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Author(s):  
Alyssa K. Baldicano ◽  
Subha Nasir‐Ahmad ◽  
Mario Novelli ◽  
Sammy C.S. Lee ◽  
Michael Tri H. Do ◽  
...  

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Xiting Zhang ◽  
Lin Li ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Haoping Mao ◽  
Lijuan Chai ◽  
...  

Shenmai injection (SMI) has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. Cardiovascular disorders are often related to excessive catecholamine (CA) secretion. Here, we report the effects of SMI on CA secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that SMI significantly reduced CA secretion induced by 300 μM acetylcholine (ACh). Cotreatment with SMI (10 μL/mL) and either of the ACh receptor α-subunit inhibitors, HEX (α3) or DhβE (α4β2), did not produce any further inhibition, indicating that SMI may play a role through α3 and α4β2 channels. Furthermore, SMI reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity induced by ACh by inhibiting the phosphorylation of TH at Ser19 and Ser40. TH is phosphorylated at Ser19 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) and at Ser40 by protein kinase A (PKA). KN-93 and H89, the antagonists of CaM kinase II and PKA, respectively, inhibited the ACh-induced phosphorylation at Ser19 and Ser40, and the addition of SMI did not augment the inhibitory effect. Taken together, our results show that SMI likely inhibits CA secretion by blocking TH activity at its Ser19 and Ser40 sites.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jessy Chen ◽  
Thomas Fleming ◽  
Sylvia Katz ◽  
Matthias Dewenter ◽  
Kai Hofmann ◽  
...  

Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic and leads to late diabetic complications of organs including kidney and eye. Lowering hyperglycemia is the typical therapeutic goal in clinical medicine. However, hyperglycemia may only be a symptom of diabetes but not the sole cause of late diabetic complications, Instead, other diabetes-related alterations could be causative. Here, we studied the role of CaM Kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ) that is known to be activated through diabetic metabolism. CaMKIIδ is expressed ubiquitously and might therefore affect several different organ systems. We crossed diabetic leptin receptor mutant mice to mice lacking CaMKIIδ globally. Remarkably, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice did not develop hyperglycemia. As potential underlying mechanisms, we provide evidence for improved insulin sensing with increased glucose transport into skeletal muscle but also reduced hepatic glucose production. Despite normoglycemia, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice developed the full picture of diabetic nephropathy but diabetic retinopathy was prevented. We also unmasked a retina-specific gene expression signature that might contribute to CaMKII-dependent retinal diabetic complications. These data challenge the clinical concept of normalizing hyperglycemia in diabetes as a causative treatment strategy for late diabetic complications and call for a more detailed analysis of intracellular metabolic signals in different diabetic organs.


Diabetes ◽  
2020 ◽  
pp. db190659
Author(s):  
Jessy Chen ◽  
Thomas Fleming ◽  
Sylvia Katz ◽  
Matthias Dewenter ◽  
Kai Hofmann ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jessy Chen ◽  
Thomas Fleming ◽  
Sylvia Katz ◽  
Matthias Dewenter ◽  
Kai Hofmann ◽  
...  

Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic and leads to late diabetic complications of organs including kidney and eye. Lowering hyperglycemia is the typical therapeutic goal in clinical medicine. However, hyperglycemia may only be a symptom of diabetes but not the sole cause of late diabetic complications, Instead, other diabetes-related alterations could be causative. Here, we studied the role of CaM Kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ) that is known to be activated through diabetic metabolism. CaMKIIδ is expressed ubiquitously and might therefore affect several different organ systems. We crossed diabetic leptin receptor mutant mice to mice lacking CaMKIIδ globally. Remarkably, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice did not develop hyperglycemia. As potential underlying mechanisms, we provide evidence for improved insulin sensing with increased glucose transport into skeletal muscle but also reduced hepatic glucose production. Despite normoglycemia, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice developed the full picture of diabetic nephropathy but diabetic retinopathy was prevented. We also unmasked a retina-specific gene expression signature that might contribute to CaMKII-dependent retinal diabetic complications. These data challenge the clinical concept of normalizing hyperglycemia in diabetes as a causative treatment strategy for late diabetic complications and call for a more detailed analysis of intracellular metabolic signals in different diabetic organs.


