Scarless skin regeneration is a challenge in regenerative medicine. Herein, we explore the regenerative potential of a Cupuaçu seed extract (Theobroma grandiflorum) to develop an innovative skin regeneration formulation based on chitosan-coated nanocapsules. Cupuaçu seed extract significantly stimulated cell proliferation and migration. A reparative gene expression profile could be verified following extract treatment, which included high levels of MKI67, a cellular proliferation marker, and extracellular matrix genes, such as ELN and HAS2, which code for elastin and hyaluronic acid synthase 2. Formulations with Cupuaçu seed extract successfully entrapped into nanocapsules (EE% > 94%) were developed. Uncoated or coated nanocapsules with low-molecular-weight chitosan presented unimodal size distribution with hydrodynamic diameters of 278.3 ± 5.0 nm (PDI = 0.18 ± 0.02) and 337.2 ± 2.1 nm (PDI = 0.27 ± 0.01), respectively. Both nanosystems were physically stable for at least 120 days and showed to be non-irritating to reconstructed human epidermis. Chitosan coating promoted active penetration into undamaged skin areas, which were still covered by the stratum corneum. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time the biotechnological potential of the frequently discarded Cupuaçu seed as a valuable pharmaceutical ingredient to be used in regenerative skin products.
Donepezil (DPZ) is generally administered orally to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, oral administration can cause gastrointestinal side effects. Therefore, to enhance compliance, a new way to deliver DPZ from transdermal patch was developed. Ionic bonds were created by dissolving dicarboxylic acid and DPZ in ethanol, resulting in a stable ionic liquid (IL) state. The synthesized ILs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DPZ ILs were then transformed to a suitable drug-in-adhesive patch for transdermal delivery of DPZ. The novel DPZ ILs patch inhibits crystallization of the IL, indicating coherent design. Moreover, DPZ ILs and DPZ IL patch formulations performed excellent skin permeability compared to that of the DPZ free-base patch in both in vitro and ex vivo skin permeability studies.
A new hydrophilic polymeric nanocomposite containing AgNPs was synthesized by chemical reduction of metal ions in an aqueous medium in the presence of the copolymer. A new water-soluble copolymer of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole and vinylsulfonic acid sodium salt (poly(VT-co-Na-VSA)) was obtained by free-radical copolymerization and was used as a stabilizing precursor agent. The structural, dimensional, and morphological properties of the nanocomposite were studied by UV–Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Hydrodynamic diameter of macroclubs for the copolymer was 171 nm, and for the nanocomposite it was 694 nm. Zeta potential for the copolymer was −63.8 mV, and for the nanocomposite it was −70.4 mV. The nanocomposite had strong antimicrobial activity towards Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms: MIC and MBC values were in the range of 0.25–4.0 and 0.5–8.0 μg/mL, respectively.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive and tumour-specific therapy. Photosensitizers (PSs) (essential ingredients in PDT) aggregate easily owing to their lipophilic properties. The aim of this study was to synthesise a PS (methyl pheophorbide a, MPa) and design a biocompatible lipid-based nanocarrier to improve its bioavailability and pharmacological effects. MPa-loaded nano-transfersomes were fabricated by sonication. The characteristics of synthesised PS and nano-transfersomes were assessed. The effects of PDT were evaluated by 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran assay and by measuring photo-cytotoxicity against HeLa and A549 cell lines. The mean particle size and zeta potential for nano-transfersomes ranged from 95.84 to 267.53 nm and −19.53 to −45.08 mV, respectively. Nano-transfersomes exhibited sustained drug release for 48 h in a physiological environment (as against burst release in an acidic environment), which enables its use as a pH-responsive drug release system in PDT with enhanced photodynamic activity and reduced side effects. The formulations showed light cytotoxicity, but no dark toxicity, which meant that light irradiation resulted in anti-cancer effects. Additionally, formulations with the smallest size exhibited photodynamic activity to a larger extent than those with the highest loading capacity or free MPa. These results suggest that our MPa-loaded nano-transfersome system is a promising anti-cancer strategy for PDT.
Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has attracted significant attention due to its antioxidant, cardioprotective and anticancer potential. However, its low aqueous solubility limits resveratrol bioavailability and use. In this work, different mesoporous silica matrices were used to encapsulate the polyphenol and to increase its dissolution rate. Pristine MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, SBA-16, FDU-12 and MCF silica were obtained. The influence of SBA-15 functionalized with aminopropyl, isocyanate, phenyl, mercaptopropyl, and propionic acid moieties on resveratrol loading and release profiles was also assessed. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated for mesoporous carriers and resveratrol-loaded samples against human lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell lines. The effect on apoptosis and cell cycle were assayed for selected resveratrol-loaded carriers. The polyphenol molecules are encapsulated only inside the mesopores, mostly in amorphous state. All materials containing either pristine or functionalized silica carriers increased polyphenol dissolution rate. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the mesoporous carriers and resveratrol–loaded supports on the kinetic parameters was identified. [email protected] and [email protected] samples exhibited the highest anticancer effect against A549 cells (IC50 values were 26.06 and 36.5 µg/mL, respectively) and against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values were 35.56 and 19.30 µg/mL, respectively), which highlights their potential use against cancer.
