zagros mountains
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2022 ◽  
Fatemeh Geravand ◽  
Seiyed Mossa Hosseini ◽  
Mehran Maghsoudi ◽  
Mojtaba Yamani

Abstract Karst groundwater resources in the Zagros Mountains are vital for supplying of different demands in the region which need to sustainable management and protection. Quantitative and qualitative characterization of karst aquifers in this region were understudied due to lack of site-specific logging-data and speleological investigations. In this study, a state-of-the-art of the statistical methods developed to characterize karst aquifer based on analyses of the spring recession hydrograph and spring water quality are presented. These methods including Manging’s method for classification of karst aquifers, relationships of precipitation and discharge data, groundwater quality index (GQI), hydrochemical diagrams (Piper, Durov and Gibbs), and Saturation index (SI), Chloro-Alkaline indices (CAI). 42 major karst springs mainly located in folded part of Zagros region (western Iran) are selected for application of the reviewed methods. Results indicated that the saturated zone exerts almost main control over the discharge of 76% of the studied springs. The base-flow contributes as between 80.0% to 100% of total water storage in the study aquifers. 78.5% of the studied aquifers have a high karstification degree. An insignificant lag-time is observed between the precipitation on the karst basin and spring discharge. The hydrochemical diagrams show that the waters are dominated by HCO3 and Ca and the majority of the waters are alkaline, with originate from silicate minerals weathering. Such repeatable methods adopted in this study can provide crucial information of the karst aquifers, especially those suffer scarcity of aquifer hydrodynamic data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 78 ◽  
pp. 1-5
S. Alipour ◽  
I. Mehregan ◽  
M. Lidén

Dionysia splendens Alipour, Mehregan & Lidén, sp. nov., from Fars, Iran, is a unique species that cannot be easily accommodated in any hitherto recognised section of the genus and is immediately recognised by its large flowers and pectinate leaves with very broad pale and thick midvein. It agrees with Dionysia cespitosa Duby (Boiss.) in the small flat leaves, stalked inflorescence with large bracts, and few large ellipsoid seeds, but differs in the tubular calyx and large purplish-blue corolla. It is also somewhat reminiscent of Dionysia viva Lidén & Zetterl. in growth habit and inflorescence structure, but that species has large irregularly dentate leaves, yellow corolla and numerous small angular seeds. Dionysia splendens is so far known from a single locality with c.200 mature individuals. An updated key to Dionysia species in the Zagros mountains is provided.

2021 ◽  
Vol 78 ◽  
pp. 1-7
M. Lidén ◽  
M. Irvine ◽  
A. Alvén ◽  
I. Mehregan

Dionysia jamzadiae Lidén, M.Irvine, Alvén & Mehregan, from the east Zagros Mountains, Fars, Iran, is described as new to science. It belongs in section Dionysiopsis and is similar to D. oreodoxa Bornm. but differs in, for example, its sparsely glandular hairy or almost glabrous corolla with emarginated lobes (densely non-glandular pubescent with entire lobes in D. oreodoxa). Dionysia jamzadiae is known from two places and is quite abundant at the type locality.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 525 (4) ◽  
pp. 281-294

A new Dionysia species, D. zeynepiae, is described from Antakya, a Mediterranean province in southern Turkey. It differs from all other known species of the genus by the presence of the trifid corolla lobes (vs. entire, emarginate or bifid lobes). This is the most western and most separated population of this mostly Irano-Turanian genus, which is distributed mainly in the Zagros Mountains (Iran) and adjacent areas. The floral morphology of the heterostylous flowers is also described in detail.

2021 ◽  
Valentyn Loktyev ◽  
Sanzhar Zharkeshov ◽  
Oleh Hotsynets ◽  
Oleksandr Davydenko ◽  
Mikhailo Machuzhak ◽  

Abstract In the Dnipro-Donets depression, the Devonian salt during Carboniferous time became movable and created salt domes in the Permian, moving to the sea bottom and flowing therewith, forming bodies visible today as salt canopies and overhangs. These features are clear pieces of evidence of salt exposure on the surface, especially considering belts of reservoirs around salt domes. These reservoirs can be extremely prolific in some wells. Previous exploration targeting such deposits was driven mainly by drilling wells within the areas of known deep fields such as Medvedivske, Zakhidno-Khrestyschenske and others in the central part of the DDB. These reservoirs are composed of poorly sorted coarse material of wide variety of rocks including sandstones, carbonates, dolomites, igneous rocks of deep (granites), and shallow (diabases) formations. Currently, with the availability of 3D seismic surveys, these deposits become visible as bright spots and flat spots. Although it is not a 100% indicator due to fact that shallow salt canopies and lithology changes of rocks around salt domes may also interpret seismic reflections. It is good to mention that the Permian is an aridic environment with gradually losing water influx to the basin from base to top within the thickness of more than 1-2 kilometers. It could be utilized as boundary analogues to cover most of the possible intermediate scenarios in three areas. The first analogue is the outcropped salt dome in Solotvyno village in Carpathian mountains in western Ukraine close to the Romania border. This salt dome is an important example of showing the current deposition of transported coarse material from depth around salt domes. The second one is salt domes exposed as mountains of the Oman desert where it is possible to follow the material path approaching the salt uplift. And the third example is the Death Valley in Arizona, USA. The valley is an example of fans mostly deposited by gravity rather than permanent water flows. It good to mention that there are more examples that could be treated as direct analogues (the Zagros mountains in Iran) but they are not easily accessible for field trips if needed. For recognizing real targets vs artifacts, applying the knowledge of current deposition examples around the world would help dramatically (Western Ukraine, Oman, Death Valley in Arizona).

