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Comunicar ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (70) ◽  
María-Consuelo Sáiz-Manzanares ◽  
Joana Casanova ◽  
José-Alberto Lencastre ◽  
Leandro Almeida ◽  
Luis-Jorge Martín-Antón

Higher education is one of the driving forces behind the social and economic development of countries, with the ultimate aim of providing quality academic training. At present, teaching-learning models in virtual environments face a number of important challenges, particularly in the current situation caused by COVID-19. Some of these challenges will be addressed in this study. We worked with 225 third-year undergraduate students in health science degrees over two academic years during the pandemic. The objectives were: (1) to ascertain whether there were significant differences in student satisfaction with the teaching process in the first year of the pandemic (e-learning teaching) vs. the second year (b-learning teaching); (2) to determine whether there were significant differences in academic performance between the two groups. Quantitative research (using a 2x2 factorial design, ANOVA and ANCOVA) and qualitative research (using a comparative design with categorisation analysis) were carried out. The results indicate differences in some aspects of satisfaction and learning outcomes in favour of teaching in the second of the two years. Students rated the use of active methodologies and technological resources positively, although they concluded that their use required more work time. Future studies will seek to compare student satisfaction in other areas of knowledge. La Educación Superior es uno de los motores del desarrollo social y económico de los países, teniendo como objetivo último el de facilitar una formación académica de calidad. En la actualidad, los modelos de enseñanza-aprendizaje en entornos virtuales implican retos importantes, específicamente en la actual situación por la COVID-19. Algunos de estos desafíos se abordarán en este estudio. Se trabajó con 225 estudiantes de tercero de grado en titulaciones de Ciencias de la Salud, a lo largo de dos cursos académicos impartidos durante la situación de pandemia. Los objetivos fueron: 1) comprobar si existían diferencias significativas en la satisfacción de los estudiantes con el proceso docente respecto del primer año de pandemia (se aplicó docencia e-Learning) vs. el segundo año (se aplicó docencia b-Learning); 2) comprobar si existían diferencias significativas en los resultados académicos entre ambos grupos. Se realizó una investigación cuantitativa (se utilizó un diseño factorial 2x2, ANOVA y ANCOVA) y otra cualitativa (se utilizó un diseño comparativo con análisis de categorización). Los resultados indican diferencias en algunos aspectos de la satisfacción y en los resultados de aprendizaje, a favor de la docencia en el segundo año. Los estudiantes valoraron positivamente el uso de metodologías activas y de recursos tecnológicos, si bien concluyeron que su uso exigía más tiempo de trabajo. Futuros estudios se dirigirán a contrastar la satisfacción de estudiantes en otras ramas de conocimiento.

Cristiano Machado Costa ◽  
José Mauro Madeiros Velôso Soares

ABSTRACT Context: measurement of earnings management usually requires multi-step models for computation. After examining the literature through bibliometrics studies, literature review, and research databases, we found that the Standard Jones model and its subsequent modifications are those that have more prominent use. Much of this research is potentially interesting for business theories related to earnings quality and accounting manipulation; however, it is difficult to be understood by junior researchers and practitioners, because they are not clearly described in the literature or the steps may be easy to confuse. Objective: in this tutorial, we present several key concepts about earnings management and explain, step by step, how to measure it. Method: our tutorial considers measurement using the following models: Standard Jones, Modified Jones, Modified Jones with return on assets (ROA), and Modified Jones using Cash Flows and Accruals Reversals. Conclusions: our main contribution with this tutorial is to provide a step-by-step guide for future studies, so that they can be more comparable with each other when using measurement methods of earnings management.

