dependent protein
Recently Published Documents





Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 188
Gardette R. Valmonte-Cortes ◽  
Sonia T. Lilly ◽  
Michael N. Pearson ◽  
Colleen M. Higgins ◽  
Robin M. MacDiarmid

To our knowledge, there are no reports that demonstrate the use of host molecular markers for the purpose of detecting generic plant virus infection. Two approaches involving molecular indicators of virus infection in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were examined: the accumulation of small RNAs (sRNAs) using a microfluidics-based method (Bioanalyzer); and the transcript accumulation of virus-response related host plant genes, suppressor of gene silencing 3 (AtSGS3) and calcium-dependent protein kinase 3 (AtCPK3) by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The microfluidics approach using sRNA chips has previously demonstrated good linearity and good reproducibility, both within and between chips. Good limits of detection have been demonstrated from two-fold 10-point serial dilution regression to 0.1 ng of RNA. The ratio of small RNA (sRNA) to ribosomal RNA (rRNA), as a proportion of averaged mock-inoculation, correlated with known virus infection to a high degree of certainty. AtSGS3 transcript decreased between 14- and 28-days post inoculation (dpi) for all viruses investigated, while AtCPK3 transcript increased between 14 and 28 dpi for all viruses. A combination of these two molecular approaches may be useful for assessment of virus-infection of samples without the need for diagnosis of specific virus infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kun Liu ◽  
Qiannan Liu ◽  
Yanli Sun ◽  
Jinwei Fan ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  

Aberration in the control of cell cycle contributes to the development and progression of many diseases including cancers. Ksg1 is a Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast homolog of mammalian phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) which is regarded as a signaling hub for human tumorigenesis. A previous study reported that Ksg1 plays an important role in cell cycle progression, however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Our genomic library screen for novel elements involved in Ksg1 function identified two serine/threonine kinases, namely SAD family kinase Cdr2 and another PDK1 homolog Ppk21, as multicopy suppressors of the thermosensitive phenotype of ksg1-208 mutant. We found that overexpression of Ppk21 or Cdr2 recovered the defective cell cycle transition of ksg1-208 mutant. In addition, ksg1-208 Δppk21 cells showed more marked defects in cell cycle transition than each single mutant. Moreover, overexpression of Ppk21 failed to recover the thermosensitive phenotype of the ksg1-208 mutant when Cdr2 was lacking. Notably, the ksg1-208 mutation resulted in abnormal subcellular localization and decreased abundance of Cdr2, and Ppk21 deletion exacerbated the decreased abundance of Cdr2 in the ksg1-208 mutant. Intriguingly, expression of a mitotic inducer Cdc25 was significantly decreased in ksg1-208, Δppk21, or Δcdr2 cells, and overexpression of Ppk21 or Cdr2 partially recovered the decreased protein level of Cdc25 in the ksg1-208 mutant. Altogether, our findings indicated that Cdr2 is a novel downstream effector of PDK1 homologs Ksg1 and Ppk21, both of which cooperatively participate in regulating cell cycle progression, and Cdc25 is involved in this process in fission yeast.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Grazia Maugeri ◽  
Agata Grazia D’Amico ◽  
Salvatore Giunta ◽  
Cesarina Giallongo ◽  
Daniele Tibullo ◽  

The corneal epithelium, the outermost layer of the cornea, acts as a dynamic barrier preventing access to harmful agents into the intraocular space. It is subjected daily to different insults, and ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation represents one of the main causes of injury. In our previous study, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) against UV-B radiation damage in the human corneal endothelium. Some of its effects are mediated through the activation of the intracellular factor, known as the activity-dependent protein (ADNP). In the present paper, we have investigated the role of ADNP and the small peptide derived from ADNP, known as NAP, in the corneal epithelium. Here, we have demonstrated, for the first time, ADNP expression in human and rabbit corneal epithelium as well as its protective effect by treating the corneal epithelial cells exposed to UV-B radiations with NAP. Our results showed that NAP treatment prevents ROS formation by reducing UV-B-irradiation-induced apoptotic cell death and JNK signalling pathway activation. Further investigations are needed to deeply investigate the possible therapeutic use of NAP to counteract corneal UV-B damage.

