body image disturbance
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2022 ◽  
pp. 15-44
Erin Ziegler

Aim To analyze the concept of body image disturbance in female adolescents using online learning platforms as a phenomenon of interest to nurse practitioners and other health care practitioners. Background With the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of online learning platforms as a primary mode of learning has increased exponentially among adolescents. While research is still lacking in this field, the literature on traditional social media suggests that these online learning platforms may negatively influence body image and emotional outcomes. Particularly vulnerable to these outcomes are female adolescents, whose construction of own body image is highly influenced by their self-perceived evaluation from their peers. While the concept of body image disturbance is well defined in adolescent eating disorders, it has not been characterized in the context of online learning platforms. Defining the concept of body image disturbance in this context is crucial for recognizing its occurrence and providing early intervention. Methods The Walker and Avant method of concept analysis was used to analyze the concept. Findings The defining attributes of body image disturbance among female adolescents using online learning platforms are: (1) Viewing a digitally distorted image of oneself and feeling displeasure with the perceived appearance; (2) Self-surveillance of one’s appearance; and (3) Upward comparison of one’s appearance with others and experiencing feelings of inadequacy. Conclusion As COVID-19 continues to disrupt the traditional school experience, nurse practitioners can use the presented scenarios, along with examples of questionnaires noted in this study, to recognize and delineate the occurrence of body image disturbance in female adolescents using online learning platforms. A standardized definition of the concept will enable nurse practitioners to recognize its occurrence and to provide interventions in a timely manner.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262513
Yumi Hamamoto ◽  
Shinsuke Suzuki ◽  
Motoaki Sugiura

Body-image disturbance comprises two components. The first is perceptual in nature, and is measured by a discrepancy between one’s actual body and perceived self-image (“perceived–actual discrepancy”). The other component is affective, and is measured by a discrepancy between one’s perceived self-image and ideal body image (“perceived–ideal discrepancy”). The present study evaluated the relationships between body-image disturbance and characteristics of eating disorders such as symptoms and related personality traits. In a psychophysiological experiment, female university students (mean ± SD age = 21.0 ± 1.38 years) were presented with silhouette images of their own bodies that were distorted in terms of width. The participants were asked whether each silhouette image was more overweight than their actual or ideal body images. Eating-disorder characteristics were assessed using six factors from the Japanese version of the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI2). We found that perceived–actual discrepancies correlated with negative self-evaluation (i.e., factor 3 of the EDI2), whereas perceived–ideal discrepancies correlated with dissatisfaction with one’s own body (i.e., factor 2 of EDI2). These results imply that distinct psychological mechanisms underlie the two components of body-image disturbance.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0243680
Valentina Cazzato ◽  
Sofia Sacchetti ◽  
Shelby Shin ◽  
Adarsh Makdani ◽  
Paula D. Trotter ◽  

Recent evidence suggests that altered responses to affective touch—a pleasant interoceptive stimulus associated with activation of the C-Tactile (CT) system—may contribute to the aetiology and maintenance of mental conditions characterised by body image disturbances (e.g., Anorexia Nervosa). Here, we investigated whether tactile pleasantness and intensity differ across body sites, and if individual differences in dysmorphic appearance concerns and body and emotional awareness might be associated with touch perceptions across body sites. To this end, we measured perceived pleasantness and intensity of gentle, dynamic stroking touches applied to the palm, forearm, face, abdomen and back of 30 female participants (mean age: 25.87±1.17yrs) using CT-optimal (3 cm/s) and non-CT optimal (0.3 and 30 cm/s) stroking touch. As expected, participants rated CT-targeted touch as more pleasant compared to the two non-CT optimal stroking touch at all body sites. Regardless of stroking velocity, touch applied to the abdomen elicited the lowest pleasantness ratings. Lower levels of emotional awareness, greater levels of interoceptive sensibility and of dysmorphic concerns were associated with lower preference for CT-optimal stroking touch applied to the forearm and the back. These findings begin to elucidate the link between CT sensitivity, dysmorphic appearance concerns and body and emotional awareness, which may have implications for future research looking to inform early interventions. Addressing impaired processing of affective interoceptive stimuli, such as CT-targeted touch, may be the key to current treatment approaches available for those populations at risk of disorders characterised by body image disturbance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 93-114
Ruolan Deng

Globally, the influx of Western mass media in non-Western societies has coexisted with the beauty standard of the thin ideal. Therefore, body-image disturbance becomes an emerging issue in Chinese culture as well. Using surveys, this research investigated the perceptual discrepancy between the perceived impact of idealized thin models on self and on others according to the third-person effect theory among mainland Chinese overseas undergraduate female students in Malaysia. It found that respondents perceived that the thin models in TV advertisements exerted a greater impact on others than on themselves. The role of social difference and gender was demonstrated in determining the size of the perceptual gap. This perceptual gap could lead to dieting, excessive exercising, and the likelihood of liposuction undertaking as well as body dissatisfaction. Theoretically, it expands third-person effect theory in body image field in mainland China context. It also gives practical implications to solve body image disturbance among Chinese females.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
Andrea S. Hartmann ◽  
Eva Naumann ◽  
Silja Vocks ◽  
Jennifer Svaldi ◽  
Jessica Werthmann

Background Body image disturbance (BID) is a hallmark feature of eating disorders (EDs) and has proven to be involved in their etiology and maintenance. Therefore, the targeting of BID in treatment is crucial, and has been incorporated in various treatment manuals. One of the most common techniques in the treatment of BID is body exposure (BE), the confrontation with one’s own body. BE has been found to be effective in individuals with EDs or high body dissatisfaction. However, BE is applied in a multitude of ways, most of which are based on one or a combination of the hypothesized underlying working mechanisms, with no differential effectiveness known so far. Method The aim of this paper is to selectively review the main hypothesized working mechanisms of BE and their translation into therapeutic approaches. Results and Conclusion Specifically, we underline that studies are needed to pinpoint the proposed mechanisms and to develop an empirically informed theoretical model of BE. We provide a framework for future studies in order to identify working mechanisms and increase effectiveness of BE.

