messenger rna
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2022 ◽  
Mladen Jergovic ◽  
Christopher P Coplen ◽  
Jennifer L Uhrlaub ◽  
Shawn C Beitel ◽  
Jefferey L Burgess ◽  

Emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 variant-of-concern (VOC) B.1.1.529 (Omicron) in late 2021 has raised alarm among scientific and health care communities due to a surprisingly large number of mutations in its spike protein. Public health surveillance indicates that the Omicron variant is significantly more contagious than the previously dominant VOC, B.1.617.2 (Delta). Several early reports demonstrated that Omicron exhibits a higher degree (~10-30-fold) of escape from antibody neutralization compared to earlier lineage variants. Therefore, it is critical to determine how well the second line of adaptive immunity, T cell memory, performs against Omicron in people following COVID-19 infection and/or vaccination. To that purpose, we analyzed a cohort (n=345 subjects) of two- or three- dose messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine recipients and COVID-19 post infection subjects (including those receiving 2 doses of mRNA vaccine after infection), recruited to the CDC-sponsored AZ HEROES research study, alongside 32 pre-pandemic control samples. We report that T cell responses against Omicron spike peptides were largely preserved in all cohorts with established immune memory. IFN-gamma producing T cell responses remained equivalent to the response against the ancestral strain (WA1/2020), with some (<20%) loss in IL-2 single- or IL-2+IFN-gamma+ poly-functional responses. Three-dose vaccinated participants had similar responses to Omicron relative to convalescent or convalescent plus two-dose vaccinated groups and exhibited responses significantly higher than those receiving two mRNA vaccine doses. These results provide further evidence that a three-dose vaccine regimen benefits the induction of optimal functional T cell immune memory.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 177-182
Munenori Kitagawa ◽  
Peipei Wu ◽  
Rachappa Balkunde ◽  
Patrick Cunniff ◽  
David Jackson

mRNA migration through plasmodesmata In plants, certain transcription factors are produced in one cell but transported, sometimes as messenger RNA (mRNA), through plasmodesmata, channels between neighboring plant cells, where they act. This system helps to manage stem cell development. Kitagawa et al . now identify part of the machinery that manages this cell-to-cell transport. Transport of the mRNA encoding the KNOTTED1 homeobox transcription factor depends on Ribosomal RNA-Processing Protein 44 (AtRRP44A), which is a subunit of the RNA exosome. —PJH

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2111409119
Chenfeng Wang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Xianning Wu ◽  
Jingxin Li ◽  
Kaiyue Liu ◽  

p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. Emerging evidence suggests long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) as an important class of regulatory molecules that control the p53 signaling. Here, we report that the oncogenic lncRNA E2F1 messenger RNA (mRNA) stabilizing factor (EMS) and p53 mutually repress each other’s expression. EMS is negatively regulated by p53. As a direct transcriptional repression target of p53, EMS is surprisingly shown to inhibit p53 expression. EMS associates with cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 2 (CPEB2) and thus, disrupts the CPEB2–p53 mRNA interaction. This disassociation attenuates CPEB2-mediated p53 mRNA polyadenylation and suppresses p53 translation. Functionally, EMS is able to exert its oncogenic activities, at least partially, via the CPEB2–p53 axis. Together, these findings reveal a double-negative feedback loop between p53 and EMS, through which p53 is finely controlled. Our study also demonstrates a critical role for EMS in promoting tumorigenesis via the negative regulation of p53.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 332
Yan Zhao ◽  
Hongling Peng

Epigenetics is identified as the study of heritable modifications in gene expression and regulation that do not involve DNA sequence alterations, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, etc. Importantly, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation modification is one of the most common epigenetic modifications of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), which plays a key role in various cellular processes. It can not only mediate various RNA metabolic processes such as RNA splicing, translation, and decay under the catalytic regulation of related enzymes but can also affect the normal development of bone marrow hematopoiesis by regulating the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in the hematopoietic microenvironment of bone marrow. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that m6A methylation modifications play an important role in the development and progression of hematologic malignancies (e.g., leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes [MDS], multiple myeloma [MM], etc.). Targeting the inhibition of m6A-associated factors can contribute to increased susceptibility of patients with hematologic malignancies to therapeutic agents. Therefore, this review elaborates on the biological characteristics and normal hematopoietic regulatory functions of m6A methylation modifications and their role in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114886119
Wren E. Michaels ◽  
Cecilia Pena-Rasgado ◽  
Rusudan Kotaria ◽  
Robert J. Bridges ◽  
Michelle L. Hastings

