative stresses, resulting in a 6.7% drop compared with a reference panel. The guidelines of IEC 61215 have to be take into account. Due to the results obtained, the use of this kind of system in desert conditions is desirable because of its high operational temperature and due to the increase in heat transfer by the fins.

2021 ◽  
Iskander Tlili ◽  
Dumitru Baleanu ◽  
S. Mohammad Sajadi ◽  
Ferial Ghaemi

Abstract In these days, laser is a useful and valuable tool. Low input heat, speed, accuracy, and high controllability of laser welding have led to widespread use in various industries. Nickel-based superalloys are creep-resistant materials used in high-temperature conditions. Also, these alloys have high strength, fatigue, and suitable corrosion resistance. Inconel 625 is a material that is strengthened by a complex deposition mechanism. Therefore, the parameters related to laser welding affect the microstructure and mechanical properties. Therefore, in this study, the effect of fiber laser welding parameters on temperature distribution, weld bead dimensions, melt flow velocity, and microstructure was investigated by finite volume and experimental methods. In order to detect the temperature history during continuous laser welding, two thermocouples were considered at a distance of 2 mm from the welding line. The heat energy from the laser beam was modeled as surface and volumetric heat flux. The results of numerical simulation showed that Marangoni stress and buoyancy force are the most important factors in the formation of the flow of liquid metal. Enhancing the laser power to 400 W led to the expansion of the width of the molten pool by 1.44 mm, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Experimental results also showed that increasing the temperature from 500 °C around the molten pond leads to the formation of a coarse-grained austenitic structure.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1649
Shiyuan Luo ◽  
Yongxin Jiang ◽  
Kai Yan ◽  
Guangming Zou ◽  
Po Zhang ◽  

Friction conditions significantly impact the temperature and phases of titanium forged parts, further directly affecting the microstructures and mechanical properties of final parts. In this paper, a 2D simplified finite element (FE) model combined with phase transition equations is developed to simulate a Ti-6Al-4V drum forging procedure. Then, friction effects on the temperature and phases of the forged drum are numerically analyzed and verified by experiments. The simulated results indicate that a reasonable range of friction factor is needed to obtain a relatively homogenous temperature distribution within the forged drum. Moreover, unlike its small influence on the α + β phase, improving friction obviously decreases the general levels of temperature and β phase and increases the homogeneities of α and β phases within the forged drum, which are associated with cooling rates and the heating effects of friction and deformation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014459872110506
Feng Liu ◽  
Guiling Wang ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Yizuo Shi ◽  
Chen Yue ◽  

Geothermal resources as clean and renewable energy can be utilized for agriculture, tourism, and industry. The assessment of geothermal potential and the study of genetic mechanism of the geothermal system is an essential part of geothermal resource development. In this study, 16 steady-state temperature logs are obtained in the mountainous area on the northern margin of North China. Thermal conductivity and heat production rates are tested or collected from more than 200 rock samples of these wells and outcrops around the study area. Based on these data, for the first time, the detailed delineations of temperature distributions, genetic mechanisms of geothermal systems, and resource potential of Hot Dry Rock in the study area are achieved. The heat flow map indicates a low heat flow state with an average value of 53.1 mW/m2 in the study area, which is lower than the average value of 62.5 mW/m2 in mainland China. The distribution of hot springs in the area is mainly controlled by fault systems. Heat flow only exhibits a minor effect on the temperature of hot springs and geothermal wells. On this basis, the deep temperature distribution within 3–10 km depths of the study area is calculated using the one-dimensional steady-state heat conduction equation. With it, the reservoir depths of hot springs are estimated to be 3–5 km with temperatures ranging from 70°C to 110°C. Furthermore, a conceptual model for the geothermal system in the study area is derived. According to the results, Northeastern Chengde and northern Beijing exhibit the highest temperatures at all depths. Similar patterns are observed in the temperature distribution maps and the heat flow map, which suggest that the deep temperature distribution is mainly controlled by regional heat flow. With the depth increases, the temperature shows larger variation at each depth level, which is possibly caused by the heterogeneity of crustal composition. According to our resource assessment by volumetric method, the exploitable potential of Hot Dry Rock within the depth of 7–10 km of the study area is equivalent to about 3.1 × 1011 tons of standard coal, but the barrier is still existing for development under the current technical and economic conditions.

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