Potential Impact
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 8994
Siavash H. Khajavi

The clothing industry is among the most polluting and waste-generating industries in the world, and it is responsible for the release of large amounts of greenhouse gases. The industry’s massive size and significant environmental footprint with regard to water and energy consumption and waste generation make it a valid improvement candidate. While in recent years, global clothing brands and retailers have taken steps to reduce their ecological footprint, there still is a lot of room for improvement. In this research, we view this sustainability issue from a lifecycle perspective and study the new business models (NBMs) that may arise from the utilization of additive manufacturing (AM) technology. AM is emerging as a method of production for final parts. Moreover, as the range of material and available production processes expands, it is increasingly important to study the potential impact of this promising production technology and potential NBMs enabled by it on the clothing industry. Additionally, the obstacles to AM utilization in the clothing industry are explored. We utilize secondary data related to relevant implementation cases to theoretically study the NBMs that AM can enable to improve sustainability. Three NBMs of “clothing as a service”, “collaborative consumption”, and “direct sale/distribution” were envisioned through the study of current AM applications in other industries, as well as current fashion trends. The results of this research have implications for the sustainability of the fashion industry while also providing directions for AM technology development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Chun-Ming Hsieh ◽  
Wan-Chen Lin ◽  
Hsien-Yu Peng ◽  
Huang-Chung Chen ◽  
Yu-Cheng Ho ◽  

AbstractBy enhancing vagal activity, auricle transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is developed as a non-invasive therapy for heart failure. Nevertheless, though shoulder TENS used for treating adhesive capsulitis could affect vagal tone, its potential impact on heart functions remains unclear. In this study, electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate (HR) of subjects in response to sham, right-sided, or left-sided shoulder TENS (TENS-S, TENS-R, and TENS-L, respectively; 5 min) were recorded and analyzed. During the stimulation period, TENS-R constantly and TENS-L transiently decreased the HR of subjects; both TENS-R and TENS-L increased powers of the low- and high-frequency spectra. While TENS-R exhibiting no effect, TENS-L increased the ratio of low/high-frequency power spectrum indicating TENS-R decreased the HR through potentiating cardiac vagal tone. Collectively, these results suggest TENS could be an early and non-invasive therapy for heart failure patients before considering implant devices or devices are not feasible; moreover, therapists/physicians need to carefully monitor the potential adverse events during treatment for patient safety.Trial registration: The study protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03982472; 11/06/2019).

2021 ◽  
Bettina Moltrecht ◽  
Louise Dalton ◽  
Jeffrey Hanna ◽  
Clare Law ◽  
Elizabeth Rapa

Young parents (aged 16-24 years) in the perinatal period may be at an increased risk of poor mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to multiple risk factors, including social and economic instability. COVID-19 related restrictions had significant implications for the delivery of some perinatal care services and other support structures for young parents. Investigating young parents’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, including their perceived challenges and needs, is important to inform good practice and provide appropriate support for young parents.Qualitative interviews were conducted with young parents (n=21) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom from February – May 2021. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.Three key themes were identified to describe parents’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents reported specific COVID-19 related anxieties and stressors, including worries around contracting the virus and increased feelings of distress due to uncertainty created by the implications of the pandemic. Parents described feeling alone both at home and during antenatal appointments and highlighted the absence of social support as a major area of concern. Also, parents felt their perinatal care had been disrupted by the pandemic and experienced difficulties accessing care online or over the phone.This study highlights the potential impact of COVID-19 on young parents, including on their mental wellbeing and the perinatal support they were able to access during the pandemic. Insights from this study could inform the support and services offered to families during future pandemics. Specifically, the findings underlie the importance of (a) supporting both parents during perinatal appointments, (b) providing parents with early mental health support and (c) finding ways to facilitate communication pathways between professionals and parents.

