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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e49911125320
Emanoel Igor da Silva Oliveira ◽  
Jean Brito Santos ◽  
Silvana Mattedi ◽  
Nádia Mamede José

This study aimed to evaluate the properties of soda lignin obtained from an unconventional and abundant waste - the rambutan peel - since lignin has been shown as the most promising natural organic feedstock alternative to petroleum for polymer science. FTIR analysis and pH measurements have confirmed the acidic form of lignin, which has shown solubility in a wide range of polarities and so many solvents, making its insertion easy on polymeric matrices. While the ability to absorb UV-light was higher than commercial lignin tested as reference, the morphology and size distribution at microscopic level were less regular than that. When added to a starch-based film, the lignin decreases its natural affinity for water, improving the barrier properties, as well as increasing its thermal resistance. Microorganisms could be developed easily on starch-based films containing this kind of lignin. This material, still underreported for technological applications, points towards as promisor to be a component or additive in polymeric matrices.

Chan Kim ◽  
Kimoon Lee ◽  
Il-Han Yoo ◽  
Yu-Jin Lee ◽  
Safira Ramadhani ◽  

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Luis Rodríguez-Alonso ◽  
Jesús López-Sánchez ◽  
Aida Serrano ◽  
Oscar Rodríguez de la Fuente ◽  
Juan Carlos Galván ◽  

Physiological human fluid is a natural corrosive environment and can lead to serious corrosion and mechanical damages to light Mg–Al alloys used in prosthetics for biomedical applications. In this work, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings doped with various environmentally friendly and non-toxic corrosion inhibitors have been prepared by the sol-gel process for the corrosion protection of AZ61 magnesium alloys. Effectiveness has been evaluated by pH measurements, optical microscopy, and SEM during a standard corrosion test in a Hanks’ Balanced Salt Solution. The results showed that the addition of an inhibitor to the sol-gel coating can improve significantly the corrosion performance, being an excellent barrier for the L-cysteine-doped hybrid sol-gel films. The incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles, 2-Aminopyridine and quinine organic molecules slowed down the corrosion rate of the Mg–Al alloy. Graphene oxide seemed to have the same response to corrosion as the hybrid sol-gel coating without inhibitors.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Marion Barrieu ◽  
Philip Chennell ◽  
Mouloud Yessaad ◽  
Yassine Bouattour ◽  
Mathieu Wasiak ◽  

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant used to treat a large variety of inflammatory or immunity-mediated ophthalmic diseases. However, there are currently no commercial industrial forms available that can provide relief to patients. Various ophthalmic formulations have been reported in the literature, but their stability has only been tested over short periods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical stability of a preservative-free tacrolimus formulation (0.2 and 1 mg/mL) at three storage temperatures (5 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C) for up to nine months in a multidose eyedropper. Analyses performed were the following: visual inspection and chromaticity, turbidity, viscosity, size of micelles, osmolality and pH measurements, tacrolimus quantification by a stability-indicating liquid chromatography method, breakdown product research, and sterility assay. In an in-use study, tacrolimus quantification was also performed on the drops emitted from the eyedroppers. All tested parameters remained stable during the nine month period when the eyedrops were stored at 5 °C. However, during storage at 25 °C and 35 °C, several signs of chemical instability were detected. Furthermore, a leachable compound originating from a silicone part of the eyedropper was detected during the in-use assay. Overall, the 0.2 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL tacrolimus ophthalmic solutions were physicochemically stable for up to nine months when stored at 5 °C.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Elise S. Droste ◽  
Alex R. Baker ◽  
Chan Yodle ◽  
Andrew Smith ◽  
Laurens Ganzeveld

Iodine affects the radiative budget and the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and is consequently involved in important climate feedbacks. A fraction of the iodine emitted by oceans ends up in aerosols, where complex halogen chemistry regulates the recycling of iodine to the gas-phase where it effectively destroys ozone. The iodine speciation and major ion composition of aerosol samples collected during four cruises in the East and West Pacific and Indian Oceans was studied to understand the influences on iodine’s gas-aerosol phase recycling. A significant inverse relationship exists between iodide (I–) and iodate (IO3–) proportions in both fine and coarse mode aerosols, with a relatively constant soluble organic iodine (SOI) fraction of 19.8% (median) for fine and coarse mode samples of all cruises combined. Consistent with previous work on the Atlantic Ocean, this work further provides observational support that IO3– reduction is attributed to aerosol acidity, which is associated to smaller aerosol particles and air masses that have been influenced by anthropogenic emissions. Significant correlations are found between SOI and I–, which supports hypotheses that SOI may be a source for I–. This data contributes to a growing observational dataset on aerosol iodine speciation and provides evidence for relatively constant proportions of iodine species in unpolluted marine aerosols. Future development in our understanding of iodine speciation depends on aerosol pH measurements and unravelling the complex composition of SOI in aerosols.

2021 ◽  
Mariana C. O. Monteiro ◽  
Xuan Liu ◽  
Bellenod J. L. Hagedoorn ◽  
Demi D. Snabilié ◽  
Marc T. M. Koper

2021 ◽  
Vol 152 ◽  
pp. 111336
Rolando Zenteno-Catemaxca ◽  
Jazael G. Moguel-Castañeda ◽  
Victor M. Rivera ◽  
Hector Puebla ◽  
Eliseo Hernandez-Martinez

JACS Au ◽  
2021 ◽  
Mariana C. O. Monteiro ◽  
Alex Mirabal ◽  
Leon Jacobse ◽  
Katharina Doblhoff-Dier ◽  
Scott Calabrese Barton ◽  

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