Military Medicine
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Published By Oxford University Press

1930-613x, 0026-4075

2022 ◽  
Serica J Hallstead

ABSTRACT On the surface, the Commissioning Oath and modernized Hippocratic Oath can contradict one another. This piece aims to provide a foundation upon which trainees and providers can grapple with dueling obligations as they stand in the crosshairs of the intersection between medicine and the military.

2022 ◽  
Catherine E Runge ◽  
Katrina M Moss ◽  
Judith A Dean ◽  
Michael Waller

ABSTRACT Introduction Post-deployment health surveys completed by military personnel ask about a range of deployment experiences. These surveys are conducted to determine if there are links between experiences and poor health. Responses to open-ended questions in these surveys can identify experiences that might otherwise go unreported. These responses may increase knowledge about a particular deployment and inform future surveys. This study documented deployment experiences described by Australian Defence Force personnel who were deployed to the Middle East. Materials and Methods A survey completed by 14,032 personnel examined health outcomes and over 100 experiences relating to their Middle East deployment. Responses to two open-ended questions captured additional experiences. Descriptive statistics reveal the characteristics of those who did and did not describe additional experiences, and a content analysis details the nature and frequency of the experiences reported. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Results Five percentage (n = 692) of personnel who completed the survey described additional deployment experiences. The most frequently reported experiences were specific Navy experiences; experiences of poor leadership; administrative or organizational issues; the anthrax vaccine; and traumatic events/potentially morally injurious experiences. Conclusions The findings suggest that post-deployment health surveys should have questions about certain deployment experiences tailored by military service (i.e., Air Force, Army, and Navy). Researchers could consider including questions about personnel experiences of leadership for its impact on health and about potentially morally injurious experiences that may help explain adverse mental health. Clear wording of open-ended questions and participant instructions may improve response rates and reduce response biases.

2022 ◽  
Peter J Hoover ◽  
Caitlyn A Nix ◽  
Juliana Z Llop ◽  
Lisa H Lu ◽  
Amy O Bowles ◽  

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlations between the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and other questionnaires commonly administered within military traumatic brain injury clinics. Setting Military outpatient traumatic brain injury clinics. Participants In total, 15,428 active duty service members who completed 24,162 NSI questionnaires between March 2009 and May 2020. Design Observational retrospective analysis of questionnaires collected as part of standard clinical care. Main Measures NSI, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 and Military Version, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Abbreviated Version. Only questionnaires completed on the same date as the NSI were examined. Results The total NSI score was moderately to strongly correlated with all questionnaires except for the AUDIT. The strongest correlation was between the NSI Affective Score and the PHQ9 (r  = 0.86). The NSI Vestibular Score was moderately correlated with the ABC (r = –0.55) and strongly correlated with the DHI (r = 0.77). At the item level, the HIT-6 showed strong correlation with NSI headache (r = 0.80), the ISI was strongly correlated with NSI difficulty sleeping (r = 0.63), and the ESS was moderately correlated with NSI fatigue (r = 0.39). Conclusion Clinicians and healthcare administrators can use the correlations reported in this study to determine if questionnaires add incremental value for their clinic as well as to make more informed decisions regarding which questionnaires to administer.

2022 ◽  
Jason J Sico ◽  
Franz Macedo ◽  
Jeffrey Lewis ◽  
Christopher Spevak ◽  
Rebecca Vogsland ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction In June of 2020, the U.S. DVA and DoD approved a new joint clinical practice guideline for assessing and managing patients with headache. This guideline provides a framework to evaluate, treat, and longitudinally manage the individual needs and preferences of patients with headache. Methods In October of 2018, the DVA/DoD Evidence-Based Practice Work Group convened a guideline development panel that included clinical stakeholders and conformed to the National Academy of Medicine’s tenets for trustworthy clinical practice guidelines. Results The guideline panel developed key questions, systematically searched and evaluated the literature, created a 1-page algorithm, and advanced 42 recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. Conclusion This synopsis summarizes the key features of the guideline in three areas: prevention, assessing and treating medication overuse headache, and nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management of headache.

2022 ◽  
Kyle Hannabass ◽  
Jivianne Lee

ABSTRACT Introduction The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend all patient information and consent materials be provided at the fourth- to sixth-grade level. The iMed Consent platform is used nationally by the Veterans Health Administration and private hospitals. We aimed to assess the readability of otolaryngology consents at the West Los Angeles Veterans Affairs (WLA-VA) hospital to determine whether they conform with AMA/NIH guidelines. Materials and Methods A readability analysis of 27 otolaryngology iMed consent documents was performed. The main outcome measure was the Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). The setting of the study was an otolaryngology clinic at a major VA hospital. All consents used in the WLA-VA otolaryngology clinic for the month of October 2018 were analyzed using readability metrics. These included the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score, the FKGL, the Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Coleman–Liau Index (CLI). Results The following means of all consents were calculated for each of the readability metrics: FRE 56.3, FKGL 8.3, GFI 14.5, SMOG 11.3, and CLI 11.2. The standardized anesthesia and blood consent were analyzed separately with the following scores: FRE 45.1, FKGL 11.7, GFI 15.5, SMOG 14.6, and CLI 12.6. The average FKGL of the consents was found to be significantly above the sixth-grade level (P: .0013). Conclusion The average grade level of the otolaryngology iMed consents reviewed was at a reading level above the AMA/NIH recommendations. This objective measure should be taken into consideration when revising the iMed system and in the creation of future standardized consents. Readability analysis does not take into consideration the significant variance that exists as part of the verbal consent process that takes place between patient and provider.

