Sufficient dietary protein intake is vital to maintaining muscle health with aging. Yet protein intake among adults is often inadequate. This study’s main objective was to examine the impact of nutrition education (NE) and a per-meal protein prescription (PRx) with versus without diet coaching on protein intake. A secondary objective examined its effects on muscle health. Participants included 53 women, age 45–64 years. All participants received NE and PRx; those randomized to coached-group received 10-weeks of diet coaching. Assessments included: protein intake at baseline, weeks 4 and 12 and muscle health (muscle mass, grip strength, five-chair rise test, 4 mgait speed test). The Chi-square test examined percentages of participants meeting PRx between groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance assessed within group and intervention effects on protein intake and muscle health parameters. Protein intake (g/kg body weight) increased (p < 0.001): not-coached (n = 28) 0.8 ± 0.2 to 1.2 ± 0.3 and coached (n = 25) 1.0 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.3 with no significant difference between groups. A greater percentage of coached-group participants met (p = 0.04) breakfast (72%) and met (p < 0.001) three-meal (76%) PRx versus not-coached participants (25% and 53%, respectively). Participants in both groups exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) improved times for the five-chair rise test and 4 mgait speed test. Diet coaching in conjunction with a PRx and NE should be considered to assist individuals in improving protein intake through self-selection of protein-rich foods.
Whole grain foods are rich in nutrients, dietary fibre, a range of antioxidants, and phytochemicals, and may have potential to act in an anti-inflammatory manner, which could help impact chronic disease risk. This systematic literature review aimed to examine the specific effects of whole grains on selected inflammatory markers from human clinical trials in adults. As per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) protocol, the online databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched from inception through to 31 August 2021. Randomized control trials (RCTs) ≥ 4 weeks in duration, reporting ≥1 of the following: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), were included. A total of 31 RCTs were included, of which 16 studies recruited overweight/obese individuals, 12 had pre-existing conditions, two were in a healthy population, and one study included participants with prostate cancer. Of these 31 RCTs, three included studies with two intervention arms. A total of 32 individual studies measured CRP (10/32 were significant), 18 individual studies measured IL-6 (2/18 were significant), and 13 individual studies measured TNF (5/13 were significant). Most often, the overweight/obese population and those with pre-existing conditions showed significant reductions in inflammatory markers, mainly CRP (34% of studies). Overall, consumption of whole grain foods had a significant effect in reducing at least one inflammatory marker as demonstrated in 12/31 RCTs.
The disturbance of intestinal microorganisms and the exacerbation of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are mutually influenced. In this study, the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus plantarum JY039 on the adhesion of Lactobacillus paracasei JY062 was investigated, as well as their preventive efficacy against T2D. The results showed that the EPS isolated from L. plantarum JY039 effectively improved the adhesion rate of L. paracasei JY062 to Caco-2 cells (1.8 times) and promoted the proliferation of L. paracasei JY062. In the mice experiment, EPS, L. paracasei JY062 and their complex altered the structure of the intestinal microbiota, which elevated the proportion of Bifidobacterium, Faecalibaculum, while inversely decreasing the proportion of Firmicutes, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae and other bacteria involved in energy metabolism (p < 0.01; p < 0.05); enhanced the intestinal barrier function; promoted secretion of the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); and reduced inflammation by balancing pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 (p < 0.01; p < 0.05). These results illustrate that EPS and L. paracasei JY062 have the synbiotic potential to prevent and alleviate T2D.
Background: glucagon secretion and inhibition should be mainly determined by glucose and insulin levels, but the relative relevance of each factor is not clarified, especially following ingestion of different macronutrients. We aimed to investigate the associations between plasma glucagon, glucose, and insulin after ingestion of single macronutrients or mixed-meal. Methods: thirty-six participants underwent four metabolic tests, based on administration of glucose, protein, fat, or mixed-meal. Glucagon, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured at fasting and for 300 min following food ingestion. We analyzed relationships between time samples of glucagon, glucose, and insulin in each individual, as well as between suprabasal area-under-the-curve of the same variables (ΔAUCGLUCA, ΔAUCGLU, ΔAUCINS) over the whole participants’ cohort. Results: in individuals, time samples of glucagon and glucose were related in only 26 cases (18 direct, 8 inverse relationships), whereas relationship with insulin was more frequent (60 and 5, p < 0.0001). The frequency of significant relationships was different among tests, especially for direct relationships (p ≤ 0.006). In the whole cohort, ΔAUCGLUCA was weakly related to ΔAUCGLU (p ≤ 0.02), but not to ΔAUCINS, though basal insulin secretion emerged as possible covariate. Conclusions: glucose and insulin are not general and exclusive determinants of glucagon secretion/inhibition after mixed-meal or macronutrients ingestion.
A dietary transition away from traditional foods and toward a diet of the predominantly unhealthy market is a public health and sociocultural concern throughout Indigenous communities in Canada, including those in the sub-Arctic and remote regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The main aim of the present study is to describe dietary intakes for macronutrients and micronutrients in traditional and market food from the Mackenzie Valley study. We also show the trends of contributions and differences of dietary intakes over time from 1994 data collected and reported by the Centre for Indigenous People’s Nutrition and Environment (CINE) in 1996. Based on 24-h dietary recall data, the study uses descriptive statistics to describe the observed dietary intake of the Dene First Nations communities in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions of the NWT. Indigenous people in Canada, like the sub-Arctic regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the NWT, continue to consume traditional foods, although as a small percentage of their total dietary intake. The observed dietary intake calls for action to ensure that traditional food remains a staple as it is critical for the wellbeing of Dene in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions and across the territory.
