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Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4347
Author(s):  
Julián Andrés Mateus Rodriguez ◽  
Mónica Bifano ◽  
Elvira Roca Goma ◽  
Carlos Méndez Plasencia ◽  
Anna Olivé Torralba ◽  
...  

A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 72 volunteers who received a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique β-1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of heat-treated probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae rich in selenium and zinc (ABB C1®) or placebo on the next day after getting vaccinated against influenza (Chiromas®) (n = 34) or the COVID-19 (Comirnaty®) (n = 38). The duration of treatment was 30 and 35 days for the influenza and COVID-19 vaccine groups, respectively. Mean levels of CD4+T cells increased from 910.7 at baseline to 1000.2 cells/µL after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in the ABB C1® group, whereas there was a decrease from 1055.1 to 929.8 cells/µL in the placebo group. Changes of CD3+T and CD8+T lymphocytes showed a similar trend. In the COVID-19 cohort, the increases in both IgG and IgM were higher in the ABB C1® supplement than in the placebo group. Serum levels of selenium and zinc showed a higher increase in subjects treated with the active product than in those receiving placebo. No serious adverse events related to ABB C1® or tolerance issues were reported. The study findings validate the capacity of the ABB C1® product to stimulate trained immunity.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4344
Author(s):  
Montserrat Monserrat Hernández ◽  
Ángeles Arjona Garrido ◽  
Juan Carlos Checa Olmos ◽  
Darío Salguero García

Current studies show an increase in the risk of eating disorders in runners. Since it is known that abusive exercise can be both a cause and a consequence of such developments, the main objective of the present study was to examine the risk and possible relationships between negative running addiction (NRA), as measured by the reduced and validated SAS-40 scale, and the tendency to be a compulsive eater (measured by YFAS 2.0), anorexia nervosa (AN), and/or bulimia nervosa (BN) (measured by EAT-40). This study highlights the novelty of researching the level of influence of NRA on each defined eating disorder. Method: A total of 167 Spanish-speaking federated runners in cross-country and track running (42% women and 58% men), with an average age of 24 years and an average BMI of 21 kg/m2, responded to an online questionnaire that asked about sociodemographic data and the Spanish versions of the SAS-40, YFAS 2, YFAS 3, and YFAS 4. Through a quantitative methodology using logistic regressions—the coefficient of determination and Pearson’s correlation coefficient—we created a sample analysis that related the significant items of the DSM-V to the results of the questionnaires administered, as well as their relationship with the practice of the sport in question and various variables of the environment. Results: The rates of CE, AN, and BN were 65, 11.4, and 16.2%, respectively. The tendency towards CE increased with a lower weight (r = 0.156, p < 0.05), not having been overweight in childhood (r = 0.151, p < 0.05), and being a long-distance runner (r = 0.123 p < 0.05). The risk of AN increased with the absence of menstruation for more than 3 months (r = 0.271 p < 0.01), having suffered from childhood obesity (r = 0.213 p < 0.05), and being underweight (r = 0.064 p < 0.05). The risk of BN increased with having suffered from childhood obesity (r = 0.194 p < 0.05), having a higher weight (r = 0.140, p < 0.05), and practicing athletics, especially the relay modality (r = 0.044 p < 0.05). Conclusions: A considerable number of runners are at risk of suffering from some type of eating disorder. A significant relationship was observed between long-distance runners and the risk of eating disorders (AN, BN, and CE), and the association is stronger for CE than for AN and BN. Lastly, childhood experiences (such as being obese/a healthy weight) were notorious for increasing the risk of eating disorders. Further studies are needed to research each particular parameter and the relationships between the possible levels of dependence on exercise. Level of evidence: Level III, cohort analytic study.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4342
Author(s):  
Katarina T. Borer ◽  
Po-Ju Lin ◽  
Elizabeth Wuorinen