2022 ◽  
Christopher J Scheiber ◽  
Lemar M Simmons ◽  
Richard D Neading ◽  
Casey F Becker ◽  
Tyler R Scarborough ◽  

ABSTRACT The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a threat to global health, including the health of deployed armed forces. Servicemembers had to adjust to the “new normal” while maintaining the interests of the nation’s security as well as that of our host nation partners. This commentary examines how Special Operations Forces operating within four different regions worldwide leveraged the challenges presented by the onset of this pandemic in maintaining stability, sustaining a ready force, and operating forward deployed. Deployed forces face constant difficulties with logistical support, varied medical resources access and a medical system predominantly focused on trauma care. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic there was little guidance specific to these circumstances which required an improvised adaptation of the recommendations set by national and Department of Defense medical authorities. Plans were constantly revised to match the ever changing medical and operational environment. Strategies such as the “Bubble Philosophy” and tiered force protection measures helped our units to maintain a rigorous training cycle. New methods of communication and training with our host nation partners such as the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) platforms to survey host nation training became standard. Through these measures all of our forces were able to maintain operational capacity, protect the force, and maintain rapport with the host nations. We hope these experiences will provide a rough framework for future forces faced with a similar struggle. We also want to stress that challenges vary depending on the area of operations and the pathogen responsible for the pandemic. Any feedback and collaboration that may come from this work is appreciated and encouraged.

2022 ◽  
Anita S Hargrave ◽  
Leigh Kimberg ◽  
Edward L Machtinger ◽  
Margot B Kushel ◽  
Beth E Cohen

ABSTRACT Background Despite programs to address housing for Veterans, they continue to be at high risk of unstable housing. Interpersonal violence is also highly prevalent among Veterans and may contribute to unstable housing. Our study aimed to determine whether interpersonal violence was associated with unstable housing among Veterans, and how this association was influenced by common co-occurring conditions such as substance use and mental illness. Methods Veterans in the Mind Your Heart Study (N = 741) completed survey data on history of interpersonal violence and access to housing in the prior year. Interpersonal violence was defined as experiencing sexual violence, physical violence, or mugging/physical attack using the Brief Trauma Questionnaire. Multivariable models examined associations between interpersonal violence and unstable housing. Primary models were adjusted for age and sex. Potential explanatory factors were added in subsequent models, including marital status, education, income, substance use disorder, PTSD, and other mental illness. Results Veterans who had experienced interpersonal violence had almost twice the odds of unstable housing after adjustment for age and sex (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–3.0). This association was attenuated in the fully adjusted model including substance use, PTSD, and other mental illness, illustrating the interdependence of these factors (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 0.91–2.5). Subtypes of interpersonal violence were individually associated with increased odds of unstable housing after adjustment for age and sex (physical abuse AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5; mugging/physical attack AOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7; sexual violence AOR 1.4, 95% CI 0.89–2.2), but were no longer significant in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Previous experiences of interpersonal violence were associated with unstable housing among Veterans. Substance use, PTSD, and other mental illness played an important role in this relationship—highlighting the potential to improve health outcomes through trauma informed approaches that address mental health, substance use, and housing concurrently.

2022 ◽  
Bryan Terlizzi ◽  
T Cade Abrams ◽  
Ryan S Sacko ◽  
Amy F Hand ◽  
Kyle Silvey ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction The development of functional motor competence (FMC; i.e., neuromuscular coordination and control required to meet a wide range of movement goals) is critical to long-term development of health- and performance-related physical capacities (e.g., muscular strength and power, muscular endurance, and aerobic endurance). Secular decline in FMC among U.S. children and adolescents presents current and future challenges for recruiting prospective military personnel to successfully perform the physical demands of military duty. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between FMC and physical military readiness (PMR) in a group of Cadets enrolled in an Army Reserve Officer Training Corps program. Materials and Methods Ninety Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Cadets from a southeastern university and a military college in the southeast (females = 22; Mage = 19.5 ± 2.5) volunteered for participation in the study. Cadets performed a battery of eight FMC assessments consisting of locomotor, object projection, and functional coordination tasks. To assess PMR, Cadets performed the Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT). Values from all FMC assessments were standardized based on the sample and summed to create a composite FMC score. ACFT scores were assigned to Cadets based upon ACFT scoring standards. We used Pearson correlations to assess the relationships between individual FMC assessment raw scores, FMC composite scores, and total ACFT points. We also evaluated the potential impact of FMC on ACFT in the entire sample and within each gender subgroup using hierarchical linear regression. Finally, we implemented a 3 × 2 chi-squared analysis to evaluate the predictive utility of FMC level on pass/fail results on the ACFT by categorizing Cadets’ composite FMC score into high (≥75th percentile) moderate (≥25th percentile and <75th percentile), and low (<25th percentile) based on the percentile ranks within the sample. ACFT pass/fail results were determined using ACFT standards, requiring a minimum of 60 points on each the ACFT subtests. Results FMC composite scores correlated strongly with total ACFT performance (r = 0.762) with individual FMC tests demonstrating weak-to-strong relationships ACFT performance (r = 0.200–0.769). FMC uniquely accounted for 15% (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.36) of the variance in ACFT scores in females (R2 = 0.516, F2,19 = 10.11, P < 0.001) and 26% (95% CI: 0.09–0.43) in males (R2 = 0.385, F2,65 = 20.37, P < 0.001), respectively, above and beyond the impact of age. The 3 × 2 chi-squared analysis demonstrated 74% of those with low, 28% with moderate, and 17% with high FMC failed the ACFT (χ2 [1, N = 90] = 27.717, V = 0.555, P < 0.001). Conclusion FMC composite scores are strongly correlated with ACFT scores, and low levels of FMC were a strong predictor of ACFT failure. These data support the hypothesis that the development of sufficient FMC in childhood and adolescence may be a critical antecedent for PMR. Efforts to improve FMC in children and adolescents may increase PMR of future military recruits.