Elias Abdullah ◽  
Mutahira Lone ◽  
James J. Cray ◽  
Peter Dvoracek ◽  
Joy Y. Balta

AbstractSeveral teaching resources are used to enhance the learning of anatomy. The purpose of this study was to examine the preference of medical students on the use of various resources to learn anatomy and their link to 12 learning outcomes. A selected response item questionnaire was administered that asked students to rank six laboratory teaching resources from most to least preferred, and rate how useful these six resources were towards achieving 12 learning outcomes. These learning outcomes covered many of the learning domains such as demonstrating an understanding of anatomy, visualizing structures, appreciating clinical correlations, and understanding anatomical variations. Medical students ranked cadaveric prosections paired with an active learning clinical tutorial as the highest rank and most useful resource for learning anatomy, followed by dissection videos, electronic resources, and printed material, followed by plastinated specimens and plastic models. Overall, cadaveric prosections were also rated as the most helpful teaching resource in achieving various learning outcomes. In conclusion, anatomy teachers should provide prosections coupled with clinical tutorials as well as electronic resources as students prefer these and think they help them learn anatomy. Future studies will investigate the impact of using these resources on students’ performance.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (10) ◽  
pp. 576
Jichen Chen ◽  
Jianchao Yang ◽  
Hong Du ◽  
Muhmmad Aslam ◽  
Wanna Wang ◽  

During the processes of primary and secondary endosymbiosis, different microalgae evolved to synthesis different storage polysaccharides. In stramenopiles, the main storage polysaccharides are β-1,3-glucan, or laminarin, in vacuoles. Currently, laminarin is gaining considerable attention due to its application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceuticals industries, and also its importance in global biogeochemical cycles (especially in the ocean carbon cycle). In this review, the structures, composition, contents, and bioactivity of laminarin were summarized in different algae. It was shown that the general features of laminarin are species-dependence. Furthermore, the proposed biosynthesis and catabolism pathways of laminarin, functions of key genes, and diel regulation of laminarin were also depicted and comprehensively discussed for the first time. However, the complete pathways, functions of genes, and diel regulatory mechanisms of laminarin require more biomolecular studies. This review provides more useful information and identifies the knowledge gap regarding the future studies of laminarin and its applications.

2021 ◽  
Yuchen Zhang ◽  
Yinhu Li ◽  
Yuguang Yang ◽  
Yiqing Wang ◽  
Xiao Cao ◽  

Abstract Periodontitis and peri-implantitis are common biofilm-mediated infectious diseases affecting teeth and dental implants, and have been considered to be initiated with microbial dysbiosis. To further understand the essence of oral microbiome dysbiosis in terms of bacterial interactions, community structure, and microbial stability. We analyzed 64 plaque samples from 34 participants with teeth or implants under different health conditions using metagenomic sequencing. After taxonomical annotation, we computed the core microbiome, analyzed the bacterial community structure, and calculated the microbial stability in supra- and subgingival plaques from hosts with different health conditions. The results showed that when inflammation arose, the subgingival communities became less connective and competitive with fewer hub species. In contrast, the supragingival communities tended to be more connective and competitive with an increased number of hub species. Besides, periodontitis and peri-implantitis were associated with significantly increased microbial stability in subgingival microbiome. These findings indicated that the periodontal and peri-implant dysbiosis is associated with aberrant alterations in the bacterial correlations, community structures, and local stability. The highly connected hub species, as well as the major contributing species of negative correlations should also be given more concern in future studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (20) ◽  
pp. 15409-15430
Nathaniel J. Livesey ◽  
William G. Read ◽  
Lucien Froidevaux ◽  
Alyn Lambert ◽  
Michelle L. Santee ◽  

