This paper designs an energy allocation scheme based on maximum flow modeling for a microgrid containing renewable energy generators and consumer facilities. Basically, the flow graph consists of a set of nodes representing consumers or generators as well as a set of weighted links representing the amount of energy generation, consumer-side demand, and transmission cable capacity. The main idea lies in that a special node is added to account for the interaction with the main grid and that two-pass allocation is executed. In the first pass, the maximum flow solver decides the amount of the insufficiency and thus how much to purchase from the main grid. The second pass runs the flow solver again to fill the energy lack and calculates the surplus of renewable energy generation. The performance measurement result obtained from a prototype implementation shows that the generated energy is stably distributed over multiple consumers until the energy generation reaches the maximum link capacity.
People asserting that SMRs are the primary or only answer to energy generation either don’t know what they are talking about, are actively dissembling or are intentionally delaying climate action.
Valorization of agro-food waste through anaerobic digestion (AD) is gaining prominence as alternative method of waste minimization and renewable energy production. The aim of this study was to identify the key parameters for digester performance subjected to kinetic study and semicontinuous operation. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted in two different operating conditions: without mixing (WM) and continuous mixing (CM). Three different substrates, including food waste (FW), chicken dung (CD), and codigestion of FW and CD (FWCD) were used. Further kinetic evaluation was performed to identify mixing’s effect on kinetic parameters and correlation of the kinetic parameters with digester performance (volatile solid removal (VS%) and specific methane production (SMP)). The four models applied were: modified Gompertz, logistic, first-order, and Monod. It was found that the CM mode revealed higher values of Rm and k as compared to the WM mode, and the trend was consistently observed in the modified Gompertz model. Nonetheless, the logistic model demonstrated good correlation of kinetic parameters with VS% and SMP. In the continuous systems, the optimum OLR was recorded at 4, 5, and 7 g VS/L/d for FW, CD, and FWCD respectively. Therefore, it was deduced that codigestion significantly improved digester performance. Electrical energy generation at the laboratory scale was 0.002, 0.003, and 0.006 kWh for the FW, CD, and FWCD substrates, respectively. Thus, projected electrical energy generation at the on-farm scale was 372 kWh, 382 kWh, and 518 kWh per day, respectively. Hence, the output could be used as a precursor for large-scale digester-system optimization.
Temporary structures are being extensively used by emergency services (rescue, disaster relief, military response units), and other end-users requiring temporary mobile off-grid energy solutions for different purposes (event organization, vacation homes, summer camps, etc.). Yet energy systems for these purposes largely remain fossil-based (such as diesel generators). Although such energy systems are inexpensive, they are carbon intensive and inefficient. This study presents a methodology of simulating temporary shelter with access to an energy supply system through a mobile energy unit with renewable (PV) power supply systems to ensure on-site electricity production, as well as heating/cooling and ventilation. Digital modeling simulations have been performed for a simulated temporary shelter in different climate conditions incorporating different combinations of electricity generation systems with a fossil fuel-based solution and a PV system, using TRNSYS software. Study results show that the operation of a mobile energy generation unit can operate HVAC systems and generate electricity for temporary shelter occupants in off-grid solutions. The modeling results show that the use of a mobile energy generation unit can significantly reduce diesel consumption in temporary shelters from 54% annually (in Riga, Latvia) to 96 % annually (in Jerusalem, Israel). Furthermore, the output of PV-generated electricity is higher (in most cases) than the consumed electricity amount.