The current prevalence of obesity in the US is strongly associated with excessive food intake and insufficient physical activity. This study examined whether changing the timing of exercise before or after two daily meals could alter human appetite for food. Fifty-four healthy postmenopausal women were matched by body weight and assigned to two groups: (1) two bouts of 2-h moderate-intensity exercise ending one hour before each weight-maintenance meal (XM, n = 23), (2) two-hour moderate-intensity exercise starting 1 h after each weight-maintenance meal (MX, n = 23), and one sedentary control (SED) arm (n = 8). Measurements included appetite ratings, circulating glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), a ketone body D-ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucoregulatory hormones insulin and glucagon, and gastrointestinal hormones associated with food digestion and absorption and implicated in appetite sensations. XM group increased concentrations of FFAs and BHB during exercise and increased insulin and homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during postprandial periods. MX group reduced postprandial insulin and HOMA-IR by about 50% without a major change in plasma glucose. There was brief suppression of hunger and an increase in satiation in both exercise groups near the end of the first postprandial period. The time course of hunger was unrelated to the perturbations in fuel metabolism, depletion of liver glycogen, and not correlated with concentration changes in hunger-stimulating hormone ghrelin during XM exercise before meals. Similarly, there was no correlation between the time course of fullness during exercise after meals with the postprandial secretion of gastrointestinal hormones including cholecystokinin (CCK) that has been linked to satiation. Hunger and satiation appear to depend on oral intake and gastrointestinal processing of nutrients and are not affected by metabolic and hormonal consequences of the timing of exercise with respect to meals. Moderate-intensity exercise performed shortly after meals induces a rapid and highly effective lowering of insulin resistance.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4345
Author(s):  
José A. Cañas ◽  
Rafael Núñez ◽  
Anyith Cruz-Amaya ◽  
Francisca Gómez ◽  
María J. Torres ◽  
...  

Food allergy (FA) is an increasing problem worldwide and, over recent years, its prevalence is rising in developed countries. Nowadays, the immunological and cellular processes that occur in the allergic reactions are not fully understood, which hampers the development of in vitro diagnostic tools and further treatment options. Moreover, allergic diseases could be reinforced by environmental exposure and genetic modifications. Gene expression can be controlled by different epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. In addition, several environmental factors such as dietary components (vitamin D, butyrate, folic acid) are able to regulate this epigenetic mechanism. All these factors produce modifications in immune genes that could alter the development and function of immune cells, and therefore the etiology of the disease. Furthermore, these epigenetic mechanisms have also an influence on immunomodulation, which could explain sustained responsiveness or unresponsiveness during immunotherapy due to epigenetic modifications in key genes that induce tolerance in several FA. Thus, in this review we focus on the different epigenetic mechanisms that occur in FA and on the influence of several dietary components in these gene modifications.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4340
Author(s):  
Claudia Manca ◽  
Stefano Pintus ◽  
Elisabetta Murru ◽  
Giovanni Fantola ◽  
Michela Vincis ◽  
...  

Bariatric surger (BS) is characterized by lipid metabolic changes as a response to the massive release of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) from adipose depots. The study aimed at evaluating changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) metabolism and biosynthesis of the lipid mediators N-acylethanolamines (NAE), as indices of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activation. The observational study was performed on 35 subjects (27 female, 8 male) with obesity, undergoing bariatric surgery. We assessed plasma FA and NAE profiles by LC-MS/MS, clinical parameters and anthropometric measures before and 1 and 6 months after bariatric surgery. One month after bariatric surgery, as body weight and clinical parameters improved significantly, we found higher plasma levels of N-oleoylethanolamine, arachidonic and a 22:6-n3/20:5-n3 ratio as evidence of PPAR-α activation. These changes corresponded to higher circulating levels of NEFA and a steep reduction of the fat mass. After 6 months 22:6-n3/20:5-n3 remained elevated and fat mass was further reduced. Our data suggest that the massive release of NEFA from adipose tissue at 1-Post, possibly by inducing PPAR-α, may enhance FA metabolism contributing to fat depot reduction and improved metabolic parameters in the early stage. However, PUFA metabolic changes favor n6 PUFA biosynthesis, requiring a nutritional strategy aimed at reducing the n6/n3 PUFA ratio.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4343
Author(s):  
Jianlong Du ◽  
Xiaojun Xiang ◽  
Dan Xu ◽  
Junzhi Zhang ◽  
Wei Fang ◽  
...  