Nutrients ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 1777
Author(s):  
Anne-Laure Dinel ◽  
Céline Lucas ◽  
Damien Guillemet ◽  
Sophie Layé ◽  
Véronique Pallet ◽  
...  

Background: Two different species of sage, Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have demonstrated activities in cognitive function during preclinical and clinical studies related to impaired health situations or single administration. Different memory processes have been described to be significantly and positively impacted. Objective: Our objective is to explore the potential of these Salvia, and their additional activities, in healthy situations, and during prolonged administration, on memory and subsequent mechanisms of action related to putative effects. Design: This mouse study has implicated four investigational arms dedicated to control, Salvia officinalis aqueous extract, Salvia lavandulaefolia-encapsulated essential oil and a mix thereof (Cognivia™) for 2 weeks of administration. Cognitive functions have been assessed throughout Y-maze and Morris water maze models. The impact of supplementation on lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors, CaM kinase II and glucocorticoid receptors has been assessed via post-interventional tissue collection. Results: All Salvia groups had a significant effect on Y-maze markers on day 1 of administration. Only the mix of two Salvia species demonstrated significant improvements in Morris water maze markers at the end of administration. Considering all biological and histological markers, we did not observe any significant effect of S. officinalis, S. lavandulaefolia and a mix of Salvia supplementation on lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and neuronal plasticity (neurogenesis, neuronal activity, neurotrophins). Interestingly, CaM kinase II protein expression is significantly increased in animals supplemented with Salvia. Conclusion: The activities of Salvia alone after one intake have been confirmed; however, a particular combination of different types of Salvia have been shown to improve memory and present specific synergistic effects after chronic administration in healthy mice.


2019 ◽  
Vol 116 (44) ◽  
pp. 22282-22287
Author(s):  
Ali Reza Saadatmand ◽  
Viviana Sramek ◽  
Silvio Weber ◽  
Daniel Finke ◽  
Matthias Dewenter ◽  
...  

Sympathetic activation of β-adrenoreceptors (β-AR) represents a hallmark in the development of heart failure (HF). However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of gene regulation. In human ventricular myocardium from patients with end-stage HF, we found high levels of phosphorylated histone 3 at serine-28 (H3S28p). H3S28p was increased by inhibition of the catecholamine-sensitive protein phosphatase 1 and decreased by β-blocker pretreatment. By a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we show that the β-AR downstream protein kinase CaM kinase II (CaMKII) directly binds and phosphorylates H3S28. Whereas, in CaMKII-deficient myocytes, acute catecholaminergic stimulation resulted in some degree of H3S28p, sustained catecholaminergic stimulation almost entirely failed to induce H3S28p. Genome-wide analysis of CaMKII-mediated H3S28p in response to chronic β-AR stress by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive genomic sequencing led to the identification of CaMKII-dependent H3S28p target genes. Forty percent of differentially H3S28p-enriched genomic regions were associated with differential, mostly increased expression of the nearest genes, pointing to CaMKII-dependent H3S28p as an activating histone mark. Remarkably, the adult hemoglobin genes showed an H3S28p enrichment close to their transcriptional start or end sites, which was associated with increased messenger RNA and protein expression. In summary, we demonstrate that chronic β-AR activation leads to CaMKII-mediated H3S28p in cardiomyocytes. Thus, H3S28p-dependent changes may play an unexpected role for cardiac hemoglobin regulation in the context of sympathetic activation. These data also imply that CaMKII may be a yet unrecognized stress-responsive regulator of hematopoesis.


2018 ◽  
Vol 234 (5) ◽  
pp. 6865-6875 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shiho Okitsu-Sakurayama ◽  
Sayomi Higa-Nakamine ◽  
Hidetsugu Torihara ◽  
Hana Takahashi ◽  
Shigeki Higashiyama ◽  
...  

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