Future Studies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Wanyu Liu ◽  
Michelle Agnes Magalhaes ◽  
Wendy E. Mackay ◽  
Michel Beaudouin-Lafon ◽  
Frédéric Bevilacqua

With the increasing interest in movement sonification and expressive gesture-based interaction, it is important to understand which factors contribute to movement learning and how. We explore the effects of movement sonification and users’ musical background on motor variability in complex gesture learning. We contribute an empirical study in which musicians and non-musicians learn two gesture sequences over three days, with and without movement sonification. Results show the interlaced interaction effects of these factors and how they unfold in the three-day learning process. For gesture 1, which is fast and dynamic with a direct “action-sound” sonification, movement sonification induces higher variability for both musicians and non-musicians on day 1. While musicians reduce this variability to a similar level as no auditory feedback condition on day 2 and day 3, non-musicians remain to have significantly higher variability. Across three days, musicians also have significantly lower variability than non-musicians. For gesture 2, which is slow and smooth with an “action-music” metaphor, there are virtually no effects. Based on these findings, we recommend future studies to take into account participants’ musical background, consider longitudinal study to examine these effects on complex gestures, and use awareness when interpreting the results given a specific design of gesture and sound.

Rey Jan Pusta

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions in the Philippines rapidly introduced widespread online learning to ensure safety of learners. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship of social determinants of health with COVID-19 specific psychological distress and the readiness of Filipino students to learn online. Researchers conducted an online survey of 30 college students from the Psychology program of Ateneo de Davao University in Davao City, Philippines. Results showed that students experienced mild (53.3%) to severe (36.7%) levels of COVID-19 specific psychological distress. COVID-19 specific psychological distress and readiness for online learning was not significantly correlated, r (30) = -.18, p = .35. Among social determinants of health, only living with family members was significantly associated with readiness for online learning, r (30) = -.37, p = .046. These findings showed promising findings on how social determinants of health may be associated with distress and online learner readiness during a global pandemic. Future studies may elaborate on the subjective experiences of students. Finally, this pilot study serves as a basis for the development of school programs that address students’ mental health and promote online learning readiness of students who are experiencing unique learning circumstances.

2022 ◽  
Alex Gomez-Marin

This work addresses Sri Aurobindo’s mantric poem, Savitri, with a computational linguistics approach. This is one of the longest poems ever written in English. We build the connectivity matrix between all main word pairs and analyse its structure. Concepts emerge as directions that better explain the variance of the data in the hyperspace of words. When projected to the low dimensional space of concepts, the vector of attention as the reader moves through the text shows a large correlation across sections of the poem, thus acting the future and the past over again. These findings suggest that the mathematical structure of Savitri is and reflects a substrate for the author’s main ideas, facilitating the reader’s understanding of the poem’s meaning via its long-range dynamical correlations. Acknowledging an irreducible essence to poetry, future studies on the relationship between words and sounds, and sounds and ideas may provide invaluable hints of the origin of language and its intimate relationship with the evolution of human consciousness.

Kelly Virecoulon Giudici ◽  
Sophie Guyonnet ◽  
John E Morley ◽  
Andrew D Nguyen ◽  
Geetika Aggarwal ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the interaction between weight loss (WL) and plasma amyloid-β42/40 (Aβ42/40), neurofilament light chain (NfL), progranulin, and their association with cognitive decline over time among older adults. This 5-year observational approach included 470 participants from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT), mean age 76.8y (SD=4.5), 59.4% women. WL was defined as ≥5% decrease over the first year. Biomarkers were measured at 12 months. Cognitive function was assessed yearly from 12 months onwards by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-SB); a composite score based on Category Naming Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, ten MMSE orientation items (MMSEO) and Free and total recall of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test; and these tests individually. Twenty-seven participants (5.7%) presented WL. In adjusted analyses, combined WL+lower Aβ42/40 (≤0.103, lowest quartile) was related with more pronounced 4-year cognitive decline according to CDR-SB (p<0.0001) and MMSEO (p=0.021), compared to non-WL+higher Aβ42/40. WL+higher NfL (>94.55pg/mL, highest quartile) or progranulin (>38.4ng/mL, three higher quartiles) were related with higher cognitive decline according to CDR-SB, MMSE, MMSEO and composite score (all p<0.03), compared to non-WL+lower NfL or higher progranulin. Regrouping progranulin quartiles (Q1-Q3 vs. Q4) revealed higher cognitive decline among the WL+lower progranulin group compared to non-WL+lower progranulin. In conclusion, 1-year WL was associated with subsequent higher 4-year cognitive decline among older adults presenting low Aβ42/40 or high NfL. Future studies combining plasma biomarker assessments and body weight surveillance may be useful for identifying people at risk of cognitive impairment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Annie Doubleday ◽  
Catherine J. Knott ◽  
Marnie F. Hazlehurst ◽  
Alain G. Bertoni ◽  
Joel D. Kaufman ◽  