High-fat diets induced abnormal lipid accumulation in the liver of cultured fish that caused body damage and diseases. The purpose of this research was to investigate the role and mechanism of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in regulating lipid metabolism and to determine how high-fat diets affect FXR expression in large yellow croakers. The results showed that ligand-meditated FXR-activation could prevent abnormal lipid accumulation in the liver and hepatocytes of large yellow croakers. FXR activation increased the expression of lipid catabolism-related genes while decreasing the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Further investigation found that the promoter activity of proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) could be increased by croaker FXR. Through the influence of SHP on LXR, FXR indirectly decreased the promoter activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in large yellow croakers. Furthermore, the findings revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-induced-activation of JNK and P38 MAPK participated in the reduction of FXR induced by high-fat diets. Then, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) was confirmed to be an FXR regulator in large yellow croaker, and it was reduced by high-fat diets and ER stress. In addition, co-expression of c-Jun with HNF1α inhibited the effect of HNF1α on FXR promoter, and suppression of P38 MAPK could relieve the HNF1α expression reduction caused by ER stress activation. In summary, the present study showed that FXR mediated lipid metabolism can prevent abnormal lipid accumulation through regulating PPARα and SREBP1 in large yellow croakers, while high-fat diets can suppress FXR expression by ER stress mediated-activation of JNK and P38 MAPK pathways. This research could benefit the study of FXR functions in vertebrate evolution and the development of therapy or preventative methods for nutrition-related disorders.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4341
Author(s):  
Sarah Hakeem ◽  
Nuno Mendonça ◽  
Terry Aspray ◽  
Andrew Kingston ◽  
Carmen Martin-Ruiz ◽  
...  

(1) Introduction: vitamin D may maintain the telomere length, either directly or via the inflammation effect and/or modulating the rate of cell proliferation. Whilst results from cross-sectional studies investigating the association between 25(OH)D concentration and telomere length have been mixed, there is a dearth of data from prospective studies which have assessed these associations. This study aimed to examine the association between 25(OH)D concentration in plasma and telomere length in blood cells in very-old adults (≥85 years old) at baseline, 18 months and 36 months by controlling for related lifestyle factors. (2) Methodology: our prospective cohort study comprised 775 participants from the Newcastle 85+ Study who had 25(OH)D measurements at baseline. Plasma 25(OH)D was stratified as <25 nmol/L (low), 25–50 nmol/L (moderate) and >50 nmol/L (high). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline, 18 and 36 months from baseline. (3) Results: a positive significant association was found between 25(OH)D concentration and telomere length amongst very-old participants at baseline (95% CI = 12.0–110.3, B = 61.2 ± 5.0, p = 0.015). This association was negative at 18 months (95% CI = −59.9–−7.5, B = −33.7 ± 13.3, p = 0.012) but was non-significant at 36 months. (4) Conclusion: Circulating 25(OH)D concentration shows inconsistent relationships with telomere length over time in very-old (85+ year old) adults.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4329
Author(s):  
Alexandra Povaliaeva ◽  
Viktor Bogdanov ◽  
Ekaterina Pigarova ◽  
Artem Zhukov ◽  
Larisa Dzeranova ◽  
...  

