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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eric Schoger ◽  
Sara Lelek ◽  
Daniela Panáková ◽  
Laura Cecilia Zelarayán

Molecular and genetic differences between individual cells within tissues underlie cellular heterogeneities defining organ physiology and function in homeostasis as well as in disease states. Transcriptional control of endogenous gene expression has been intensively studied for decades. Thanks to a fast-developing field of single cell genomics, we are facing an unprecedented leap in information available pertaining organ biology offering a comprehensive overview. The single-cell technologies that arose aided in resolving the precise cellular composition of many organ systems in the past years. Importantly, when applied to diseased tissues, the novel approaches have been immensely improving our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of common human diseases. With this information, precise prediction of regulatory elements controlling gene expression upon perturbations in a given cell type or a specific context will be realistic. Simultaneously, the technological advances in CRISPR-mediated regulation of gene transcription as well as their application in the context of epigenome modulation, have opened up novel avenues for targeted therapy and personalized medicine. Here, we discuss the fast-paced advancements during the recent years and the applications thereof in the context of cardiac biology and common cardiac disease. The combination of single cell technologies and the deep knowledge of fundamental biology of the diseased heart together with the CRISPR-mediated modulation of gene regulatory networks will be instrumental in tailoring the right strategies for personalized and precision medicine in the near future. In this review, we provide a brief overview of how single cell transcriptomics has advanced our knowledge and paved the way for emerging CRISPR/Cas9-technologies in clinical applications in cardiac biomedicine.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christian Metallo ◽  
Michal Handzlik ◽  
Jivani Gengatharan ◽  
Katie Frizzi ◽  
Grace McGregor ◽  
...  

Abstract Type 2 diabetes represents a disease spectrum in which chronic metabolic dysfunction damages multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, and peripheral nerves1,2. While onset and progression of these co-morbidities are linked with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia3-7, aberrant amino acid metabolism also contributes to pathogenesis of diabetes and potentially its complications8-10. Serine and glycine are closely related non-essential amino acids11,12 that are consistently reduced in patients with metabolic syndrome10,13-16, but the mechanistic drivers of serine deficiency and the downstream metabolic and phenotypic consequences remain unclear. Low systemic serine, a serine-opathy, is also emerging as a hallmark of macular and peripheral nerve disorders. Specifically, serine deficiency correlates positively with impaired visual acuity and peripheral neuropathy (PN)17-19. Here we demonstrate that aberrant serine homeostasis in the liver drives serine and glycine deficiencies in genetically obese and hyperglycaemic mice. This serine-opathy can be diagnosed with a serine tolerance test that quantifies systemic serine disposal. Mimicking these metabolic alterations via dietary serine/glycine restriction together with high fat intake dramatically accelerates thermal hypoalgesia in mice and reduces epidermal sensory nerve density, which are accompanied by extensive sciatic nerve lipid remodeling. These phenotypes were subsequently normalized by myriocin, linking serine-associated PN with sphingolipid biosynthesis. These findings identify systemic serine deficiency and dyslipidemia as novel risk factors for PN that may be exploited therapeutically.


2022 ◽  
pp. 544-546
Author(s):  
Abhishek Sharma ◽  
Gulnaz Bano ◽  
Abdul Malik

Drug-induced vasculitis can be defined as inflammation of blood vessels triggered by a spectrum of drugs. It presents not only with a localized skin rash but also may involve the internal organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system, and joints. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed purpuric pruritic rashes on bilateral lower limbs and buttocks after the ingestion of sulphasalazine. The patient took the prescribed regimen for 14 days while experiencing an adverse drug reaction. At the follow-up visit, the patient was admitted and treated with methylprednisolone monotherapy with 32 mg/day for the first 3 days and after that, methylprednisolone 16 mg for the next 3 days. The rashes resolved after 6 days. Clinicians should ascertain the patient knowledge of how and when to obtain urgent care as the patient may experience ill effects after taking prescribed treatment. Timely advice may save patients’ costs of admission and treatment to manage adverse events.


Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Author(s):  
Tino Vollmer ◽  
Bernd Stegmayr

The syndrome of uremic toxicity comprises a complex toxic milieu in-vivo, as numerous uremic substances accumulate and harm the organ systems. Among these substances, toxic and non-toxic players differently interfere with human cells. However, results from animal experiments are not always compatible with the expected reactions in human patients and studies on one organ system are limited in capturing the complexity of the uremic situation. In this narrative review, we present aspects relevant for cellular toxicity research based on our previous establishment of a human spermatozoa-based cell model, as follows: (i) applicability to compare the effects of more than 100 uremic substances, (ii) detection of the protective effects of uremic substances by the cellular responses towards the uremic milieu, (iii) inclusion of the drug milieu for cellular function, and (iv) transferability for clinical application, e.g., hemodialysis. Our technique allows the estimation of cell viability, vitality, and physiological state, not only restricted to acute or chronic kidney toxicity but also for other conditions, such as intoxications of unknown substances. The cellular models can clarify molecular mechanisms of action of toxins related to human physiology and therapy. Identification of uremic toxins retained during acute and chronic kidney injury enables further research on the removal or degradation of such products.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fadel Fikri Suharto ◽  
RM Dewi Anggraini ◽  
Ardianto Tamin ◽  
Della Fitricana ◽  
Nova Kurniati ◽  
...  

Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against cell nuclei and involves many organ systems in the body. The etiopathology of SLE is thought to involve complex and multifactorial interactions between genetic variation and environmental factors. Hyperthyroidism is a disease due to increased thyroid hormone function followed by signs and symptoms that affect the body's metabolic system. Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antibodies to TSHR (TRAb). Several coexisting autoimmune diseases have been classified under different syndromes. Case Presentation: A woman, 29 years-old, came to office with complaint of chest palpitation. Patient had history of fever, joint pain, hair loss, and malar rash. Patient had been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism for 4 years and regularly taking propylthiouracil 100 mg and propranolol 10 mg. Titer ANA Test 1/100, Anti ds-DNA 68.08, C3-Complement 93 (N: 83-193), C4-Complement 11.2 (N: 15-57), Free T3 7.79 (N: 1.71-3.71), Free -T4 2.50 (N: 0.70-1.48), TSHs 0.0001 (N: 0.350-4.94), TRAb 3.38 (N: < 1.75). Patient was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and graves’ disease. Patient treated with methimazole 10 mg, propranolol 10 mg, myfortic 360 mg, and methylprednisolone 4 mg. Conclusion: Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) was at first characterized as different endocrine organ diseases related to an immune system disease in a subject. Hence, affiliation between illnesses in APS was noted not to be irregular but in specific combinations in which a few non-endocrine immune system diseases were moreover portion of the disorders.


Author(s):  
Leif Stenke ◽  
Christel Hedman ◽  
Marita Lagergren Lindberg ◽  
Karin Lindberg ◽  
Jack Valentin

Abstract The major immediate and severe medical consequences in man following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation can be summarized within the concept of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). In a dose-dependent fashion, a multitude of organ systems can be affected by such irradiation, presenting considerable medical challenges to treating physicians. Accidents or malevolent events leading to ARS can provoke devastating effects, but they occur at a low frequency and in a highly varying manner and magnitude. Thus, it is difficult to make precise medical predictions and planning, or to draw conclusive evidence from occurred events. Therefore, knowledge from on-going continuous developments within related medical areas needs to be acknowledged and incorporated into the ARS setting, enabling the creation of evidence-based guidelines. In 2011 the WHO published a first global consensus on the medical management of ARS among patients subjected to nontherapeutic radiation. During the recent decade the understanding of and capability to counteract organ damage related to radiation and other agents have improved considerably. Furthermore, legal and logistic hurdles in the process of formally approving appropriate medical countermeasures have been reduced. We believe the time is now ripe for developing an update of internationally consented medical guidelines on ARS.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward A. Bittner ◽  
Shiliang Alice Cao

Laparoscopic surgery results in physiologic changes that encompass multiple organ systems, with respiratory, cardiovascular and neurologic and splanchnic effects. Insufflation of the peritoneum results in reduced lung volumes, atelectasis, and endobronchial migration of the endotracheal tube. Pneumoperitoneum can result in changes to venous return, cardiac output and blood pressure. Hypercapnia due to carbon dioxide gas used in insufflation can reduce cerebral perfusion pressure. Complications during laparoscopic surgery often occur during port placement and creation of the pneumoperitoneum. Problems include injury to blood vessels during trocar entry, vascular injury in the pneumoperitoneum with limited surgical access, severe bradycardia and arrhythmias due to vagal stimulation from peritoneal stretching, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, gas embolism, and complications associated with steep Trendelenburg positioning. A thorough understanding of the physiologic changes associated with laparoscopic procedures and recognition of potential complications will facilitate in optimal patient care.  This review contains 4 figures, 1 table and 52 references Keywords: Laparoscopy; laparoscopic surgery; carbon dioxide; pneumoperitoneum; capnothorax; general anesthesia; subcutaneous emphysema; insufflation 