Cheryl Dickson ◽  
Valérie Junod ◽  
René Stamm ◽  
Emilien Jeannot ◽  
Robert Hämmig ◽  

The provision of opioid agonist treatments (OATs), as a standard approach towards opioid dependence syndrome, differs widely between countries. In response to access disparities, in 2014, the Council of Europe`s Pompidou Group first brought together an expert group on framework conditions for the treatment of opioid dependence. The group used a Delphi approach to structure their discussions and develop guiding principles for the modernisation of OAT regulations and legislation. The expert group identified some 60 guiding principles, which were then the subject of wide public consultation. Endorsed by Pompidou Group member states, the final report identified four key recommendations: (1) Prescription and delivery without prior authorisation schemes; (2) Effective removal of financial barriers to access to care; (3) Coordination and follow-up by a national consultative body; and (4) Neutral, precise and respectful terminology. During meetings, the expert group hypothesised that inequalities in OAT access are likely to be linked to underlying rationales which in theory are contradictory, but in practice co-exist within the different political frameworks. The present article considers the perceived influence upon different regulatory frameworks. Discussion is centred around the potential impact of underlying rationales upon the effective implementation of a modernised framework.

2021 ◽  
Vol 220 (11) ◽  
Thomas Bessy ◽  
Adrian Candelas ◽  
Benoit Souquet ◽  
Khansa Saadallah ◽  
Alexandre Schaeffer ◽  

The fate of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is regulated by their interaction with stromal cells in the bone marrow. However, the cellular mechanisms regulating HSPC interaction with these cells and their potential impact on HSPC polarity are still poorly understood. Here we evaluated the impact of cell–cell contacts with osteoblasts or endothelial cells on the polarity of HSPC. We found that an HSPC can form a discrete contact site that leads to the extensive polarization of its cytoskeleton architecture. Notably, the centrosome was located in proximity to the contact site. The capacity of HSPCs to polarize in contact with stromal cells of the bone marrow appeared to be specific, as it was not observed in primary lymphoid or myeloid cells or in HSPCs in contact with skin fibroblasts. The receptors ICAM, VCAM, and SDF1 were identified in the polarizing contact. Only SDF1 was independently capable of inducing the polarization of the centrosome–microtubule network.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (3) ◽  
pp. 295-298
Aaron Demers ◽  
Shane Martin ◽  
Emil P Kartalov ◽  

Heat loss is a major health hazard for divers. It can lead to hypothermia, organ damage, unconsciousness, and eventually death. Hence, thermal protection is essential for diver safety. Typically, protection is provided by wetsuits made of bubbled neoprene. However, neoprene shrinks with depth and loses thermal insulation capability, while thick neoprene suits make swimming exhausting. Herein, a proof-of-concept is presented for a solution to both problems: a ‘K-suit’ made of thermally-resistive composite segments attached to a thin neoprene suit. The segments are made of hollow glass microspheres embedded in carrier polymer thermally cured in 3D-printed molds based on 3D-scans of the diver’s body. The K-suit was compared in field trials with a 7 mm commercial neoprene suit by diving in pairs, while automated dataloggers registered pressure and temperature inside and outside both suits. The K-suit demonstrated +4ºC higher temperature difference than the 7 mm neoprene. Also, divers reported that the K-suit had the ergonomics of a 3 mm neoprene suit. These preliminary results represent a proof-of-concept for the K-suit and promise further improvements with potential impact on diver safety.

2021 ◽  
N Vasantha Raju

This paper examined the Indian interest in Sc-hub and LibGen Lawsuit for infringing the copyright of Elsevier Inc, Wiley and ACS. The lawsuit has a potential impact on Indian researchers in freely accessing scholarly publications through Sci-hub and LibGen and thus has raised considerable interest in Indian scientific community. This has been studied through Google Trends and found that there was a constant increased interest in Sci-hub and LibGen search term after the case was taken up for hearing in the Delhi High Court.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257198
Jonathan B. Dinkins ◽  
Kirstie J. Lawson ◽  
Jeffrey L. Beck