Disintegration and dispersion are functional properties of tablets relevant for the desired API release. The standard disintegration test (SDT) described in different pharmacopoeias provides only limited information on these complex processes. It is considered not to be comparable to the biorelevant conditions due to the frequent occurrence of high hydrodynamic forces, among other reasons. In this study, 3D tomographic laser-induced fluorescence imaging (3D Tomo-LIF) is applied to analyse tablet disintegration and dispersion. Disintegration time (DT) and time-resolved particle size distribution in close proximity to the tablet are determined in a continuously operated flow channel, adjustable to very low fluid velocities. A case study on tablets of different porosity, which are composed of pharmaceutical polymers labelled with a fluorescent dye, a filler, and disintegrants, is presented to demonstrate the functionality and precision of the novel method. DT results from 3D Tomo-LIF are compared with results from the SDT, confirming the analytical limitations of the pharmacopoeial disintegration test. Results from the 3D Tomo-LIF method proved a strong impact of fluid velocity on disintegration and dispersion. Generally, shorter DTs were determined when cross-linked sodium carboxymethly cellulose (NaCMCXL) was used as disintegrant compared to polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). Tablets containing Kollidon VA64 were found to disintegrate by surface erosion. The novel method provides an in-depth understanding of the functional behaviour of the tablet material, composition and structural properties under in vivo-like hydrodynamic forces regarding disintegration and the temporal progress of dispersion. We consider the 3D Tomo-LIF in vitro method to be of improved biorelevance in terms of hydrodynamic conditions in the human stomach.
The dysregulation of gene expression is a critical event involved in all steps of tumorigenesis. Aberrant histone and non-histone acetylation modifications of gene expression due to the abnormal activation of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have been reported in hematologic and solid types of cancer. In this sense, the cancer-associated epigenetic alterations are promising targets for anticancer therapy and chemoprevention. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) induce histone hyperacetylation within target proteins, altering cell cycle and proliferation, cell differentiation, and the regulation of cell death programs. Over the last three decades, an increasing number of synthetic and naturally derived compounds, such as dietary-derived products, have been demonstrated to act as HDACi and have provided biological and molecular insights with regard to the role of HDAC in cancer. The first part of this review is focused on the biological roles of the Zinc-dependent HDAC family in malignant diseases. Accordingly, the small-molecules and natural products such as HDACi are described in terms of cancer therapy and chemoprevention. Furthermore, structural considerations are included to improve the HDACi selectivity and combinatory potential with other specific targeting agents in bifunctional inhibitors and proteolysis targeting chimeras. Additionally, clinical trials that combine HDACi with current therapies are discussed, which may open new avenues in terms of the feasibility of HDACi’s future clinical applications in precision cancer therapies.
The enormous development of nanomaterials technology and the immediate response of many areas of science, research, and practice to their possible application has led to the publication of thousands of scientific papers, books, and reports. This vast amount of information requires careful classification and order, especially for specifically targeted practical needs. Therefore, the present review aims to summarize to some extent the role of iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedical research. Summarizing the fundamental properties of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, the review’s next focus was to classify research studies related to applying these particles for cancer diagnostics and therapy (similar to photothermal therapy, hyperthermia), in nano theranostics, multimodal therapy. Special attention is paid to research studies dealing with the opportunities of combining different nanomaterials to achieve optimal systems for biomedical application. In this regard, original data about the synthesis and characterization of nanolipidic magnetic hybrid systems are included as an example. The last section of the review is dedicated to the capacities of magnetite-based magnetic nanoparticles for the management of oncological diseases.
Minitablets have garnered interest as a new paediatric formulation that is easier to swallow than liquid formulations. In Japan, besides the latter, fine granules are frequently used for children. We examined the swallowability of multiple drug-free minitablets and compared it with that of fine granules and liquid formulations in 40 children of two age groups (n = 20 each, aged 6–11 and 12–23 months). We compared the percentage of children who could swallow minitablets without chewing with that of children who could swallow fine granules or liquid formulations without leftover. The children who visited the paediatric department of Showa University Hospital were enrolled. Their caregivers were allowed to choose the administration method. In total, 37 out of 40 caregivers dispersed the fine granules in water. Significantly more children (80%, 95% CI: 56–94%) aged 6–11 months could swallow the minitablets than those who could swallow all the dispersed fine granules and liquid formulations (22%, 95% CI: 6–47% and 35%, 95% CI: 15–59%, respectively). No significant differences were observed in children aged 12–23 months. Hence, minitablets may be easier to swallow than dispersed fine granules and liquid formulations in children aged 6–11 months.
In this work, dasatinib (DAS) nanoemulsion and nanocrystal are produced by high-gravity technology that approaches to practical mass production. The drug nanoformulations were systematically characterized and evaluated. At a low high-gravity level (β) = 47, nanoemulsion droplets were 16.15 ± 0.42 nm with a PDI of 0.122 ± 0.021. The nanoemulsion’s size and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content remained stable at long-term (4 months) freeze–thaw and dilution experiments. At a high β = 188, the as-prepared nanocrystal was lamellar with a short diameter of about 200 nm and a long diameter of about 750 nm. In vitro performances demonstrated the nanoemulsion displayed higher cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 tumor cells, Caco-2 cell permeability and drug release than that of the nanocrystal, indicating that nanoemulsion should be an ideal alternative for dasatinib oral administration.