cognitive functions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 419 ◽  
pp. 113706
Przemysław Zakowicz ◽  
Joanna Pawlak ◽  
Paweł Kapelski ◽  
Monika Wiłkość-Dębczyńska ◽  
Agnieszka Szałkowska ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 15-22
Jian-Hong Wang ◽  
Lei Guo ◽  
Su Wang ◽  
Neng-Wei Yu ◽  
Fu-Qiang Guo

Lingxiao He ◽  
Philipe de Souto Barreto ◽  
Juan Luis Sánchez Sánchez ◽  
Yves Rolland ◽  
Sophie Guyonnet ◽  

Abstract Background Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has been associated with several age-related disorders, but its associations with functional abilities in community-dwelling older adults are not well studied. Methods The study was a secondary analysis on 1096 community-dwelling older adults (aged 69 to 94 years) recruited from the Multidomain Alzheimer’s Preventive Trial. Plasma GDF15 was measured one year after participants’ enrolment. Annual data of physical performance (grip strength and short physical performance battery [SPPB]) and global cognitive functions (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] and a composite cognitive score) were measured for four years. Adjusted mixed-effects linear models were performed for cross-sectional and longitudinal association analyses. Results A higher GDF15 was cross-sectionally associated with a weaker grip strength (β = -1.1E-03, 95%CI [-2.0E-03, -1.5E-04]), a lower SPPB score (β = -3.1E-04, 95%CI [-5.4E-04, -9.0E-05]) and worse cognitive functions (β = -2.4E-04, 95%CI [-3.3E-04, -1.6E-04] for composite cognitive score; β = -4.0E-04, 95%CI [-6.4E-04, -1.6E-04] for MMSE). Participants with higher GDF15 demonstrated greater longitudinal declines in SPPB (β = -1.0E-04, 95%CI [-1.7E-04, -2.0E-05]) and composite cognitive score (β = -2.0E-05, 95%CI [-4.0E-05, -3.6E-06]). The optimal initial GDF15 cutoff values for identifying participants with minimal clinically significant decline after one year were 2189 pg/mL for SPPB (AUC: 0.580) and 2330 pg/mL for composite cognitive score (AUC: 0.587). Conclusions Plasma GDF15 is cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with lower-limb physical performance and global cognitive function in older adults. Circulating GDF15 alone has limited capacity of discriminating older adults who will develop clinically significant functional declines.

2022 ◽  
pp. 108705472110636
John Hasslinger ◽  
Ulf Jonsson ◽  
Sven Bölte

Objective: To evaluate the effects of neurocognitive training methods on targeted cognitive functions in children and adolescent with ADHD. Method: A pragmatic four-arm randomized controlled trial compared two types of neurofeedback (Slow Cortical Potential and Live Z-score) and Working-memory training (WMT) with treatment as usual. N = 202 participants with ADHD aged 9 to 17 years were included. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and after 6-months. Results: The effects of WMT on spatial and verbal working-memory were superior to neurofeedback and treatment as usual at posttreatment, but only partially sustained at follow-up. No other consistent effects were observed. We found no clear indications that effects were moderated by ADHD presentation, ongoing medication, age, or sex. Conclusion: The sustained effects of neurocognitive training on cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with ADHD may be limited. Future research should focus on more personalized forms of neurocognitive training.

Agata Goraczko ◽  
Alina Zurek ◽  
Maciej Lachowicz ◽  
Katarzyna Kujawa ◽  
Grzegorz Zurek

Background: The present investigation was designed to determine cognitive performance and quality of life (QoL) in a group of elite athletes who sustained spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: nine participants suffering a SCI participated in the study. Different cognitive functions were evaluated through the following tests: COWAT, Digit Span, Stroop color–word and QoL through the WHOQoL-BREF scale. Results: Generally, participants positively assessed their overall quality of life and health status. Although the tests conducted indicate reduced cognitive function among the athletes, it did not affect the reduction in QoL. Single correlations between the results of cognitive tests and QoL could be treated as coincidental. Conclusions: Despite the observed decline in selected cognitive functions, the participants positively assessed their quality of life and physical health.Reduced cognitive functioning could be influenced by the impact of sleep-disordered breathing, pain, depressive disorders and medication. This indicates the need for an individualized approach to define the patient’s deficits, needs and best care. Further studies with a larger group of participants are needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
Ahmad Saad Mohamed ◽  
Mahmoud Ahmed Elmeteini ◽  
Ghada Abd Elrazek Mohamed ◽  
Doha Mostafa Elserafy ◽  
Alaa Adel Elmadani ◽  