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maitreyi Pillalamarri ◽  
Ravikanth Manyam ◽  
Swetha Pasupuleti ◽  
Smita Birajdar ◽  
Satya Tejaswi Akula

Abstract Background For various legal and forensic scenarios, establishing an individual’s age, both living and dead, plays a crucial role. Various morphological, radiographic, and molecular methods can be used for age estimation. In children and adolescents, age estimation is based on the established developmental stages. However, in adults, where the development ceases into maturation, the degenerative changes play a role in determining the age. Main body of the abstract In the natural aging process, several molecular changes occur most commonly in the long-living proteins and hard tissues like the teeth and bone. These molecular changes gradually lead to alterations in several organs and organ systems, which can be quantified and correlated with age, including aspartic acid racemization, collagen crosslinks, advanced glycation-end products, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. Short conclusion Among the above methods, the racemization of aspartic acid can be considered as the most precise method. The main advantage of using aspartic acid racemization is that the sample can be collected from tissues (teeth) protected from various environmental and nutritional factors. If all the confounding factors are stable, the utilization of advanced glycation-end products can also be considered valuable. Environmental factors like lead accumulations may also help determine the age. However, further studies need to be conducted, focusing on providing a more standardized method. This review provides a concise summary of the biochemical techniques that can be used for estimation of age.


Author(s):  
Ulrike Friebe-Hoffmann ◽  
Larissa Dobravsky ◽  
Thomas W. P. Friedl ◽  
Wolfgang Janni ◽  
Alexander J. Knippel ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose A short fetal femur in prenatal diagnosis might be an indicator for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a genetically determined small child (SGA) with or without associated fetal malformations and/or an adverse fetal outcome. Methods 1373 singleton pregnancies with a femoral length < 5th percentile detected between 1999 and 2015 during second-trimester screening in a tertiary prenatal diagnostic center were subjected to a descriptive retrospective analysis with regard to fetal characteristics as well as pregnancy outcome. Results 685 (49.9%) fetuses presented an isolated short femur, while 688 (50.1%) showed additional abnormalities. 293 (42.6%) of those were SGA babies without any malformation, while 395 (57.4%) had one or more severe anomaly of the following organ systems: 157 (11.5%) cardiovascular, 101 (7.4%) musculoskeletal, 82 (6.0%) urogenital, 72 (5.2%) cerebrocephalic, 50 (3.6%) gastrointestinal, and 5 (0.4%) thoracic. 75 (5.5%) of the fetuses showed chromosomal aberrations of which Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 were found in 2, 13 and 27 of the cases, respectively. Fetuses with associated malformations had a significantly lower live birth rate than those without (64.2% vs. 98.1%, p < 0.001); in addition, a higher rate of preterm births 36.6% vs. 11.3%, p < 0.001) and SGA babies (51.4% vs. 30.4%, p < 0.001) were observed in the first collective. Conclusion Diagnosis of a short fetal femur should lead to an extended organ screening; in the case of associated abnormalities, additional genetic testing has to be offered, as well as intensified pregnancy monitoring in pregnancies at risk for IUGR and/or preterm birth.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Roman Schefzik ◽  
Leonie Boland ◽  
Bianka Hahn ◽  
Thomas Kirschning ◽  
Holger A. Lindner ◽  
...  

Statistical network analyses have become popular in many scientific disciplines, where an important task is to test for differences between two networks. We describe an overall framework for differential network testing procedures that vary regarding (1) the network estimation method, typically based on specific concepts of association, and (2) the network characteristic employed to measure the difference. Using permutation-based tests, our approach is general and applicable to various overall, node-specific or edge-specific network difference characteristics. The methods are implemented in our freely available R software package DNT, along with an R Shiny application. In a study in intensive care medicine, we compare networks based on parameters representing main organ systems to evaluate the prognosis of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), using data from the surgical ICU of the University Medical Centre Mannheim, Germany. We specifically consider both cross-sectional comparisons between a non-survivor and a survivor group and longitudinal comparisons at two clinically relevant time points during the ICU stay: first, at admission, and second, at an event stage prior to death in non-survivors or a matching time point in survivors. The non-survivor and the survivor networks do not significantly differ at the admission stage. However, the organ system interactions of the survivors then stabilize at the event stage, revealing significantly more network edges, whereas those of the non-survivors do not. In particular, the liver appears to play a central role for the observed increased connectivity in the survivor network at the event stage.


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