2022 ◽  
Sumantra Sarkar ◽  
Debanjan Goswami

Protein nanoclusters (PNCs) are dynamic collections of a few proteins that spatially organize in nanometer length clusters. PNCs are one of the principal forms of spatial organization of membrane proteins and they have been shown or hypothesized to be important in various cellular processes, including cell signaling. PNCs show remarkable diversity in size, shape, and lifetime. In particular, the lifetime of PNCs can vary over a wide range of timescales. The diversity in size and shape can be explained by the interaction of the clustering proteins with the actin cytoskeleton or the lipid membrane, but very little is known about the processes that determine the lifetime of the nanoclusters. In this paper, using mathematical modelling of the cluster dynamics, we model the biophysical processes that determine the lifetime of actin-dependent PNCs. In particular, we investigated the role of actin aster fragmentation, which had been suggested to be a key determinant of the PNC lifetime, and found that it is important only for a small class of PNCs. A simple extension of our model allowed us to investigate the kinetics of protein-ligand interaction near PNCs. We found an anomalous increase in the lifetime of ligands near PNCs, which agrees remarkably well with experimental data on RAS-RAF kinetics. In particular, analysis of the RAS-RAF data through our model provides falsifiable predictions and novel hypotheses that will not only shed light on the role of RAS-RAF kinetics in various cancers, but also will be useful in studying membrane protein clustering in general.

Nature ◽  
2022 ◽  
Shikang Liang ◽  
Sherine E. Thomas ◽  
Amanda K. Chaplin ◽  
Steven W. Hardwick ◽  
Dimitri Y. Chirgadze ◽  

AbstractThe DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) has a central role in non-homologous end joining, one of the two main pathways that detect and repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in humans1,2. DNA-PKcs is of great importance in repairing pathological DSBs, making DNA-PKcs inhibitors attractive therapeutic agents for cancer in combination with DSB-inducing radiotherapy and chemotherapy3. Many of the selective inhibitors of DNA-PKcs that have been developed exhibit potential as treatment for various cancers4. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of human DNA-PKcs natively purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts, in complex with adenosine-5′-(γ-thio)-triphosphate (ATPγS) and four inhibitors (wortmannin, NU7441, AZD7648 and M3814), including drug candidates undergoing clinical trials. The structures reveal molecular details of ATP binding at the active site before catalysis and provide insights into the modes of action and specificities of the competitive inhibitors. Of note, binding of the ligands causes movement of the PIKK regulatory domain (PRD), revealing a connection between the p-loop and PRD conformations. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and cryo-EM studies on the DNA-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme further show that ligand binding does not have a negative allosteric or inhibitory effect on assembly of the holoenzyme complex and that inhibitors function through direct competition with ATP. Overall, the structures described in this study should greatly assist future efforts in rational drug design targeting DNA-PKcs, demonstrating the potential of cryo-EM in structure-guided drug development for large and challenging targets.

2022 ◽  
Marius Walter ◽  
Irene P Chen ◽  
Albert Vallejo-Gracia ◽  
Ik-Jung Kim ◽  
Olga Bielska ◽  

SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein Nsp14 is a highly conserved enzyme necessary for viral replication. Nsp14 forms a stable complex with non-structural protein Nsp10 and exhibits exoribonuclease and N7-methyltransferase activities. Protein-interactome studies identified human sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) as a putative binding partner of Nsp14. SIRT5 is an NAD-dependent protein deacylase critical for cellular metabolism that removes succinyl and malonyl groups from lysine residues. Here we investigated the nature of this interaction and the role of SIRT5 during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We showed that SIRT5 stably interacts with Nsp14, but not with Nsp10, suggesting that SIRT5 and Nsp10 are parts of separate complexes. We found that SIRT5 catalytic domain is necessary for the interaction with Nsp14, but that Nsp14 does not appear to be directly deacylated by SIRT5. Furthermore, knock-out of SIRT5 or treatment with specific SIRT5 inhibitors reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral levels in cell-culture experiments. SIRT5 knock-out cells expressed higher basal levels of innate immunity markers and mounted a stronger antiviral response. Our results indicate that SIRT5 is a proviral factor necessary for efficient viral replication, which opens novel avenues for therapeutic interventions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Huanhuan Zhao ◽  
Dan Liu ◽  
Qiumei Yan ◽  
Xiyun Bian ◽  
Jing Yu ◽  

Zinc homeostasis has been known to play a role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the precise molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of ZIP transporters during reperfusion are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER Stress/CaMKII/STAT3 pathway plays a role in the regulation of cellular zinc homeostasis. Zinc deficiency increased mRNA and protein expressions of the ER stress relevant markers Chop and Bip, and STAT3 phosphorylation in H9c2 or HL-1 cells, an effect that was abolished by ZnCl2. ER calcium concentration [(Ca2+)ER] was decreased and cytosolic calcium concentration [(Ca2+)I] was increased at the condition of normoxia or ischemia/reperfusion, indicating that zinc deficiency triggers ER stress and Ca2+ leak. Further studies showed that upregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation was reversed by Ca2+ chelator, indicating that intracellular Ca2+ is important for zinc deficiency-induced STAT3 activation. In support, zinc deficiency enhanced ryanodine receptors (RyR), a channel in the ER that mediate Ca2+ release, and Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) phosphorylation, implying that zinc deficiency provoked Ca2+ leak from ER via RyR and p-CaMKII is involved in STAT3 activation. Moreover, inhibition of STAT3 activation blocked zinc deficiency induced ZIP9 expression, and resulted in increased Zn2+ loss in cardiomyocytes, further confirming that STAT3 activation during reperfusion promotes the expression of ZIP9 zinc transporter to correct the imbalance in zinc homeostasis. In addition, suppressed STAT3 activation aggravated reperfusion injury. These data suggest that the ER Stress/CaMKII/STAT3 axis may be an endogenous protective mechanism, which increases the resistance of the heart to I/R.

