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Published By Mdpi Ag

2310-2861
Updated Wednesday, 19 January 2022

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Author(s):  
Ngoc The Nguyen ◽  
Quynh Anh Bui ◽  
Hoang Huong Nhu Nguyen ◽  
Tien Thanh Nguyen ◽  
Khanh Linh Ly ◽  
...  

Nanosized multi-drug delivery systems provide synergistic effects between drugs and bioactive compounds, resulting in increased overall efficiency and restricted side effects compared to conventional single-drug chemotherapy. In this study, we develop an amphiphilic heparin-poloxamer P403 (HP403) nanogel that could effectively co-load curcuminoid (Cur) and cisplatin hydrate (CisOH) ([email protected]@Cur) via two loading mechanisms. The HP403 nanogels and [email protected]@Cur nanogels were closely analyzed with 1H-NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, and DLS, exhibiting high stability in spherical forms. In drug release profiles, accelerated behavior of Cur and CisOH at pH 5.5 compared with neutral pH was observed, suggesting effective delivery of the compounds in tumor sites. In vitro studies showed high antitumor activity of [email protected]@Cur nanogels, while in vivo assays showed that the dual-drug platform prolonged the survival time of mice and prevented tail necrosis. In summary, [email protected]@Cur offers an intriguing strategy to achieve the cisplatin and curcumin synergistic effect in a well-designed delivery platform that increases antitumor effectiveness and overcomes undesired consequences caused by cisplatin in breast cancer treatment.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Author(s):  
Bhumika Gupta ◽  
Garima Sharma ◽  
Pratibha Sharma ◽  
Simarjot Kaur Sandhu ◽  
Indu Pal Kaur

Hydrogels, an advanced interactive system, is finding use as wound dressings, however, they exhibit restricted mechanical properties, macroscopic nature, and may not manage high exudate wounds or incorporate lipophilic actives. In this study, we developed a self-gelling solid lipid nanoparticle (SLNs) dressing to incorporate simvastatin (SIM), a lipophilic, potential wound-healing agent, clinically limited due to poor solubility (0.03 mg/mL) and absorption. The study explores unconventional and novel application of SIM. The idea was to incorporate a significant amount of SIM in a soluble form and release it slowly over a prolonged time. Further, a suitable polymeric surfactant was selected that assigned a self-gelling property to SLNs (SLN-hydrogel) so as to be used as a novel wound dressing. SLNs assign porosity, elasticity, and occlusivity to the dressing to keep the wound area moist. It will also provide better tolerance and sensory properties to the hydrogel. SIM loaded SLN-hydrogel was prepared employing an industry amenable high-pressure homogenization technique. The unique hydrogel dressing was characterized for particle size, zeta potential, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, rheology, and texture. Significant loading of SIM (10% w/w) was achieved in spherical nanoparticule hydrogel (0.3 nm (nanoparticles) to2 µm (gelled-matrix)) that exhibited good spreadability and mechanical properties and slow release up to 72 h. SLN-hydrogel was safe as per the organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD-404) guidelines, with no signs of irritation. Complete healing of excision wound observed in rats within 11 days was 10 times better than marketed povidone-iodine product. The presented work is novel both in terms of classifying a per se SLN-hydrogel and employing SIM. Further, it was established to be a safe, effective, and industry amenable invention.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Author(s):  
Laura Riva ◽  
Angelo Davide Lotito ◽  
Carlo Punta ◽  
Alessandro Sacchetti

Herein we report the synthesis of cellulose-based metal-loaded nano-sponges and their application as heterogeneous catalysts in organic synthesis. First, the combination in water solution of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNF) with branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI) and citric acid (CA), and the thermal treatment of the resulting hydrogel, leads to the synthesis of an eco-safe micro- and nano-porous cellulose nano-sponge (CNS). Subsequently, by exploiting the metal chelation characteristics of CNS, already extensively investigated in the field of environmental decontamination, this material is successfully loaded with Cu (II) or Zn (II) metal ions. Efficiency and homogeneity of metal-loading is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) detector and by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis. The resulting materials perform superbly as heterogeneous catalysts for promoting the reaction between aromatic aldehydes and alcohols in the synthesis of aromatic acetals, which play a fundamental role as intermediates in organic synthesis. Optimized conditions allow one to obtain conversions higher than 90% and almost complete selectivity toward acetal products, minimizing, and in some cases eliminating, the formation of carboxylic acid by-products. ICP-OES analysis of the reaction medium allows one to exclude any possible metal-ion release, confirming that catalysis undergoes under heterogeneous conditions. The new metal-loaded CNS can be re-used and recycled five times without losing their catalytic activity.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Author(s):  
Rayed Alyousef ◽  
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Ebid ◽  
Ghasan Fahim Huseien ◽  
Hossein Mohammadhosseini ◽  
Hisham Alabduljabbar ◽  
...  