Hunter harvest of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter “sage-grouse”) has been regulated by wildlife agencies during most of the past century. Hunting season regulations were maintained with the intention of providing sustainable hunting opportunities. Sage-grouse populations oscillate over time, and population growth can be influenced by seasonal weather and habitat disturbance. From 1995–2013, we compared sage-grouse lek trends from 22 relatively distinct sage-grouse population segments in 9 western U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. We stratified these populations into 3 broad categories (non-hunted [n = 8], continuously hunted [n = 10], and hunting season discontinued between 1996–2003 [n = 4]) with 8 different regulation histories to evaluate the potential impact of harvest on sage-grouse populations. Concomitantly, we assessed the effects of proportion burned, forested and cropland habitat; winter, spring, and summer precipitation; and human population, road, and oil and gas well densities on initial and time-varying lek counts. Density-dependent models fit lek trend data best for all regulation histories. In general, higher proportions of burnt, forested, and cropland habitat; and greater human population and oil and gas well densities were associated with lower equilibrium abundance (K). We found mixed results regarding the effect of hunting regulations on instantaneous growth rate (r). The cessation of harvest from 1996–2001 in approximately half of the largest sage-grouse population in our analysis was associated with higher r. Continuously harvested sage-grouse populations with permit hunting seasons had higher r during years with higher proportion of area exposed to permitted hunting rather than general upland game seasons. However, more liberal hunting regulations were positively associated with higher r in populations continuously harvested under general upland game hunts. Our results suggest that discontinuing harvest in the largest population resulted in greater population growth rates; however, this was not consistently the case for smaller populations. To no surprise, not all sage-grouse populations were influenced by the same environmental change or human disturbance factors. Our results will assist managers to understand factors associated with K, which provides the best targets for conservation efforts.

Sylvain Blanchard ◽  
Laurence Bellaïche ◽  
Zbigniew Kuliberda ◽  
Michel Behr

AbstractInfluence of footwear on posture in athletes is poorly documented despite its potential impact on biomechanics and injury risk. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of different footwear geometries on comfort and posture on a cohort of 48 elite rugby players. Spine posture was characterized by photogrammetry, while center of pressure was measured by means of a force platform. Three different footwear outsoles architectures (one rugby shoe with flat outsole, one rugby shoe with a 10 mm heel rise and foot arch support, and a running shoe with a 10mm heel rise and foot arch support) were compared to non-shod in randomized order. Then comfort felt at the level of foot and spine was also estimated by subjective questionnaires. Compared to the flat rugby model, both other models induced significantly (p<0.05) greater comfort at the level of foot and spine, a slight shift toward of center of pressure and a spinal posture closer to that observed when non-shod. The footwear geometry influences comfort and posture at the level of the foot as well as spine and should be considered in a dual purpose of injury prevention and performance.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1484
Caroline Arcanjo ◽  
Gauthier Trémolet ◽  
Nathalie Giusti-Petrucciani ◽  
Aurélie Duflot ◽  
Joëlle Forget-Leray ◽  

Copepods are zooplanktonic crustaceans ubiquitously widespread in aquatic systems. Although they are not the target, copepods are exposed to a wide variety of pollutants such as insect growth regulators (IGRs). The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular response of a non-targeted organism, the copepod Eurytemora affinis, to an IGR. Adult males and females were exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations of tebufenozide (TEB). Our results indicate a sex-specific response with a higher sensitivity in males, potentially due to a differential activation of stress response pathways. In both sexes, exposure to TEB triggered similar pathways to those found in targeted species by modulating the transcription of early and late ecdysone responsive genes. Among them were genes involved in cuticle metabolism, muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and gametogenesis, whose mis-regulation could lead to moult, locomotor, and reproductive impairments. Furthermore, genes involved in epigenetic processes were found in both sexes, which highlights the potential impact of exposure to TEB on future generations. This work allows identification of (i) potential biomarkers of ecdysone agonists and (ii) further assessment of putative physiological responses to characterize the effects of TEB at higher biological levels. The present study reinforces the suitability of using E. affinis as an ecotoxicological model.

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