cognitive development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 215 ◽  
pp. 105324
Wei Li ◽  
Rory T. Devine ◽  
Andrew Ribner ◽  
Rosanneke A.G. Emmen ◽  
Mi-lan J. Woudstra ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
pp. 101686
Xi Liang ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Marinus H. van IJzendoorn ◽  
Zhengyan Wang

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 364
Nathalie Irvine ◽  
Gillian England-Mason ◽  
Catherine J. Field ◽  
Deborah Dewey ◽  
Fariba Aghajafari

Women’s nutritional status during pregnancy can have long-term effects on children’s brains and cognitive development. Folate and choline are methyl-donor nutrients and are important for closure of the neural tube during fetal development. They have also been associated with brain and cognitive development in children. Animal studies have observed that prenatal folate and choline supplementation is associated with better cognitive outcomes in offspring and that these nutrients may have interactive effects on brain development. Although some human studies have reported associations between maternal folate and choline levels and child cognitive outcomes, results are not consistent, and no human studies have investigated the potential interactive effects of folate and choline. This lack of consistency could be due to differences in the methods used to assess folate and choline levels, the gestational trimester at which they were measured, and lack of consideration of potential confounding variables. This narrative review discusses and critically reviews current research examining the associations between maternal levels of folate and choline during pregnancy and brain and cognitive development in children. Directions for future research that will increase our understanding of the effects of these nutrients on children’s neurodevelopment are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Yash Patel ◽  
Nadine Parker ◽  
Giovanni A. Salum ◽  
Zdenka Pausova ◽  
Tomáš Paus

General psychopathology and cognition are likely to have a bidirectional influence on each other. Yet, the relationship between brain structure, psychopathology, and cognition remains unclear. This brief report investigates the association between structural properties of the cerebral cortex [surface area, cortical thickness, intracortical myelination indexed by the T1w/T2w ratio, and neurite density assessed by restriction spectrum imaging (RSI)] with general psychopathology and cognition in a sample of children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Higher levels of psychopathology and lower levels of cognitive ability were associated with a smaller cortical surface area. Inter-regionally—across the cerebral cortex—the strength of association between an area and psychopathology is strongly correlated with the strength of association between an area and cognition. Taken together, structural deviations particularly observed in the cortical surface area influence both psychopathology and cognition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yuta Shinya ◽  
Masahiko Kawai ◽  
Fusako Niwa ◽  
Yasuhiro Kanakogi ◽  
Masahiro Imafuku ◽  

AbstractThere is growing evidence that preterm children are at an increased risk of poor executive functioning, which underlies behavioural and attention problems. Previous studies have suggested that early cognitive flexibility is a possible predictor of later executive function; however, how it develops in infancy and relates to the later neurobehavioural outcomes is still unclear in the preterm population. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate oculomotor response shifting in 27 preterm and 25 term infants at 12 months and its relationship with general cognitive development and effortful control, which is a temperamental aspect closely associated with executive function, at 18 months. We found that moderate to late preterm and term infants significantly inhibited previously rewarded look responses, while very preterm infants did not show significant inhibition of perseverative looking at 12 months. Moreover, lower inhibition of perseverative looking was significantly associated with lower general cognitive development and attentional shifting at 18 months. These findings suggest that the early atypical patterns of oculomotor response shifting may be a behavioural marker for predicting a higher risk of negative neurobehavioural outcomes, including attention-related problems in preterm children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mélusine Boon-Falleur ◽  
Adrien Bouguen ◽  
Axelle Charpentier ◽  
Yann Algan ◽  
Élise Huillery ◽  

AbstractRecent empirical research has shown that improving socio-emotional skills such as grit, conscientiousness and self-control leads to higher academic achievement and better life outcomes. However, both theoretical and empirical works have raised concerns about the reliability of the different methods used to measure socio-emotional skills. We compared the reliability and validity of the three leading measurements methods—a student-reported questionnaire, a teacher-reported questionnaire, and a behavioral task—in a sample of 3997 French students. Before analyzing the data, we polled 114 international researchers in cognitive development and education economics; most researchers in both fields predicted that the behavioral task would be the best method. We found instead that the teacher questionnaire was more predictive of students’ behavioral outcomes and of their grade progression, while the behavioral task was the least predictive. This work suggests that researchers may not be using optimal tools to measure socio-emotional skills in children.

2022 ◽  
pp. 21-25
G. O. Momot ◽  
E. V. Krukovich ◽  
T. N. Surovenko

Review of publications on the functional features of leptin in the central nervous system in children. The participation of leptin mechanisms in the transmission of nerve impulses, the effect of leptin on cognitive functions in children. The article reveals the general mechanisms of maturation of the central nervous system in children, the participation of leptin and leptin receptors in the formation of cognitive abilities in children. Possible interrelationships of impairments in cognitive development and lipid metabolism including obesity are revealed.

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