Eating Disorders
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 100275
Belén Pascual-Vera ◽  
Burcin Akin ◽  
Amparo Belloch ◽  
Gioia Bottesi ◽  
David A. Clark ◽  

2021 ◽  
Riccardo Dalle Grave ◽  
Carine el Khazen

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Whitney Smith Hagan ◽  
Susan Mericle ◽  
Bethany J. Hunt ◽  
Jessica A. Harper ◽  
Jayme M. Palka ◽  

Abstract Background Problems in social cognition and social support contribute to eating disorders (ED). Group therapy provides an ideal format to create an experiential learning environment focused on understanding social interactions. This pilot study examined the qualitative content of the participants’ experiences in the Self-Blame and Perspective-Taking Intervention (SBPI) for ED. Methods The SBPI was a 4-week group therapy intervention involving art therapy and psychoeducation that focused on social behaviors in ED patients. Participants received surveys immediately after the intervention and at 1 to 4 weeks after the post-intervention. Thematic analyses of qualitative feedback were performed using Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis framework. Results Inductive analyses revealed three main themes: (1) Developing self-acceptance through emotional reflection, (2) Changing expectations with neurosocial knowledge, and (3) Bonding and vulnerability in social interactions; all concepts intentionally targeted by the SBPI. Participants varied in their support of a guideline to exclude personal discussion of ED-related cognitions and behaviors in the group. Conclusions As a whole, patients valued the combination of psychosocial education with group experientials focused on social behavior. Positive feedback from the SBPI suggests that adjunctive treatments that target mental-wellness constructs indirectly related to ED pathology may be helpful by allowing patients to see themselves as separable from the illness. Trial registration, NCT0487758. Registered 7 May 2021—Retrospectively registered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (20) ◽  
pp. 11086
Jacopo Pruccoli ◽  
Antonia Parmeggiani ◽  
Duccio Maria Cordelli ◽  
Marcello Lanari

Noradrenaline (NE) is a catecholamine acting as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone, with relevant effects in modulating feeding behavior and satiety. Several studies have assessed the relationship between the noradrenergic system and Eating Disorders (EDs). This systematic review aims to report the existing literature on the role of the noradrenergic system in the development and treatment of EDs. A total of 35 studies were included. Preclinical studies demonstrated an involvement of the noradrenergic pathways in binge-like behaviors. Genetic studies on polymorphisms in genes coding for NE transporters and regulating enzymes have shown conflicting evidence. Clinical studies have reported non-unanimous evidence for the existence of absolute alterations in plasma NE values in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Pharmacological studies have documented the efficacy of noradrenaline-modulating therapies in the treatment of BN and Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Insufficient evidence was found concerning the noradrenergic-mediated genetics of BED and BN, and psychopharmacological treatments targeting the noradrenergic system in AN. According to these data, further studies are required to expand the existing knowledge on the noradrenergic system as a potential target for treatments of EDs.

2021 ◽  
Stephen Gadsby

Many who suffer from eating disorders claim that they see themselves as “fat”. Despite decades of research into the phenomenon, behavioural evidence has failed to confirm that eating disorders involve visual misperception of own-body size. I illustrate the importance of this phenomenon for our understanding of perceptual processing, outline the challenges involved in experimentally confirming it, and provide solutions to those challenges.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Selma Ø. Lie ◽  
Cynthia M. Bulik ◽  
Ole A. Andreassen ◽  
Øyvind Rø ◽  
Lasse Bang