Abstract Background Neighborhood greenspaces provide opportunities for increased physical activity and social interaction, and thus may reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes. However, there is little robust research on greenspace and diabetes. In this study, we examine the longitudinal association between neighborhood greenspace and incident diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods A prospective cohort study (N = 6814; 2000-2018) was conducted to examine the association between greenspace, measured as annual and high vegetation season median greenness determined by satellite (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) within 1000 m of participant homes, and incident diabetes assessed at clinician visits, defined as a fasting glucose level of at least 126 mg/dL, use of insulin or use of hypoglycemic medication, controlling for covariates in stages. Five thousand five hundred seventy-four participants free of prevalent diabetes at baseline were included in our analysis. Results Over the study period, 886 (15.9%) participants developed diabetes. Adjusting for individual characteristics, individual and neighborhood-scale SES, additional neighborhood factors, and diabetes risk factors, we found a 21% decrease in the risk of developing diabetes per IQR increase in greenspace (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). Conclusions Overall, neighborhood greenspace provides a protective influence in the development of diabetes, suggesting that neighborhood-level urban planning that supports access to greenspace--along with healthy behaviors--may aid in diabetes prevention. Additional research is needed to better understand how an area’s greenness influences diabetes risk, how to better characterize greenspace exposure and usage, and future studies should focus on robust adjustment for neighborhood-level confounders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 222-231
Cherry Anne Edora ◽  
Narali Esteban ◽  
Adeline Sandoval

The problem of child labor has long been studied by economists, and most of it focuses on the microeconomic perspective. For this study, the researchers have decided to shift their focus to macroeconomic analysis. This study focuses on the effects of globalization and economic growth on the prevalence of child labor in the Philippines, mainly focusing on globalization, by using time-series analysis. Studies suggested that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between globalization and child labor in developing countries, while other studies have determined a U-shaped relationship. The findings of this study reveal that there is no U-shape relationship between the variables but instead follows a linear relationship between globalization and child labor in the Philippine context. However, the lack of data and research publication on a national scale could influence the empirical results. Furthermore, this research can be used as literature in future studies.

رابعة بنت محمد بن مانع الصقرية ◽  
ثرياء بنت سليمان بن حمد الشبيبية

The study aimed to explore the challenges of using educational platforms and proposals to address them from the point of view of the third-year students at Al-Sharqiya University. The descriptive approach was used on a sample of the third-year students at Al-Sharqiya University in the specialization of the first field, consisting of (100) students. The study tool consisted of a two-axis questionnaire to identify the challenges of Use of educational platforms and proposals to address them. The study concluded that among the main challenges of students' use of educational platforms are weak Internet networks and their lack of coverage in some places, some students not having their own computers, and the lack of technical support when needed. The results showed that among the proposals to address the challenges are the following: Strengthening internet networks in some areas and making them available for free for educational purposes, and providing personal computers for students who need them at subsidized prices and an easy payment method, in addition to providing the necessary technical support through the establishment of a special platform that includes answering questions directly, as well as educating students about the harms of staying long hours in front of electronic devices. The results of this study were discussed in the light of latest reviewed literature followed by recommendations and suggestions for future studies and investigations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Zhijie Yu ◽  
Jun Xiao ◽  
Xiao Chen ◽  
Yi Ruan ◽  
Yang Chen ◽  

AbstractPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and rare disease without obvious clinical symptoms that shares characteristics with pulmonary vascular remodeling. Right heart failure in the terminal phase of PAH seriously threatens the lives of patients. This review attempts to comprehensively outline the current state of knowledge on PAH its pathology, pathogenesis, natural medicines therapy, mechanisms and clinical studies to provide potential treatment strategies. Although PAH and pulmonary hypertension have similar pathological features, PAH exhibits significantly elevated pulmonary vascular resistance caused by vascular stenosis and occlusion. Currently, the pathogenesis of PAH is thought to involve multiple factors, primarily including genetic/epigenetic factors, vascular cellular dysregulation, metabolic dysfunction, even inflammation and immunization. Yet many issues regarding PAH need to be clarified, such as the “oestrogen paradox”. About 25 kinds monomers derived from natural medicine have been verified to protect against to PAH via modulating BMPR2/Smad, HIF-1α, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and eNOS/NO/cGMP signalling pathways. Yet limited and single PAH animal models may not corroborate the efficacy of natural medicines, and those natural compounds how to regulate crucial genes, proteins and even microRNA and lncRNA still need to put great attention. Additionally, pharmacokinetic studies and safety evaluation of natural medicines for the treatment of PAH should be undertaken in future studies. Meanwhile, methods for validating the efficacy of natural drugs in multiple PAH animal models and precise clinical design are also urgently needed to promote advances in PAH. Graphical Abstract

Inês Carreira Figueiredo ◽  
Faith Borgan ◽  
Ofer Pasternak ◽  
Federico E. Turkheimer ◽  
Oliver D. Howes

AbstractWhite-matter abnormalities, including increases in extracellular free-water, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent advances in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable free-water levels to be indexed. However, the brain levels in patients with schizophrenia have not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to meta-analyse white-matter free-water levels in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy volunteers. We performed a literature search in EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases. Diffusion MRI studies reporting free-water in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls were included. We investigated the effect of demographic variables, illness duration, chlorpromazine equivalents of antipsychotic medication, type of scanner, and clinical symptoms severity on free-water measures. Ten studies, including five of first episode of psychosis have investigated free-water levels in schizophrenia, with significantly higher levels reported in whole-brain and specific brain regions (including corona radiata, internal capsule, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum bundle, and corpus callosum). Six studies, including a total of 614 participants met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Whole-brain free-water levels were significantly higher in patients relative to healthy volunteers (Hedge’s g = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07–0.69, p = 0.02). Sex moderated this effect, such that smaller effects were seen in samples with more females (z = −2.54, p < 0.05), but antipsychotic dose, illness duration and symptom severity did not. Patients with schizophrenia have increased free-water compared to healthy volunteers. Future studies are necessary to determine the pathological sources of increased free-water, and its relationship with illness duration and severity.

2022 ◽  
Tang Li ◽  
Yanbin Yin

Background: Large scale metagenome assembly and binning to generate metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has become possible in the past five years. As a result, millions of MAGs have been produced and increasingly included in pan-genomics workflow. However, pan-genome analyses of MAGs may suffer from the known issues with MAGs: fragmentation, incompleteness, and contamination, due to mis-assembly and mis-binning. Here, we conducted a critical assessment of including MAGs in pan-genome analysis, by comparing pan-genome analysis results of complete bacterial genomes and simulated MAGs. Results: We found that incompleteness led to more significant core gene loss than fragmentation. Contamination had little effect on core genome size but had major influence on accessory genomes. The core gene loss remained when using different pan-genome analysis tools and when using a mixture of MAGs and complete genomes. Importantly, the core gene loss was partially alleviated by lowering the core gene threshold and using gene prediction algorithms that consider fragmented genes, but to a less degree when incompleteness was higher than 5%. The core gene loss also led to incorrect pan-genome functional predictions and inaccurate phylogenetic trees. Conclusions: We conclude that lowering core gene threshold and predicting genes in metagenome mode (as Anvio does with Prodigal) are necessary in pan-genome analysis of MAGs to alleviate the accuracy loss. Better quality control of MAGs and development of new pan-genome analysis tools specifically designed for MAGs are needed in future studies.

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