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Author(s):  
Iana Markevych ◽  
Thomas Astell-Burt ◽  
Hicran Altug ◽  
Kai Triebner ◽  
Marie Standl ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra ◽  
Thomas Astell-Burt ◽  
Dylan P. Cliff ◽  
Stewart A. Vella ◽  
Xiaoqi Feng

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 961
Author(s):  
Jürgen Furchtlehner ◽  
Daniela Lehner ◽  
Lilli Lička

Streets are ubiquitous and cater to various functions in a city. However, today most streets are unilaterally used and designed likewise. Car-centred spatial distribution is currently being questioned in the course of urban densification and in light of climate and ecological challenges. The presented work focuses on a multi-layered transformation of streetscapes towards a multi-purpose social and ecological space, which goes beyond a mere redistribution of space and functions. This paper draws from the results of an interdisciplinary research project headed by the Institute of Landscape Architecture (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna). The Viennese situation is aligned with international trends. The research includes comparative analysis of streetscapes in Vienna and comparable cities, literature reviews, collaborative workshops and qualitative interviews. As a result, progressive layout specifications and quality aspects for future streets are proposed and presented in extracts. Furthermore, the goal of green space social equity is linked. The paper concludes by arguing for comprehensive consideration and redesign of streetscapes as one promising puzzle to counteract the evident challenges of climate change in urban settings. Its range reaches from small scale microclimatic improvements up to citywide provision of accessible, useable, ecologically sound and sustainable public space with new standards for streets as potential backbone.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 973
Author(s):  
Jilleah G. Welch ◽  
Charles B. Sims ◽  
Michael L. McKinney

The Knoxville Urban Wilderness (KUW) is a successful example of a growing global movement to utilize vacant urban land as many cities “de-urbanize”. A key question is whether this particular kind of green space promotes social inequality via green gentrification. Our analysis shows how the KUW has affected nearby home prices. Socioeconomic data including income, educational attainment, and race is also presented to explore the possibility of gentrification in South Knoxville. Our findings do not support strong evidence of gentrification, which implies that lower-income households are benefiting from advances in environmental amenities. Other households in specific areas are benefiting from both increases in home values and from expansions of the KUW. These are encouraging results for urban planning efforts that seek to utilize large areas of vacant urban land while also having positive social and economic impacts.


Author(s):  
Rui Zhou ◽  
Ying-Jing Zheng ◽  
Jing-Yi Yun ◽  
Hong-Mei Wang

The aim of this study is to assess the impacts of urban green space on depressive symptoms among Chinese urban residents aged 45 and older. In total, 7397 urban respondents were included in this study. Each respondent participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Wave 3 (2015). Environmental-level variables were retrieved from the National Bureau of Statistics database. Both unadjusted and adjusted methods were used in the multilevel regression analysis. Almost one-third of the sample population suffered from depressive symptoms (31.20%). The multilevel logistic regression model showed that green coverage ratio of city-built districts is negatively associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms among urban mid-aged (OR = 0.79, p < 0.05) and elderly (OR = 0.75, p < 0.05) residents, and the public recreational green space helps to reduce elderly people’s depressive symptoms (OR = 0.77, p < 0.05). This study adds insights about the impact of green space and other environmental factors on depressive symptoms among mid-aged and elderly urban dwellers. It is important to provide enough and accessible overall urban green spaces; additionally, attention should also be paid to specific green space forms such as public recreational green space.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Constanza Arévalo ◽  
Juan David Amaya-Espinel ◽  
Cristian Henríquez ◽  
José Tomás Ibarra ◽  
Cristián Bonacic

Abstract Urban green spaces provide natural habitat for birds in urban landscapes, yet the effects of noise and surrounding urban morphology on bird community structure and distribution are not well understood in Latin America, the second most urbanized region in the world. Santiago of Chile is the single city belonging to the Mediterranean ecosystem in South America and is subject to extensive urbanization as seen throughout Latin America. We examined the role of 65 urban green spaces (6 large: PAR and 59 small: SGS) in harboring native birds during winter 2019, analyzing the quality of green areas in terms of vegetation (i.e. NDVI, native vegetation, and tree cover), exotic bird species, noise levels, and surrounding urban matrix (i.e. building height and cover). Significantly higher noise levels were detected in SGS, along with significantly greater exotic bird (n=4) richness and abundance than PAR, which possessed significantly greater native bird (n=25) richness and abundance. Native birds were more abundant than exotic birds in green spaces with average noise levels < 52 dB and average NDVI > 0.5. Occupancy models indicate that green space occupancy by 50% of modeled native bird species was influenced by maximum noise levels, playing a larger role than vegetation (30%) and the urban matrix (0%). We stress the importance of developing networks of large green spaces in rapidly urbanizing regions, with abundant tree cover, surrounded by smaller urban morphology, and regulating noise levels to ensure the conservation of native bird communities in cities, particularly those that are threatened.


Author(s):  
Ryan J. Scalsky ◽  
Yi-Ju Chen ◽  
Zhekang Ying ◽  
James A. Perry ◽  
Charles C. Hong

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic with considerable impact. Studies have examined the influence of socioeconomic status and air pollution on COVID-19 risk but in low detail. This study seeks to further elucidate the nuances of socioeconomic status, as defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), air pollution, and their relationship. We examined the effect of IMD and air pollution on the likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among 66,732 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 16 March 2020 through 16 March 2021. Logistic regression was performed controlling for age, sex, ancestry and IMD or air pollution in the respective models. IMD and its sub-scores were significantly associated with increased risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. All particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Measures of green space and natural environment around participants’ homes were associated with reduced likelihood of SARS-CoV-2. Socioeconomic status and air pollution have independent effects on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Green space and natural environment space in the proximity of people’s homes may mediate the effect of air pollution on the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.


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