Chongyang Zhang ◽  
Amy Mohan ◽  
Hangchuan Shi ◽  
Chen Yan

Background cGMP‐hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction by antagonizing cGMP‐dependent protein kinase I (PKGI)–dependent SMC relaxation. SMC contractile dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm. PDE5 inhibitors have been used for treating erectile dysfunction, such as drug Viagra (sildenafil). However, a few clinical cases have reported the association of Viagra usage with aortic dissection, and reduced PDE5A expression was found in human aortic aneurysm tissues. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of sildenafil on experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), the most common form of aortic aneurysm in elderly men. Methods and Results AAA was induced in C57BL/6J male mice by periaortic elastase in combination with blocking elastin/collagen formation via 3‐aminopropionitrile fumarate salt for 35 days. PDE5A protein levels detected by immunostaining were significantly reduced in mouse AAA. Sildenafil application in drinking water significantly aggravated aortic wall dilation and elastin degradation with pre‐existing moderate AAA. The phosphorylation level of myosin light chain 2 at Ser19, a biochemical marker of SMC contraction, was significantly reduced by sildenafil in AAA. Proximity ligation assay further revealed that the interaction between cGMP and PKGI was significantly increased by sildenafil in AAA, suggesting an elevation of PKGI activation in AAA. Conclusions Sildenafil treatment aggravated the degradation of elastin fibers and progression of experimental AAA by dysregulating cGMP and contractile signaling in SMCs. Our findings may raise the caution of clinical usage of Viagra in aneurysmal patients.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Hossein Ahmadi ◽  
Alireza Abbasi ◽  
Alireza Taleei ◽  
Valiollah Mohammadi ◽  
José J. Pueyo

Canola is an important temperate oil crop that can be severely affected by drought. Understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in canola tolerance to water deficit is essential to obtain drought-tolerant productive cultivars. To investigate the role of antioxidant response and the possible involvement of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in canola tolerance to drought, we analyzed four genotypes with different sensitivity to water stress. Leaf relative water content, canopy temperature, PSII efficiency, electrolyte leakage index and lipid peroxidation were used as indicators to classify the cultivars as drought-tolerant or drought-sensitive. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase displayed significantly higher activities in drought-tolerant than in drought-sensitive cultivars subjected to water deficit, suggesting that the efficiency of the antioxidant response is essential in canola drought tolerance. The increased expression of genes BnaCDPK6 and BnaCDPK14 under drought conditions, their differential expression in drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive genotypes, and the presence of multiple cis-acting stress-related elements in their promoter regions suggest that CDPKs are part of the signaling pathways that regulate drought response in canola. We propose the BnaCDPK genes and their regulator elements as potential molecular targets to obtain drought-tolerant productive canola cultivars through breeding or genetic transformation.

2022 ◽  
K. Ulrich Bayer ◽  
Sarah G Cook ◽  
Nicole L Rumian

The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) mediates both long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD) of excitatory synapses, two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity induced by strong versus weak stimulation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). NMDAR-dependent LTD is prevalent in juvenile hippocampus, but in mature hippocampus, LTD is still readily induced by stimulating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Here we show that mGluR-dependent LTD also requires CaMKII and its T286 autophosphorylation that induces Ca2+-independent autonomous kinase activity. This autophosphorylation (i) accelerated CaMKII movement to excitatory synapses after LTP stimuli and (ii) was required for the movement to inhibitory synapses after NMDAR-LTD stimuli. Similar to NMDAR-LTD, the mGluR-LTD stimuli did not induce any CaMKII movement to excitatory synapses. However, in contrast to NMDAR-LTD, the mGluR-LTD did not involve CaMKII movement to inhibitory synapses and did not require additional T305/306 autophosphorylation. Taken together, even though CaMKII T286 autophosphorylation has a longstanding prominent role in LTP, it is also required for both major forms of LTD in hippocampal neurons, albeit with differential requirements for the heterosynaptic communication of excitatory signals to inhibitory synapses.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document