2022 ◽  
Regina Oeschger ◽  
Lilian Roos ◽  
Thomas Wyss ◽  
Mark J Buller ◽  
Bertil J Veenstra ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction In military service, marching is an important, common, and physically demanding task. Minimizing dropouts, maintaining operational readiness during the march, and achieving a fast recovery are desirable because the soldiers have to be ready for duty, sometimes shortly after an exhausting task. The present field study investigated the influence of the soldiers’ cardiorespiratory fitness on physiological responses during a long-lasting and challenging 34 km march. Materials and Methods Heart rate (HR), body core temperature (BCT), total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, motivation, and pain sensation were investigated in 44 soldiers (20.3 ± 1.3 years, 178.5 ± 7.0 cm, 74.8 ± 9.8 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 2.7 kg × m−2, peak oxygen uptake ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak): 54.2 ± 7.9 mL × kg−1 × min−1) during almost 8 hours of marching. All soldiers were equipped with a portable electrocardiogram to record HR and an accelerometer on the hip, all swallowed a telemetry pill to record BCT, and all filled out a pre- and post-march questionnaire. The influence of aerobic capacity on the physiological responses during the march was examined by dividing the soldiers into three fitness groups according to their $\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak. Results The group with the lowest aerobic capacity ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak: 44.9 ± 4.8 mL × kg−1 × min−1) compared to the group with the highest aerobic capacity ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak: 61.7 ± 2.2 mL × kg−1 × min−1) showed a significantly higher (P < .05) mean HR (133 ± 9 bpm and 125 ± 8 bpm, respectively) as well as peak BCT (38.6 ± 0.3 and 38.4 ± 0.2 °C, respectively) during the march. In terms of recovery ability during the break, no significant differences could be identified between the three groups in either HR or BCT. The energy deficit during the march was remarkably high, as the soldiers could only replace 22%, 26%, and 36% of the total energy expenditure in the lower, middle, and higher fitness group, respectively. The cardiorespiratory fittest soldiers showed a significantly higher motivation to perform when compared to the least cardiorespiratory fit soldiers (P = .002; scale from 1 [not at all] to 10 [extremely]; scale difference of 2.3). A total of nine soldiers (16%) had to end marching early: four soldiers (21%) in the group with the lowest aerobic capacity, five (28%) in the middle group, and none in the highest group. Conclusion Soldiers with a high $\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak showed a lower mean HR and peak BCT throughout the long-distance march, as well as higher performance motivation, no dropouts, and lower energy deficit. All soldiers showed an enormous energy deficit; therefore, corresponding nutritional strategies are recommended.

2022 ◽  
James T Bates ◽  
Christopher W Kelly ◽  
Joshua E Lane

ABSTRACT Introduction Exsanguination is the leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield and in austere environments. Multiple courses have been developed to save lives by stopping hemorrhage. Training for this requires simulation models; however, many models are expensive, preventing the further expansion of this life-saving training. We present a low-cost model for hemorrhage training and realistic moulage based on simple medical supplies and grocery store meats. Materials and Methods Wound packing training was completed by use of a block of pork shoulder roast with an incision simulating a wound and IV tubing connected to a syringe with fake blood. Hemostasis was obtained with proper wound packing by the student, causing the bleeding to be tamponaded. Wound moulage utilized remaining supplies of pork roast being attached to patient actors or mannequins and adorned with fake blood creating wounds with the appearance and feel of real tissues. Results Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training was completed at a small military medical facility with a start-up cost of less than $70 and a single course as cheap as $15. These methods have been utilized to establish other TCCC training centers while keeping costs low. Conclusions We present low-cost models for simulating massive hemorrhage for wound packing with pork roast and realistic moulage. These methods can be utilized for other hemorrhage training courses such as TCCC, Advanced Wilderness Life Support, and Stop the Bleed.

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