CFTR gene mutations that result in the introduction of premature termination codons (PTCs) are common in cystic fibrosis (CF). This mutation type causes a severe form of the disease, likely because of low CFTR messenger RNA (mRNA) expression as a result of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, as well as the production of a nonfunctional, truncated CFTR protein. Current therapeutics for CF, which target residual protein function, are less effective in patients with these types of mutations due in part to low CFTR protein levels. Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), designed to induce skipping of exons in order to restore the mRNA open reading frame, have shown therapeutic promise preclinically and clinically for a number of diseases. We hypothesized that ASO-mediated skipping of CFTR exon 23 would recover CFTR activity associated with terminating mutations in the exon, including CFTR p.W1282X, the fifth most common mutation in CF. Here, we show that CFTR lacking the amino acids encoding exon 23 is partially functional and responsive to corrector and modulator drugs currently in clinical use. ASO-induced exon 23 skipping rescued CFTR expression and chloride current in primary human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from a homozygote CFTR-W1282X patient. These results support the use of ASOs in treating CF patients with CFTR class I mutations in exon 23 that result in unstable CFTR mRNA and truncations of the CFTR protein.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qiang Liu

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a dynamic, reversible post-transcriptional modification, and the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA). Considerable evidence now shows that m6A alters gene expression, thereby regulating cell self-renewal, differentiation, invasion, and apoptotic processes. M6A methylation disorders are directly related to abnormal RNA metabolism, which may lead to tumor formation. M6A methyltransferase is the dominant catalyst during m6A modification; it removes m6A demethylase, promotes recognition by m6A binding proteins, and regulates mRNA metabolic processes. Bladder cancer (BC) is a urinary system malignant tumor, with complex etiology and high incidence rates. A well-differentiated or moderately differentiated pathological type at initial diagnosis accounts for most patients with BC. For differentiated superficial bladder urothelial carcinoma, the prognosis is normally good after surgery. However, due to poor epithelial cell differentiation, BC urothelial cell proliferation and infiltration may lead to invasive or metastatic BC, which lowers the 5-years survival rate and significantly affects clinical treatments in elderly patients. Here, we review the latest progress in m6A RNA methylation research and investigate its regulation on BC occurrence and development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114858118
Young Jin Kim ◽  
Nicole Sivetz ◽  
Jessica Layne ◽  
Dillon M. Voss ◽  
Lucia Yang ◽  

Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), and the CFTR-W1282X nonsense mutation causes a severe form of CF. Although Trikafta and other CFTR-modulation therapies benefit most CF patients, targeted therapy for patients with the W1282X mutation is lacking. The CFTR-W1282X protein has residual activity but is expressed at a very low level due to nonsense-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) decay (NMD). NMD-suppression therapy and read-through therapy are actively being researched for CFTR nonsense mutants. NMD suppression could increase the mutant CFTR mRNA, and read-through therapies may increase the levels of full-length CFTR protein. However, these approaches have limitations and potential side effects: because the NMD machinery also regulates the expression of many normal mRNAs, broad inhibition of the pathway is not desirable, and read-through drugs are inefficient partly because the mutant mRNA template is subject to NMD. To bypass these issues, we pursued an exon-skipping antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) strategy to achieve gene-specific NMD evasion. A cocktail of two splice-site–targeting ASOs induced the expression of CFTR mRNA without the premature-termination-codon–containing exon 23 (CFTR-Δex23), which is an in-frame exon. Treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with this cocktail of ASOs that target the splice sites flanking exon 23 results in efficient skipping of exon 23 and an increase in CFTR-Δex23 protein. The splice-switching ASO cocktail increases the CFTR-mediated chloride current in human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results set the stage for developing an allele-specific therapy for CF caused by the W1282X mutation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Eglė Žilėnaitė ◽  
Laura Malinauskienė ◽  
Kęstutis Černiauskas ◽  
Linas Griguola ◽  
Kotryna Linauskienė ◽  

Background: Allergic reactions after messenger RNA (mRNA)-based COVID-19 vaccines have been reported but detailed descriptions and further actions are not well characterized. Objective: To describe the symptoms of possible allergic reactions after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and outcomes of further vaccination. Methods: We descriptively analyzed data of adult (≥18 years of age) patients, who were sent for vaccination to our outpatient center for the Diagnostics and Treatment of Allergic and Immune diseases. All patients were vaccinated with the Pfizer–BioNTech Comirnaty® vaccine.Results: From January 2021 to July 2021 twenty-two patients were vaccinated in our center. Six patients experienced a reaction after the first Comirnaty® dose in different vaccination centers. The majority of them complained of various types of rashes after the first dose, one case was consistent with anaphylaxis. The latter patient was tested with the skin prick using Pfizer–BioNTech Comirnaty® vaccine and the test was negative. Other sixteen patients were vaccinated in our center from the first dose because of past allergic reactions to other medication or due to concomitant mast cell disorder. All patients were vaccinated without any immediate adverse reactions.Conclusions: None of our patients experienced repeated cutaneous reactions after the second dose. Patients with previous anaphylaxis or mastocytosis also were safely vaccinated.

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