In this study we aimed to assess vitamin D metabolism in patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) compared to healthy individuals in the setting of bolus cholecalciferol treatment. The study group included 30 adults with active CD and the control group included 30 apparently healthy adults with similar age, sex and BMI. All participants received a single dose (150,000 IU) of cholecalciferol aqueous solution orally. Laboratory assessments including serum vitamin D metabolites (25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, 1,25(OH)2D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3), free 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as serum and urine biochemical parameters were performed before the intake and on Days 1, 3 and 7 after the administration. All data were analyzed with non-parametric statistics. Patients with CD had similar to healthy controls 25(OH)D3 levels (p > 0.05) and higher 25(OH)D3/24,25(OH)2D3 ratios (p < 0.05) throughout the study. They also had lower baseline free 25(OH)D levels (p < 0.05) despite similar DBP levels (p > 0.05) and lower albumin levels (p < 0.05); 24-h urinary free cortisol showed significant correlation with baseline 25(OH)D3/24,25(OH)2D3 ratio (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). The increase in 25(OH)D3 after cholecalciferol intake was similar in obese and non-obese states and lacked correlation with BMI (p > 0.05) among patients with CD, as opposed to the control group. Overall, patients with CD have a consistently lower 25(OH)D3/24,25(OH)2D3 ratio, which is indicative of a decrease in 24-hydroxylase activity. This altered activity of the principal vitamin D catabolism might influence the effectiveness of cholecalciferol treatment. The observed difference in baseline free 25(OH)D levels is not entirely clear and requires further study.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4330
Author(s):  
Samantha Maurotti ◽  
Rosario Mare ◽  
Roberta Pujia ◽  
Yvelise Ferro ◽  
Elisa Mazza ◽  
...  

Osteoarthritis is a type of degenerative joint disease that results from the breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. Due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory action, the phytochemical constituents of many vegetable varieties could represent a new frontier for the treatment of patients with Osteoarthritis and are still being explored. The aim of this pilot human study was to investigate the effects of pasta enriched with hemp seed flour on osteoarticular pain and bone formation markers in patients in post-arthroplasty rehabilitation. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of hemp seed extract on bone metabolism, in vitro. A pilot, controlled, clinical study was conducted to verify the feasibility of pain symptom reduction in patients with Osteoarthritis undergoing arthroplasty surgery. We also investigated the effect of hemp seed extract on the Wnt/β-catenin and ERK1/2 pathways, alkaline phosphatase, RANKL, RUNX-2, osteocalcin, and COL1A on Saos-2. After 6 weeks, the consumption of hemp seed pasta led to greater pain relief compared to the regular pasta control group (−2.9 ± 1.3 cm vs. −1.3 ± 1.3 cm; p = 0.02). A significant reduction in serum BALP was observed in the participants consuming the hemp seed pasta compared to control group (−2.8 ± 3.2 µg/L vs. 1.1 ± 4.3 µg/L; p = 0.04). In the Saos-2 cell line, hemp seed extract also upregulated Wnt/β-catenin and Erk1/2 pathways (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03) and osteoblast differentiation markers (e.g., ALP, OC, RUNX2, and COL1A) and downregulated RANKL (p = 0.02), compared to the control. Our study demonstrated that hemp seed can improve pain symptoms in patients with osteoarthritis undergoing arthroplasty surgery and also improves bone metabolism both in humans and in vitro. However, more clinical studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4336
Author(s):  
Katherine E. Chetta ◽  
Joseph L. Alcorn ◽  
John E. Baatz ◽  
Carol L. Wagner

Frozen storage is necessary to preserve expressed human milk for critically ill and very preterm infants. Milk pasteurization is essential for donor milk given to this special population. Due to these storage and processing conditions, subtle changes occur in milk nutrients. These changes may have clinical implications. Potentially, bioactive complexes of unknown significance could be found in human milk given to preterm infants. One such complex, a cytotoxic α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex named “HAMLET,” (Human Alpha-Lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) is a folding variant of alpha-lactalbumin that is bound to oleic acid. This complex, isolated from human milk casein, has specific toxicity to both carcinogenic cell lines and immature non-transformed cells. Both HAMLET and free oleic acid trigger similar apoptotic mechanisms in tissue and stimulate inflammation via the NF-κB and MAPK p38 signaling pathways. This protein-lipid complex could potentially trigger various inflammatory pathways with unknown consequences, especially in immature intestinal tissues. The very preterm population is dependent on human milk as a medicinal and broadly bioactive nutriment. Therefore, HAMLET’s possible presence and bioactive role in milk should be addressed in neonatal research. Through a pediatric lens, HAMLET’s discovery, formation and bioactive benefits will be reviewed.


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