Various geopolymer mortars (GPMs) as concrete repairing materials have become effective owing to their eco-friendly properties. Geopolymer binders designed from agricultural and industrial wastes display interesting and useful mechanical performance. Based on this fact, this research (experimental) focuses on the feasibility of achieving a new GPM with improved mechanical properties and enhanced durability performance against the aggressive sulfuric acid and sulfate attacks. This new ternary blend of GPMs can be achieved by combining waste ceramic tiles (WCT), fly ash (FA) and ground blast furnace slag (GBFS) with appropriate proportions. These GPMs were designed from a high volume of WCT, FA, and GBFS to repair the damaged concretes existing in the construction sectors. Flexural strength, slant shear bond strength, and compatibility of the obtained GPMs were compared with the base or normal concrete (NC) before and after exposure to the aggressive environments. Tests including flexural four-point loading and thermal expansion coefficient were performed. These GPMs were prepared using a low concentration of alkaline activator solution with increasing levels of GBFS and FA replaced by WCT. The results showed that substitution of GBFS and FA by WCT in the GPMs could enhance their bond strength, mechanical characteristics, and durability performance when exposed to aggressive environments. In addition, with the increase in WCT contents from 50 to 70%, the bond strength performance of the GPMs was considerably enhanced under sulfuric acid and sulfate attack. The achieved GPMs were shown to be highly compatible with the concrete substrate and excellent binders for various civil engineering construction applications. It is affirmed that the proposed GPMs can efficiently be used as high-performance materials to repair damaged concrete surfaces.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Author(s):  
Zhongxin Zhang ◽  
Yurui Deng ◽  
Zhiyi Lun ◽  
Xiao Zhang ◽  
Mingyuan Yan ◽  
...  

Polyimide (PI) aerogels were prepared using self-designed silicone polymer cross-linkers with multi-amino from low-cost silane coupling agents to replace conventional small-molecule cross-linkers. The long-chain structure of silicone polymers provides more crosslinking points than small-molecule cross-linkers, thus improving the mechanical properties of polyimide. To investigate the effects of amino content and degree of polymerization on the properties of silicone polymers, the different silicone polymers and their cross-linked PI aerogels were prepared. The obtained PI aerogels exhibit densities as low as 0.106 g/cm3 and specific surface areas as high as 314 m2/g, and the maximum Young’s modulus of aerogel is up to 20.9 MPa when using (T-20) as cross-linkers. The cross-linkers were an alternative to expensive small molecule cross-linkers, which can improve the mechanical properties and reduce the cost of PI aerogels.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 55
Author(s):  
Syeda Sadia Batool Rizvi ◽  
Naveed Akhtar ◽  
Muhammad Usman Minhas ◽  
Arshad Mahmood ◽  
Kifayat Ullah Khan

This study aimed to enhance the solubility and release characteristics of docetaxel by synthesizing highly porous and stimuli responsive nanosponges, a nano-version of hydrogels with the additional qualities of both hydrogels and nano-systems. Nanosponges were prepared by the free radical polymerization technique and characterized by their solubilization efficiency, swelling studies, sol-gel studies, percentage entrapment efficiency, drug loading, FTIR, PXRD, TGA, DSC, SEM, zeta sizer and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo toxicity study was conducted to assess the safety of the oral administration of prepared nanosponges. FTIR, TGA and DSC studies confirmed the successful grafting of components into the stable nano-polymeric network. A porous and sponge-like structure was visualized through SEM images. The particle size of the optimized formulation was observed in the range of 195 ± 3 nm. The fabricated nanosponges noticeably enhanced the drug loading and solubilization efficiency of docetaxel in aqueous media. The drug release of fabricated nanosponges was significantly higher at pH 6.8 as compared to pH 1.2 and 4.5. An acute oral toxicity study endorsed the safety of the system. Due to an efficient preparation technique, as well as its enhanced solubility, excellent physicochemical properties, improved dissolution and non-toxic nature, nanosponges could be an efficient and a promising approach for the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Author(s):  
Che Zhao ◽  
Chengju Sheng ◽  
Chao Zhou

