Lipid Peroxidation
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Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 571
Aleksandra Rynkowska ◽  
Jan Stępniak ◽  
Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska

Iron excess in tissues results in increased oxidative damage. Among different tissues, the skin can particularly be severely damaged by oxidative stress, as it is exposed not only to endogenous but also directly to exogenous pro-oxidants. The skin is especially vulnerable to harmful oxidative stress. Melatonin and indole-3-propionic acid (IPA), two indole substances, are efficient antioxidants. This study aims to evaluate the potential protective effects of melatonin and IPA against oxidative damage to membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation (LPO)), induced in porcine skin homogenates by the Fenton reaction (Fe2+ + H2O2 → Fe3+ + •OH + OH−) when iron is used in extremely high concentrations. Skin homogenates were incubated in the presence of FeSO4 (2400, 1200, 600, 300, 150 and 75 µM) + H2O2 (5 mM) with/without melatonin or IPA. LPO level (MDA + 4-HDA/mg protein) was measured spectrophotometrically. Melatonin, in its highest used concentration (5.0 mM), prevented FeSO4 (1200 mM)-induced LPO, whereas it was effective in concentrations as low as 2.5 mM against all lower iron concentrations. IPA was protective in concentrations as low as 2.5 mM independently of FeSO4 concentration. In conclusion, melatonin and IPA effectively protect against oxidative damage to membrane lipids induced by high concentrations of iron in porcine skin; therefore, both can be considered pharmacological agents in the case of disorders associated with excessive iron accumulation in the skin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
Mervat Sh. Sadak ◽  
Iman M. Talaat

Abstract Background Chitosan and Ca+ are natural signal molecules that can be used in agriculture as biostimulants and elicitors. They enhance different physiological responses and mitigate the negative effects of salinity. So, this investigation was done to study the effect of soaking wheat grains in chitosan and CaCO3 (20 and 40 mg/L) on alleviating the adverse effect of salinity stress (0.0 and 5000 mg/L) on growth, some biochemical and physiological and yields of wheat plant. Results Shoot length (cm), leaves no/tiller, shoot dry weight (g), root fresh weight (g) and root dry weight (g) were significantly decreased as a result of salt stress. Soaking wheat grains in Chitosan or CaCO3 significantly promoted plant growth under normal and stressed conditions. Irrigation of wheat plants with saline water significantly decreased photosynthetic pigments (Chlo-a, Chlo-b, carotenoids and total pigments) in addition to Chlo-a/Chlo-b ratio, indole acetic acid content in the plant leaves. Meanwhile, saline water significantly increased phenolics, total soluble sugars (TSS) and proline content. H2O2 and lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content clearly showed significant increases under salinity stress compared with untreated control. Soaking wheat grains in chitosan or CaCO3 before sawing significantly increased the accumulation of H2O2 and MDA in the leaves of wheat plants. Treatment of wheat grains with chitosan or CaCO3 significantly promoted the activity of various antioxidant enzymes (SOD and POX) as compared to the control. CAT activity was significantly decreased as a result of chitosan or CaCO3 treatments. The highest CAT activity was recorded in plants irrigated with 5000 mg/L saline water followed by control plants which recoded 36.40 and 24.82 U/min/g FW, respectively. On the other hand, irrigation of wheat plants with 5000 mg/L saline water significantly decreased spike length (cm), spikelets no/spike, grains wt/plant (g), 1000-grains wt (g), yield and biomass/plant (g) as well as, carbohydrate % and protein % compared with the control. However, treating wheat plants either with Chitosan or calcium carbonate resulted in obvious significant increases in carbohydrates and protein contents, especially in plants treated with 40 mg/L chitosan followed by 40 mg/L calcium carbonate. Soaking wheat grains in chitosan, especially at 40 mg/L, exhibited the strongest scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay (DPPH%) followed by treatment with 40 mg/L CaCO3. Conclusion In conclusion, the used treatment enhanced the protective parameters such as antioxidant enzymes, total phenols and free radical scavengers and consequently helped the plants to decrease lipid peroxidation, increased their tolerance and improved yield and spike quality. Application of 40 mg/L chitosan recorded the highest increment in the scavenging ability of the natural antioxidants of the plant extract toward the stable free radical DPPH.