Abstract Background Liver transplantation (LT) helped to save the life of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients; however, there is a debate on the persistence of cognitive impairment. The study aimed to evaluate cognitive functions in patients with ESLD before and after liver transplantation and to assess its relation to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Thirty recipients 47.6 ± 11 years undergone living donor liver transplantation at the transplantation center of both Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplant and Egypt air organ transplant unit were prospectively assessed by Trail Making Test, Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised, Benton Visual Retention—for the evaluation of cognitive functions before and 3 months after transplantation. Results The mean age of the patients was 47.6 ± 11 years, 17 males and 13 females. Eight out of 30 (26.7%) had past history of hepatic encephalopathy. The study reported significant improvement in the post-operative 3 months scores of Trail Making Test part (A), the digit span forward test, digit span backward test and the correct score difference of the Benton Visual Retention, as p value was (0.02), (0.01) (0.02), and (0.01) respectively, compared to the pre-operative scores. However, there was no difference in the scores of part (B), verbal association I, II, information subtest of WMS. Cognitive performance showed no significant difference between patients with or without history of HE. Conclusions Patients with ESLD have significant cognitive impairment that showed improvement after LT; HE did not correlate with cognitive function. Hence, transplantation has a favorable outcome on the cognitive impairment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 55-65
A. V. Sukhanov ◽  
S. V. Mustafina ◽  
D. V. Denisova ◽  
O. D. Rymar ◽  
V. V. Gafarov

The aim of the study was to provide a population assessment of cognitive impairment patterns in a representative sample of 25–44-year-old men and women living in Western Siberia with metabolic syndrome (MS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional population survey of a random representative sample of 25–44-year-olds of both sexes (1503 people) permanently residing in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk) was performed. The study of cognitive functions was conducted in 1009 people: 463 men (45.9 %) and 546 women (54.1 %). A 10-word memorization test was performed according to the methodology proposed by A.R. Luria (unified for screening purposes), with subsequent reproduction after interfering tasks (recall), a proof-reading test (a letter modification of the Bourdon test used for screening purposes), as well as the exclusion of concepts (a verbal version of the test). The MS criteria (VNOK, 2009) were used: FROM > 80 cm in women and > 94 cm in men and 2 of the following criteria: blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, TG content ≥ 1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C < 1.0 mmol/L in men and < 1.2 mmol/L in women, LDL-C > 3.0 mmol/L, plasma hyperglycemia > 6.1 mmol/L. Results. In the surveyed sample of residents of In Novosibirsk, 25–44 years old, MS occurred in every fourth person tested for cognitive functions (26.06 %): 148 men (31.96 %) and 115 women (21.06 %), MS occurred more often in women than in men. With age, there is an increase in the frequency of MS in both sexes (p < 0.05). For MS, statistically significant associations are shown with direct memorization (1st memorization experience, p = 0.025), the number of directly memorized words (p = 0.015) and with delayed reproduction of words after an interfering task (p = 0.015) in the 10-word memorization test by A.R. Luria. The average rank, as well as the average values of these cognitive tests, were higher in individuals without MS compared to those with MS diagnosed. There were no links between MS and the indicators of the proofreading test. There were also no statistically significant associations of MS with the number of animals named in 1 min in the speech activity test when studying semantically mediated associations. Conclusion. In a population study of young people (25–44 years old) for the first time in Russia/A statistically significant deterioration of cognitive memory patterns in individuals with MS components has been proven in Siberia (Novosibirsk). This confirms the importance of the «cerebrovascular continuum» in the genesis of cognitive impairment at a young age.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Atef Badji ◽  
Joana B. Pereira ◽  
Sara Shams ◽  
Johan Skoog ◽  
Anna Marseglia ◽  

Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between AD and hypertension are not fully understood, but they most likely involve microvascular dysfunction and cerebrovascular pathology. Although previous studies have assessed the impact of hypertension on different markers of brain integrity, no study has yet provided a comprehensive comparison of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and structural brain differences between normotensive and hypertensive groups in a single and large cohort of older adults in relationship to cognitive performances.Objective: The aim of the present work was to investigate the differences in cognitive performances, CSF biomarkers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain structure between normotensive, controlled hypertensive, uncontrolled hypertensive, and untreated hypertensive older adults from the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies.Methods: As an indicator of vascular brain pathology, we measured white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular space (epvs), and fractional anisotropy (FA). To assess markers of AD pathology/neurodegeneration, we measured hippocampal volume, temporal cortical thickness on MRI, and amyloid-β42, phosphorylated tau, and neurofilament light protein (NfL) in cerebrospinal fluid. Various neuropsychological tests were used to assess performances in memory, attention/processing speed, executive function, verbal fluency, and visuospatial abilities.Results: We found more white matter pathology in hypertensive compared to normotensive participants, with the highest vascular burden in uncontrolled participants (e.g., lower FA, more WMHs, and epvs). No significant difference was found in any MRI or CSF markers of AD pathology/neurodegeneration when comparing normotensive and hypertensive participants, nor among hypertensive groups. No significant difference was found in most cognitive functions between groups.Conclusion: Our results suggest that good blood pressure control may help prevent cerebrovascular pathology. In addition, hypertension may contribute to cognitive decline through its effect on cerebrovascular pathology rather than AD-related pathology. These findings suggest that hypertension is associated with MRI markers of vascular pathology in the absence of a significant decline in cognitive functions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Patrick Heller ◽  
Larisa Morosan ◽  
Deborah Badoud ◽  
Manon Laubscher ◽  
Lisa Jimenez Olariaga ◽  

Background: Our main objective was to provide estimates of the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities among youths in a juvenile detention center in Geneva, Switzerland. We also aimed to investigate potential positive effects of intensive psychotherapeutic and educational services this center provides. Finally, we examined psychiatric care prior to and after custody as well as the evolution of the youths' mental health during detention.Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study including a group of incarcerated (n = 86) and a group of non-incarcerated (n = 169) youths (12–18 years old). Measures included diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, cognitive functions, trauma, psychopathic traits and the Youth Self-Report (aggressive behavior, attentional disorders, criminal behavior, social withdrawal, anxiety, depression and somatic complaints) collected at baseline and at discharge for the incarcerated group. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect models.Results: Psychiatric disorders were prevalent in the incarcerated group (82.6, 95% CI: 71.6–90.7%), but young people also often suffered from several disorders simultaneously. Two-thirds of the incarcerated participants had a diagnosis of two or more psychiatric disorders. Regarding health care, most incarcerated participants (79.1%) had psychiatric care prior to detention. The planned care after detention was associated with psychiatric comorbidities, care being more likely planned for those with comorbidities (p = 0.030). Compared to the non-incarcerated group, the incarcerated group had lower scores on cognitive functioning (p &lt; 0.001) and higher scores on trauma (p &lt; 0.021) and psychopathic traits (p &lt; 0.034). The youths' stay in the detention center was associated with a positive change of mental health, with externalized problems being significantly reduced at the end of their stay (p = 0.017).Conclusion: Our findings showed that youths in conflict with the law are characterized by (1) their internal vulnerabilities: a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric comorbidities, lower cognitive functions, externalized problems and psychopathic traits; (2) environmental factors: victims of violence and sexual abuse; and (3) their psychiatric history. Besides, the evolution of the most prevalent issues was favorable over time, which puts into question the usual perspective about the deleterious effect of detention.

2022 ◽  
pp. 21-25
G. O. Momot ◽  
E. V. Krukovich ◽  
T. N. Surovenko

Review of publications on the functional features of leptin in the central nervous system in children. The participation of leptin mechanisms in the transmission of nerve impulses, the effect of leptin on cognitive functions in children. The article reveals the general mechanisms of maturation of the central nervous system in children, the participation of leptin and leptin receptors in the formation of cognitive abilities in children. Possible interrelationships of impairments in cognitive development and lipid metabolism including obesity are revealed.

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