Traditional antibacterial hydrogels have a broad-spectrum bactericidal effect and are widely used as wound dressings. However, the biological toxicity and drug resistance of these antibacterial hydrogels cannot meet the requirements of long-term clinical application. Imidazolium poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) are polymeric antibacterial agents exhibiting strong antibacterial properties, as they contain a strong positive charge. In this study, two imidazolium PILs, namely poly(N-butylimidazolium propiolic acid sodium) (PBP) and poly(N-(3,6-dioxaoctane) imidazolium propiolic acid sodium) (PDP), as high efficiency antibacterial agents, were synthesized by polycondensation reaction. Then, the PILs were compounded with polyethylene glycol (PEG) by a thiol-yne click reaction to prepare injectable antibacterial hydrogels. An in vitro assay showed that the injectable antibacterial hydrogels could not only quickly kill Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), but also had low toxicity for human skin fibroblasts cells (HSFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively. Additionally, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inflammation model revealed that the injectable antibacterial hydrogels also had anti-inflammatory effects, which would be advantageous to accelerate wound healing.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 56
Author(s):  
Hongdou Shen ◽  
Pei Wang ◽  
Xiaoke Han ◽  
Mengli Ma ◽  
Yinghui Shang ◽  
...  

Promising wound dressings can achieve rapid soft-tissue filling while refactoring the biochemical and biophysical microenvironment to recruit endogenous cells, facilitating tissue healing, integration, and regeneration. In this study, a tissue biomolecule-responsive hydrogel matrix, employing natural silk fibroin (SF) as a functional biopolymer and haemoglobin (Hb) as a peroxidase-like biocatalyst, was fabricated through cascade enzymatic crosslinking. The hydrogels possessed mechanical tunability and displayed adjustable gelation times. A tyrosine unit on SF stabilised the structure of Hb during the cascade oxidation process; thus, the immobilized Hb in SF hydrogels exhibited higher biocatalytic efficiency than the free enzyme system, which provided a continuously antioxidative system. The regulation of the dual enzyme ratio endowed the hydrogels with favourable biocompatibility, biodegradability, and adhesion strength. These multifunctional hydrogels provided a three-dimensional porous extracellular matrix-like microenvironment for promoting cell adhesion and proliferation. A rat model with a full-thickness skin defect revealed accelerated wound regeneration via collagen deposition, re-epithelialisation and revascularisation. Enzyme-loaded hydrogels are an attractive and high-safety biofilling material with the potential for wound healing, tissue regeneration, and haemostasis.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 51
Author(s):  
Pradip Kumar Sukul ◽  
Puspendu Das ◽  
Gopal Lal Dhakar ◽  
Lalmohan Das ◽  
Sudip Malik

Herein, aggregation behaviors of melem or melamine in the presence of three symmetric carboxylic acids (1,3,5-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene (TPCA), 1,3,5-benzene-tri-carboxylic acid (BTA) and 1,3,5-cyclohexane-tri-carboxylic acid (CHTA)) have been performed to check the influence of acid on the formation of aggregated structures which have been investigated by optical microscopy, FESEM, FTIR, XRD and viscoelastic properties have been explored with rheological studies. Interestingly, melem, that has limited solubility in aqueous medium, forms aggregation that leads to the formation of hydrogels with TPCA. More significantly, hydrogel is formed here by matching the size selectivity. Melem forms hydrogel with only large tricarboxylic acid, whereas melamine produces hydrogel with any kind of its counterpart from small to large tricarboxylic acid derivatives. Present investigations and results provide the strategy of design of organic self-assembled materials having two component systems.


Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Author(s):  
Hatem Alnojeidi ◽  
Ruhangiz Taghi Kilani ◽  
Aziz Ghahary

(1) Background: Developing a high-quality, injectable biomaterial that is labor-saving, cost-efficient, and patient-ready is highly desirable. Our research group has previously developed a collagen-based injectable scaffold for the treatment of a variety of wounds including wounds with deep and irregular beds. Here, we investigated the biocompatibility of our liquid scaffold in mice and compared the results to a commercially available injectable granular collagen-based product. (2) Methods: Scaffolds were applied in sub-dermal pockets on the dorsum of mice. To examine the interaction between the scaffolds and the host tissue, samples were harvested after 1 and 2 weeks and stained for collagen content using Masson’s Trichrome staining. Immunofluorescence staining and quantification were performed to assess the type and number of cells infiltrating each scaffold. (3) Results: Histological evaluation after 1 and 2 weeks demonstrated early and efficient integration of our liquid scaffold with no evident adverse foreign body reaction. This rapid incorporation was accompanied by significant cellular infiltration of stromal and immune cells into the scaffold when compared to the commercial product (p < 0.01) and the control group (p < 0.05). Contrarily, the commercial scaffold induced a foreign body reaction as it was surrounded by a capsule-like, dense cellular layer during the 2-week period, resulting in delayed integration and hampered cellular infiltration. (4) Conclusion: Results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential use of our liquid scaffold as an advanced injectable wound matrix for the management of skin wounds with complex geometries.


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