Tolulope Eniola Omolekulo ◽  
Isaiah Woru Sabinari ◽  
Emmanuel Damilare Areola ◽  
Folasade O Ajao ◽  
Olayinka Olawale Asafa ◽  

Free fatty acids deposition in non-adipose tissues such as the heart is a characteristic of insulin resistant states which features hyperinsulinemia and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activation. Estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (OC) treatment reportedly increased DPP-4 activity in rat tissue and DPP-4 inhibitors have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on cardiac free fatty acid (FFA) deposition in estrogen-progestin treated female rats.From our data, estrogen-progestin OC exposure in female rats led to elevated plasma insulin, cardiac DPP-4 activity, FFA and triglyceride (TG) accumulation, Triglyceride/high density lipoprotein (TG/HDL) ratio, adenosine deaminase/xanthine oxidase/uric acid pathway, lipid peroxidation, glycogen synthase activity and alanine phosphatase whereas cardiac glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Na/K-ATPase and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased. However, DPP-4 inhibition resulted in decreased plasma insulin, cardiac DPP-4 activity, FFA, TG and TG/HDL-C ratio and alkaline phosphatase. These were accompanied by reduced adenosine deaminase/xanthine oxidase/uric acid (ADA/XO/UA) pathway, lipid peroxidation and augmented NO and Na/K-ATPase in estrogen-progestin OC-treated rats.DPP-4 inhibition attenuated cardiac lipid deposition accompanied by reduced activity in the ADA/XO/UA pathway in estrogen-progestin OC-treated female rats. DPP-4 is therefore a plausible therapeutic target in cardiometabolic disorders

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1481
Aurora Ghirardelli ◽  
Michela Schiavon ◽  
Giuseppe Zanin ◽  
Piotr Ostapczuk ◽  
Roberta Masin

Weeds account for losses in crop yields, and this event might be exacerbated by salinity. Therefore, we investigated the responses of Chenopodium album L. and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to salt stress, as well as interferences between species. Ten-day old plants were grown for 1 week in a single- or mixed-species set-up, either with or without 100 mM of NaCl. C. album reduced the biomass of soybean similarly to salt stress, while its growth was unaffected under any condition. C. album decreased the crop protein content when salinity was applied. This effect was ascribed to altered protein metabolism and/or N usage to produce other N metabolites, including osmolytes. The two species did not reciprocally affect the capacity to accumulate Na+, but the weed contained two-fold more Na+ in the leaves. Elevated initial K+ concentration and high K+ delivery to the shoot likely explained the better acclimation of C. album to salinity. C. album produced more phenolics and proline and exhibited greater antioxidant activity, but low lipid peroxidation, in the mixed set-up under salinity. Thus, it is possible that the weed could become more resilient to salinity when growing in a soybean field. In the long term, this might cause significant losses in soybean productivity as expected by the dramatic decline in crop protein content.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1185
Nadia Gruber ◽  
Liliana Orelli ◽  
Cristina Minnelli ◽  
Luca Mangano ◽  
Emiliano Laudadio ◽  

The potential of nitrones (N-oxides) as therapeutic antioxidants is due to their ability to counteract oxidative stress, mainly attributed to their action as radical scavengers toward C- and O-centered radicals. Among them, nitrones from the amidinoquinoxaline series resulted in interesting derivatives, due to the ease with which it is possible to introduce proper substituents within their structure in order to modulate their lipophilicity. The goal is to obtain lipophilic antioxidants that are able to interact with cell membranes and, at the same time, enough hydrophilic to neutralize those radicals present in a water compartment. In this work, the antioxidant efficacy of a series of amidinoquinoxaline nitrones has been evaluated regarding the oxidation of 2-deoxyribose and lipid peroxidation. The results have been rationalized on the basis of the different possible mechanisms involved, depending on some of their properties, such as lipophilicity, the ability to scavenge free radicals, and to undergo single electron transfer (SET) reactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Yong Zuo ◽  
Jinhong Xie ◽  
Xincheng Li ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Anand Thirupathi ◽  

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive nervous system disorder. Until now, the molecular mechanism of its occurrence is not fully understood. Paraquat (PQ) was identified as a neurotoxicant and is linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology. Ferroptosis is recognized as a new form of regulated cell death. Here, we revealed a new underlying mechanism by which ferritinophagy-mediated ferroptosis is involved in PD induced by PQ. The effect of PQ on movement injury in mice was investigated by the bar fatigue and pole-climbing test. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were used to evaluate the mechanism of ferroptosis. Our results showed that PQ induced movement injury by causing the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in mice. In vitro, PQ significantly caused the iron accumulation in cytoplasm and mitochondria through ferritinophagy pathway induced by NCOA4. Iron overload initiated lipid peroxidation through 12Lox, further inducing ferroptosis by producing lipid ROS. PQ downregulated SLC7A11 and GPX4 expression and upregulated Cox2 expression significantly, which were important markers in ferroptosis. Fer-1, an inhibitor of ferroptosis, could significantly ameliorate the ferroptosis induced by PQ. Meanwhile, Bcl2, Bax, and p-38 were involved in apoptosis induced by PQ. In conclusion, ferritinophagy-mediated ferroptosis pathway played an important role in PD occurrence. Bcl2/Bax and P-p38/p38 pathways mediated the cross-talk between ferroptosis and apoptosis induced by PQ. These data further demonstrated the complexity of PD occurrence. The inhibition of the ferroptosis and apoptosis together may be a new strategy for the prevention of neurotoxicity or PD in the future.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (15) ◽  
pp. 4464
Nausheen Nazir ◽  
Muhammad Zahoor ◽  
Mohammad Nisar ◽  
Imran Khan ◽  
Riaz Ullah ◽  