Abstract Background Experiencing stressful life events (SLEs) can negatively impact mental health and increase risk for psychiatric disorders including eating disorders (EDs). Previous research has shown that childhood sexual abuse is associated with some EDs, but less is known about the association between other non-sexual SLEs and EDs. Method A case-control study of individuals with (n = 495, age mean ± SD = 29.1 ± 9.8 years) and without (n = 395, age = 30.2 ± 11.7) self-reported lifetime history of EDs was conducted to compare history of self-reported SLEs. Participants reported history of sexual (e.g., rape, other sexual assault) and non-sexual (e.g., emotional abuse, assault, bereavement) life events using an adaptation of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Individuals with EDs were divided into ED subtypes along the restricting – binge eating/purging spectrum to examine subtype differences. Logistic regressions were conducted for each SLE and ED subtype to obtain odds ratios (ORs). We report p-values corrected for multiple comparisons. Results Exposure to any SLE was significantly more common in individuals with EDs than in controls (OR = 2.47, p < .001). Specifically, rape, other sexual assault, and emotional abuse were significantly more common among individuals with a history of binge-eating/purging ED subtypes (ORs = 2.15–3.58, p’s < .01) compared with controls. Furthermore, history of life-threatening disease and loss of a close relative/partner/friend were associated with some ED subtypes. The association between SLEs and EDs was stronger for individuals who had experienced multiple SLEs. Conclusion By investigating a range of different SLEs, we showed that both sexual and non-sexual SLEs were more common in individuals with a history of EDs (binge-eating/purging subtypes) than controls. Results highlight the importance of assessing a variety of past SLEs in risk assessment for different EDs.

2021 ◽  
peiying yang ◽  
Qian Yu ◽  
Fabian Herold ◽  
Jing Sun ◽  
Jinming Li ◽  

Objective: The present study aimed to examine the role of BMI, body image inflexibility, and anxiety to eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in a sample of college students. Participants: 878 habitual exercisers (M age = 20.09 years, SD = 1.76 years) in a large urban university participated in this study. They had an exercise frequency not less than 3 days per week. Methods: Participants filled out demographic information, exercise behavior, questionnaire for exercise dependence (EDS-R), eating disorder (EDE-QS), body image inflexibility (BI-AAQ), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7).Results: After controlling for age, gender and major, lower BMI was linked to more exercise dependence symptoms but not significant (β=-0.04, p=0.26). In contrast, greater BMI was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing eating disorder (β=-0.08, p&lt;0.001). Moreover, higher body image inflexibility is significantly positive contributed to not only sever exercise dependence (β=0.26, p&lt;0.001), but also abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors (β=0.74, p&lt;0.001). Furthermore, generalized anxiety is a significant contributor to exercise dependence symptoms (β=0.14, p&lt;0.001) but not eating disorder symptoms (β=0.02, p=0.43).Conclusions: Body image inflexibility is the common contributor to developing exercise dependence and eating disorders, suggesting that the prevention and treatment of disordered eating and exercise dependence should involve the improvement of psychological flexibility. In addition, the individual with higher BMI is more vulnerable for developing eating disorder, while those who have the sever anxiety symptoms should be given more attention to screen for exercise dependence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Shawn Hayley ◽  
Hongyu Sun

AbstractIt is well accepted that environmental stressors experienced over a one’s life, from microbial infections to chemical toxicants to even psychological stressors, ultimately shape central nervous system (CNS) functioning but can also contribute to its eventual breakdown. The severity, timing and type of such environmental “hits”, woven together with genetic factors, likely determine what CNS outcomes become apparent. This focused review assesses the current COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of a multi-hit framework and disuses how the SARS-COV-2 virus (causative agent) might impact the brain and potentially interact with other environmental insults. What the long-term consequences of SAR2 COV-2 upon neuronal processes is yet unclear, but emerging evidence is suggesting the possibility of microglial or other inflammatory factors as potentially contributing to neurodegenerative illnesses. Finally, it is critical to consider the impact of the virus in the context of the substantial psychosocial stress that has been associated with the global pandemic. Indeed, the loneliness, fear to the future and loss of social support alone has exerted a massive impact upon individuals, especially the vulnerable very young and the elderly. The substantial upswing in depression, anxiety and eating disorders is evidence of this and in the years to come, this might be matched by a similar spike in dementia, as well as motor and cognitive neurodegenerative diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Enrica Marzola ◽  
Renee D. Rienecke ◽  
Valentina Cardi ◽  
Cheri A. Levinson

Megan N. Parker ◽  
Megan L. Wilkinson ◽  
Rowan A. Hunt ◽  
Alessandra Ortiz ◽  
Stephanie M. Manasse ◽  

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