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 4367
Seyed Arvin Fakhri ◽  
Hooman Latifi

Semi-arid tree covers, in both high and coppice growth forms, play an essential role in protecting water and soil resources and provides multiple ecosystem services across fragile ecosystems. Thus, they require continuous inventories. Quantification of forest structure in these tree covers provides important measures for their management and biodiversity conservation. We present a framework, based on consumer-grade UAV photogrammetry, to separately estimate primary variables of tree height (H) and crown area (A) across diverse coppice and high stands dominated by Quercus brantii Lindl. along the latitudinal gradient of Zagros mountains of western Iran. Then, multivariate linear regressions were parametrized with H and A to estimate the diameter at breast height (DBH) of high trees because of its importance to accelerate the existing practical DBH inventories across Zagros Forests. The estimated variables were finally applied to a model tree aboveground biomass (AGB) for both vegetative growth forms by local allometric equations and Random Forest models. In each step, the estimated variables were evaluated against the field reference values, indicating practically high accuracies reaching root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.68 m and 4.74 cm for H and DBH, as well as relative RMSE < 10% for AGB estimates. The results generally suggest an effective framework for single tree-based attribute estimation over mountainous, semi-arid coppice, and high stands.

2021 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 175-192
Dominic Wanke ◽  
Lars Krogmann ◽  
Leidys Murillo-Ramos ◽  
Pasi Sihvonen ◽  
Hossein Rajaei

Within Iran, the Zagros Mountains show high biodiversity, with a wealth of endemic species. One of these is the geometrid moth Somatina wiltshirei Prout, 1938, originally described from Iran and Iraq. In the present study, one mitochondrial and up to nine protein-coding nuclear gene regions were used along with a comparative morphological examination to investigate the systematic position of this species. The results support the reclassification of this species as Problepsis wiltshireicomb. nov. Since the original species description is superficial, we provide a re-description supported by rich illustrations of morphological characters and distribution. In addition, Problepsis wiltshireicomb. nov. is reported as a new species for the fauna of Turkey. The importance of the habitat for the conservation of this species is discussed.

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5047 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-32

Acanthodactylus boskianus is a widespread species in Northern Africa and Western Asia. In this study, we used morphological and genetic approaches to study populations of A. boskianus from the Zagros Mountains in western Iran, the easternmost limit of the species’ distribution. Our morphological and genetic data indicate that populations of A. boskianus in Iran are distinct from other populations of A. boskianus. Therefore, we describe the Iranian populations as Acanthodactylus zagrosicus sp. nov. The new species is the third endemic species of Acanthodactylus in Iran and the ninth Acanthodactylus species distributed in Iran overall. According to our surveys, this species is distributed widely in the Zagros Mountains including Kermanshah, Lorestan, Ilam, and Khuzestan Provinces.  

2021 ◽  
Mohammad Saligheh

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to show the effect of high troposphere winds and currents on low troposphere events at sea level. For this study, precipitation data from atmospheric stations in South Asia and west of the Zagros Mountains were used. After preparing these data, 500 and 300 hectopascal level maps were used to interpret the weather conditions. Vertical transect flow maps were used to identify the position of the jet stream. The results showed that the merger of the polar front jet stream and the subtropical jet stream provide the conditions for accelerating atmospheric currents and reaching more humidity and stronger ascent conditions to South Asia. Jet streams merger have three major effects on low pressure. If the Jet stream vorticity is the same as the curvature vorticity, the low-pressure centers on the low level will be strengthened, otherwise they will weaken due to the opposite effects. The low pressure under the Jet stream divergence area helps to strengthen it. The difference in wind speed in the jet stream with low pressures, stranger low pressures in the low level.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (8) ◽  
pp. e0253708
Saman Heydari-Guran ◽  
Stefano Benazzi ◽  
Sahra Talamo ◽  
Elham Ghasidian ◽  
Nemat Hariri ◽  

Neanderthal extinction has been a matter of debate for many years. New discoveries, better chronologies and genomic evidence have done much to clarify some of the issues. This evidence suggests that Neanderthals became extinct around 40,000–37,000 years before present (BP), after a period of coexistence with Homo sapiens of several millennia, involving biological and cultural interactions between the two groups. However, the bulk of this evidence relates to Western Eurasia, and recent work in Central Asia and Siberia has shown that there is considerable local variation. Southwestern Asia, despite having a number of significant Neanderthal remains, has not played a major part in the debate over extinction. Here we report a Neanderthal deciduous canine from the site of Bawa Yawan in the West-Central Zagros Mountains of Iran. The tooth is associated with Zagros Mousterian lithics, and its context is preliminary dated to between ~43,600 and ~41,500 years ago.

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