2021 ◽  
Vol 162 (39) ◽  
pp. 1558-1566
László V. Módis ◽  
Antónia Szántó ◽  
Antal Bugán

Összefoglaló. A primer Sjögren-szindróma (pSS) krónikus autoimmun betegség, melynek elsődleges tünetei az exokrin mirigyeket érintő autoimmun folyamat következtében létrejövő szem- és szájszárazság, szisztémás manifesztációi között pedig a leggyakoribbak a szellemi és fizikai fáradtság és az ízületi fájdalmak. A betegség lélektani vonatkozásait nagy érdeklődés övezi; közleményünk a vonatkozó kutatási eredményeket foglalja össze a hátterükben húzódó pszichoneuroimmunmodulációs háttér rövid bemutatásával. A pSS pszichológiai tényezői közt a legrégebben vizsgáltak a depresszió és a szorongás. Ezek jelentős hatással vannak a betegek életminőségére, jóllétére, kognitív funkcióira, sőt a betegség aktivitására is. Bemutatjuk továbbá a stressz és a megküzdési stratégiák jellegzetes mintázatait pSS-ben, amelyek közt a betegségre jellemző maladaptív stratégiák a legjelentősebbek a patogenezis megértése és a kezelés szempontjából. Ilyenek a tagadás, a hasítás és a helyettesítés. Kitérünk a Sjögren-szindrómát kísérő személyiségjellemzőkre is, amely ígéretes terület, de kevés adat áll rendelkezésünkre; az eddigi vizsgálatok alapján a neuroticismus a leginkább pSS-re jellemző tényező. A kognitív funkciók érintettségének összefoglalása és az egyéb pszichológiai tényezők (szellemi fáradtság, szexualitás, testképzavar, életminőség) összegzése után egyértelműen levonható a következtetés, hogy a Sjögren-szindróma nemcsak biológiai, hanem pszichés, pszichoszociális és szociális jelenségszinteken is okoz zavarokat, tüneteket. Ezért rendkívül fontos a betegség biopszichoszociális szemléletű kezelése, a betegek aktív, intencionális részvétele a pSS-sel való megküzdésben. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(39): 1558–1566. Summary. Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a chronic, autoimmune disorder. Primary symptoms are ocular and oral dryness as a of an autoimmune process affecting the exocrine glands. The most common systemic manifestations of the disease are mental and physical fatigue and arthralgia. Psychological features of pSS are studied with great interest; the present publication reviews the results of the related investigations alongside with the possible psychoneuroimmunomodulatory background. Among psychological factors in pSS, depression and anxiety have been studied the longest. These impact significantly the quality of life, wellbeing, cognitive functions and disease activity of the patients. Afterwards, we introduce the characteristic patterns of stress and coping mechanisms in pSS, among which maladaptive strategies, typical for the disorder are the most important regarding the pathogenesis and the therapy. These pSS-linked maladaptive strategies are denial, disengagement and focus and venting of emotions. As next, we give a summary about personality characteristics in pSS, which is a promising field to study, and yet very few related data are available; based on them, neuroticism seems to be the most common personality factor in Sjögren’s. After summarizing briefly cognitive functions and other psychological features (mental fatigue, sexuality, body image disturbance and quality of life), it is evident that pSS is determined not only by biological but also by psychological, psychosocial and social disturbances. Hence, treating pSS patients with a biopsychosocial perspective is crucial and so is the active and intentional participation of patients in their recovery. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(39): 1558–1566.

2021 ◽  
Tim Julian Hartung ◽  
Michael Friedrich ◽  
Peter Esser ◽  
Anja Mehnert ◽  
Antje Lehmann-Laue ◽  

Objective: To translate the cancer-specific Body Image Scale (BIS) into German and to validate the translated version by assessing its psychometric properties. Methods: The state-of-the-art translation of the BIS was tested in (i) a psychosocial cancer counselling center in Leipzig and (ii) oncological wards in Berlin, Germany. Composite reliability and factor structure were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Item response theory (IRT)-based analyses were performed. Convergent validity was assessed via correlation with another body image questionnaire (BAS) as well as psychological symptom burden (PHQ-9, GAD-2 and DT). Psychosocial and clinical group differences were assessed using t-tests. Results: 677 patients participated (response rate 78%). Composite reliability was 0.92 and the average variance extracted was above 50%. All items had a discriminating power above the established threshold of b = 0.5 and showed optimal discriminatory power at relatively high severity levels of body image disturbance (BID) (b = 0.89-2.06). Test information was highest in patients with moderate BID ( = 1.36). The BIS was negatively correlated with the BAS (r = -0.62, p < 0.001) and positively with psychological symptom burden (e.g. PHQ-9: r = 0.49, p < 0.001). Patients who were younger, female, had undergone chemotherapy and those who were distressed by fatigue, their appearance or sexual problems had significantly higher BID. Conclusions: The German version of the BIS is a valid tool to assess BID in patients with cancer. Normative data are needed to better interpret individual scores within the clinical context.

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