Previous studies have explored associations between betaine and diabetes, but few have considered the effects of genes on them. We aimed to examine associations between serum betaine, methyl-metabolizing genetic polymorphisms and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. This prospective study comprised 1565 subjects aged 40–75 without type 2 diabetes at baseline. Serum betaine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Genotyping of methyl-metabolizing genes was detected by Illumina ASA-750K arrays. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median of 8.9 years of follow-up, 213 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of serum betaine, those in the highest quartile had lower risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusted HRs (95%CIs) was 0.46 (0.31, 0.69). For methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) G1793A (rs2274976) and MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131), participants carrying 1793GA + AA and 1298AC + CC had lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Interactions of serum betaine and genotype of MTHFR G1793A and MTHFR A1298C could be found influencing type 2 diabetes risk. Our findings indicate that higher serum betaine, mutations of MTHFR G1793A and A1298C, as well as the joint effects of them, are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Maternal dietary micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids support development of the fetal and neonatal immune system. Whether supplementation is similarly beneficial for the mother during gestation has received limited attention. A scoping review of human trials was conducted looking for evidence of biochemical, genomic, and clinical effects of supplementation on the maternal immune system. The authors explored the literature on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases from 2010 to the present day using PRISMA-ScR methodology. Full-length human trials in English were searched for using general terms and vitamin A, B12, C, D, and E; choline; iodine; iron; selenium; zinc; and docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid. Of 1391 unique articles, 36 were eligible for inclusion. Diverse biochemical and epigenomic effects of supplementation were identified that may influence innate and adaptive immunity. Possible clinical benefits were encountered in malaria, HIV infections, anemia, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and preventing preterm delivery. Only limited publications were identified that directly explored maternal immunity in pregnancy and the effects of micronutrients. None provided a holistic perspective. It is concluded that supplementation may influence biochemical aspects of the maternal immune response and some clinical outcomes, but the evidence from this review is not sufficient to justify changes to current guidelines.
Bladder cancer patients whose tumors develop resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy often turn to natural, plant-derived products. Beneficial effects have been particularly ascribed to polyphenols, although their therapeutic relevance when resistance has developed is not clear. The present study evaluated the anti-tumor potential of polyphenol-rich olive mill wastewater (OMWW) on chemo-sensitive and cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant T24, RT112, and TCCSUP bladder cancer cells in vitro. The cells were treated with different dilutions of OMWW, and tumor growth and clone formation were evaluated. Possible mechanisms of action were investigated by evaluating cell cycle phases and cell cycle-regulating proteins. OMWW profoundly inhibited the growth and proliferation of chemo-sensitive as well as gemcitabine- and cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells. Depending on the cell line and on gemcitabine- or cisplatin-resistance, OMWW induced cell cycle arrest at different phases. These differing phase arrests were accompanied by differing alterations in the CDK-cyclin axis. Considerable suppression of the Akt-mTOR pathway by OMWW was observed in all three cell lines. Since OMWW blocks the cell cycle through the manipulation of the cyclin-CDK axis and the deactivation of Akt-mTOR signaling, OMWW could become relevant in supporting bladder cancer therapy.
Background: Reports indicate patients with feeding difficulties demonstrate signs of inflammation on biopsies, notably eosinophilia, but it is unknown whether mast cell density contributes to variety or volume limitation symptoms. The aim of our study was to evaluate eosinophil and mast cell density of EGD biopsies in pediatric patients with symptoms of decreased volume or variety of ingested foods. Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective chart review of EMRs for all new feeding clinic patients between 0 and 17 years of age. Patients were categorized by symptoms at the initial visit as well as eosinophil and mast cell densities in those with EGD biopsies. Ten patients were identified as controls. Results: We identified 30 patients each with volume and variety limitation. Antral mast cell density was increased in 32.1% of variety-limited patients, 37.5% of volume limited patients, and in no controls; Duodenal mast cell density was increased in 32.1% of variety-limited patients, 40.6% of volume-limited patients, and in no controls. Conclusions: In both variety- and volume-limited patients, antral and duodenal mast cell densities were increased. These associations warrant further investigation of the mechanism between mast cells and development of feeding difficulties, allowing more targeted pediatric therapies.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators, is crucial to calcitriol signalling. VDR is regulated by genetic and environmental factors and it is hypothesised that the response to vitamin D supplementation could be modulated by genetic variants in the VDR gene. The best studied polymorphisms in the VDR gene are Apal (rs7975232), BsmI (rs1544410), Taql (rs731236) and Fokl (rs10735810). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the response to vitamin D supplementation according to the BsmI, TaqI, ApaI and FokI polymorphisms. We included studies that analysed the relationship between the response to vitamin D supplementation and the genotypic distribution of these polymorphisms. We included eight studies that enrolled 1038 subjects. The results showed no significant association with the BsmI and ApaI polymorphisms (p = 0.081 and p = 0.63) and that the variant allele (Tt+tt) of the TaqI polymorphism and the FF genotype of the FokI variant were associated with a better response to vitamin D supplementation (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001). In conclusion, the TaqI and FokI polymorphisms could play a role in the modulation of the response to vitamin D supplementation, as they are associated with a better response to supplementation.