Abstract. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), launched on NASA's Aura spacecraft in 2004, measures vertical profiles of the abundances of key atmospheric species from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere with daily near-global coverage. We review the first 15 years of the record of H2O and N2O measurements from the MLS 190 GHz subsystem (along with other 190 GHz information), with a focus on their long-term stability, largely based on comparisons with measurements from other sensors. These comparisons generally show signs of an increasing drift in the MLS “version 4” (v4) H2O record starting around 2010. Specifically, comparisons with v4.1 measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) indicate a ∼ 2 %–3 % per decade drift over much of the stratosphere, increasing to as much as ∼ 7 % per decade around 46 hPa. Larger drifts, of around 7 %–11 % per decade, are seen in comparisons to balloon-borne frost point hygrometer measurements in the lower stratosphere. Microphysical calculations considering the formation of polar stratospheric clouds in the Antarctic winter stratosphere corroborate a drift in MLS v4 water vapor measurements in that region and season. In contrast, comparisons with the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission, and with ground-based Water Vapor Millimeter-wave Spectrometer (WVMS) instruments, do not show statistically significant drifts. However, the uncertainty in these comparisons is large enough to encompass most of the drifts identified in other comparisons. In parallel, the MLS v4 N2O product is shown to be generally decreasing over the same period (when an increase in stratospheric N2O is expected, reflecting a secular growth in emissions), with a more pronounced drift in the lower stratosphere than that found for H2O. Comparisons to ACE-FTS and to MLS N2O observations in a different spectral region, with the latter available from 2004 to 2013, indicate an altitude-dependent drift, growing from 5 % per decade or less in the mid-stratosphere to as much as 15 % per decade in the lower stratosphere. Detailed investigations of the behavior of the MLS 190 GHz subsystem reveal a drift in its “sideband fraction” (the relative sensitivity of the 190 GHz receiver to the two different parts of the microwave spectrum that it observes). Our studies indicate that sideband fraction drift accounts for much of the observed changes in the MLS H2O product and some portion of the changes seen in N2O. The 190 GHz sideband fraction drift has been corrected in the new “version 5” (v5) MLS algorithms, which have now been used to reprocess the entire MLS record. As a result of this correction, the MLS v5 H2O record shows no statistically significant drifts compared to ACE-FTS. However, statistically significant drifts remain between MLS v5 and frost point measurements, although they are reduced. Drifts in v5 N2O are about half the size of those in v4 but remain statistically significant. Scientists are advised to use MLS v5 data in all future studies. Quantification of interregional and seasonal to annual changes in MLS H2O and N2O will not be affected by the drift. However, caution is advised in studies using the MLS record to examine long-term (multiyear) variability and trends in either of these species, especially N2O; such studies should only be undertaken in consultation with the MLS team. Importantly, this drift does not affect any of the MLS observations made in other spectral regions such as O3, HCl, CO, ClO, or temperature.

2021 ◽  
Yu Sun ◽  
Ryan Tisdale ◽  
Sunmee Park ◽  
Jasmine Heu ◽  
Shun-Chieh Ma ◽  

Narcolepsy Type 1 (NT1), a sleep disorder with similar prevalence in both sexes, is thought to be due to loss of the hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons. Several transgenic strains have been created to model this disorder and are increasingly being used for preclinical drug development and basic science studies, yet most studies have solely used male mice. We compared the development of narcoleptic symptomatology in male vs. female orexin-tTA; TetO-DTA mice, a model in which Hcrt neuron degeneration can be initiated by removal of doxycycline (DOX) from the diet. EEG, EMG, body temperature, gross motor activity and video recordings were conducted for 24-h at baseline and 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after DOX removal. Female DTA mice exhibited cataplexy, the pathognomonic symptom of NT1, by Week 1 in the DOX(-) condition but cataplexy was not consistently present in males until Week 2. By Week 2, both sexes showed an impaired ability to sustain long wake bouts during the active period, the murine equivalent of excessive daytime sleepiness in NT1. Body temperature appeared to be regulated at lower levels in both sexes as the Hcrt neurons degenerated. During degeneration, both sexes also exhibited the Delta State, characterized by sudden cessation of activity, high delta activity in the EEG, maintenance of muscle tone and posture, and the absence of phasic EMG activity. Since the phenotypes of the two sexes were indistinguishable by Week 6, we conclude that both sexes can be safely combined in future studies to reduce cost and animal use.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258258
Ramia Zakhour ◽  
Hani Tamim ◽  
Farah Faytrouni ◽  
Joanne Khoury ◽  
Maha Makki ◽  