The increase in resistance of microbes against conventional drugs is currently a hot issue, whereas diabetes is another main cause of mortalities encountered throughout the world after cancer and heart attacks. New drug sources in the form of plants are investigated to get effective drugs for the mentioned diseases with minimum side effects. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. is a medicinal plant used for the management of stress related disorders like diabetes and other health complications. The active constituents of the chloroform extract derived from E. umbellata berries was isolated by silica gel column chromatography which were identified as morin, phloroglucinol, and 1-hexyl benzene through various spectroscopic techniques (electron ionization mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy). The possible protective effects (antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic activity) of isolated compounds were evaluated using reported methods. Morin exhibited strong in vitro antiradical potential against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals along with prominent antibacterial activities against selected bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis). Among the isolated compounds the more potent one (morin) was assessed for its in vivo antidiabetic potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The in vivo effects observed were further confirmed in ex vivo experiments where the effect of isolated compound on antioxidant enzyme like glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total content of reduced glutathione (GSH), % DPPH inhibition, and the lipid peroxidation MDA (Malondialdehyde) level in pancreatic tissues homogenates were evaluated. In vivo morin at tested doses (2, 10, 15, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight) significantly restored the alterations in the levels of fasting blood glucose level and body weight loss along with significant decrease in levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c level, and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein in diabetic rats. Morin also effectively ameliorated the hepatic enzymes, and renal functions like serum creatinine. Morin significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme like GPx activity, GSH content, and % DPPH inhibition activity, while reduced the lipid peroxidation MDA (malondialdehyde) level in pancreatic tissues homogenates, and modification of histopathological changes in diabetic rats. Morin exhibited high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potentials as compared to phloroglucinol and 1-hexyl benzene, that could, therefore, be considered as a promising therapeutic agent to treat diabetes mellitus and bacterial infections.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8258
Seyda Cavusoglu ◽  
Suat Sensoy ◽  
Arzu Karatas ◽  
Onur Tekin ◽  
Firat Islek ◽  

Peppers are cultivated in almost all provinces in Turkey, making up approximately 7% of the world’s production. In this study, the effects of pre-harvest cytokinin application on the postharvest physiology of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits (cv. Akra and Melek F1) grown in ecological conditions in Turkey (Van, eastern Turkey) were investigated. During the growing period, organic cytokinin(nytrozine) at two concentrations (50 and 100 ppm doses) was applied by spraying. Peppers were harvested in green maturity and then stored at 12 °C for 28 days. Changes in color, respiration rate, exogenous ethylene amount, antioxidative enzyme analysis (SOD, CAT and APX), lipid peroxidation, total phenolic content (TP) and antioxidant activity (AA) were determined just after the harvest and then at the 7th, 14th, 24th and 28th days. L* values for both varieties and the control sample had fluctuations during storage, and they slightly decreased after 28 days, except for the end value of cv. Melek F1 with a 50 ppm addition. In terms of respiration rate values, the difference between applications was found to be statistically significant, except for the 14th and 24th days of storage, for cv. Akra F1; and the 0th and 28th days for cv. Melek F1, respectively. It was observed that cytokinin can delay aging in peppers of both cultivars stored for 28 days. As a result, as the used cytokinin has an organic origin, is not synthetic and does not have a negative effect on human health, it can be used safely and without a significant loss of quality characteristics for peppers. These applications have positive effects on in-package gas composition, antioxidative enzymes, lipid peroxidation, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Huilin Hu ◽  
Yunqing Chen ◽  
Lele Jing ◽  
Changlin Zhai ◽  
Liang Shen

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death, which is characterized by iron overload and lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis is distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and other types of cell death in morphology and function. Ferroptosis is regulated by a variety of factors and controlled by several mechanisms, including mitochondrial activity and metabolism of iron, lipid, and amino acids. Accumulating evidence shows that ferroptosis is closely related to a majority of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the current status of ferroptosis and discusses ferroptosis as a potential therapeutic target for CVDs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alex J. Murray ◽  
Jack C. Rogers ◽  
Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu ◽  
Peter F. Liddle ◽  
Rachel Upthegrove

Schizophrenia is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress, as reflected by an increase in the concentrations of damaging reactive species and a reduction in anti-oxidant defences to combat them. Evidence has suggested that whilst not the likely primary cause of schizophrenia, increased oxidative stress may contribute to declining course and poor outcomes associated with schizophrenia. Here we discuss how oxidative stress may be implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia and examine how current understanding relates associations with symptoms, potentially via lipid peroxidation induced neuronal damage. We argue that oxidative stress may be a good target for future pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia and suggest a multi-step model of illness progression with oxidative stress involved at each stage.

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