Background A growing number of parents refuse vaccination due to concerns about side effects. Influenza vaccine is no exception and remains one of the most controversial vaccines. Data regarding influenza vaccine uptake and parental knowledge, attitude and practice towards vaccination in the Lebanese population is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of vaccination refusal and potential associated factors among Lebanese parents of school-aged children, in general and with a focus on influenza vaccine. Methods A parent questionnaire was distributed in randomly selected 2 public and 2 private schools from the greater Beirut area during the school year 2017–2018. Questionnaires covered knowledge, attitude (including themes of efficacy, hesitancy and trust), and practice of vaccination in general and influenza vaccine in particular. Results The response rate was 76.5% (306/400). Overall, 29.4% parents reported vaccinating their children against influenza (62.2% in private and 37.7% in public schools). Younger age, paternal employment and higher household income were associated with higher vaccination rates (p = 0.01, 0.02 and <0.0001 respectively). Lack of vaccine recommendation by the physician was the most common reason for not taking it (47%). Parents who accepted influenza vaccination had higher scores in efficacy, hesitancy and trust and were more compliant with other vaccinations. Conclusion One third of parents of school aged children in the greater Beirut area vaccinate their children against influenza. This rate is likely lower in rural remote areas. Physician’s recommendation is the single most important predictor of such vaccination. Future studies tackling physicians’ attitude and practice are needed to help improve influenza vaccination rates in the Lebanese population.

Gianluca Amico ◽  
Tina Braun ◽  
Sabine Schaefer

AbstractResearch has shown benefits of physical exercise on memory performance when carried out before or after a memory task. The effects of concurrent physical exercise and particularly resistance exercise are still inconclusive. The current study investigates the influence of resistance exercise with two intensities (fast and slow squats) on performance in a wordlist learning task using a within-subject design. Sport students (N = 58, Mage = 23 years; 26 women) were trained in a mnemonic technique to encode word lists (method of loci). In each session they were asked to encode two lists, each consisting of 20 words. During encoding, participants either performed one squat per word (fast-squat-condition), one squat every second word (slow-squat-condition), or stayed seated (control-condition). Participants performed three sessions for each condition, in counterbalanced order. Heart rates differed significantly according to exercise intensity. Memory performances in the sitting condition were better, compared to the exercise conditions. Performance in sitting and the fast squat conditions improved similarly over time, while performance in the slow squat condition increased faster, and reached the level of the fast squat condition at the end of the study phase. We conclude that light to moderate resistance exercise while working on an episodic memory task may rather represent a dual-task situation (= two tasks that compete for attentional resources). Especially doing a squat every second word may represent an inhibition task that people have to get used to. Future studies should include biochemical markers of arousal and neuronal plasticity in addition to heart rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Zhiping Xu ◽  
Lingxia Zhu ◽  
Jingye Zhan ◽  
Lijun Liu

Abstract Background High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) have been used for the treatment of COPD and respiratory failure in clinical settings. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HFNC therapy in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure, to provide evidence to the clinical COPD management. Methods We searched Cochrane et al. databases up to Dec 31, 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of HFNC therapy in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and evaluated the quality of the literature and extracted data. We used Revman5.3 software for statistical analysis of collected data. Results A total of 6 RCTs involving 525 COPD and type II respiratory failure patients. Meta-analyses indicated that compared with NIV, HFNC could significantly reduce PaCO2 level (MD = − 2.64, 95% CI (− 3.12 to − 2.15)), length of hospital stay ((MD = – 1.19, 95 CI (− 2.23 to − 0.05)), the incidence of nasal facial skin breakdown ((OR = 0.11, 95% CI (0.03–0.41)). And there were no significant differences between the two groups in PaO2 ((MD = 2.92, 95% CI (− 0.05 to 5.90)), incidence of tracheal intubation ((OR = 0.74, 95% CI (0.34–1.59)) and mortality (OR = 0.77, 95% CI (0.28–2.11)). Conclusions HFNC is more advantageous over NIV in the treatment of COPD and type II respiratory failure. Future studies with larger sample size and strict design are needed to further elucidate the role of HFNC in COPD and respiratory failure.

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