groundwater resources
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2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 87-98

With the increasing resolution of satellite sensors, it is possible to fruitfully exploit the special advantages of image analysis for a wide range of geological environments. With this view, a LISS-III and PAN merged image of the 1600 acre (approximately 6.5 sq km) Osmania University (OU) campus taken from IRS-ID in the month of May (a fairly representative month in terms of minimum annual drainage/vegetation cover) was acquired. The image was then digitally processed and visually interpreted for potential groundwater resource regions. Since occurrence of groundwater in crystalline rocks, the host rocks for the entire Hyderabad region, is generally associated with secondary porosity, the accent was on determining and establishing lineaments of considerable surface extent. This was then augmented with maps of subsurface features as obtained from geophysical studies for the southern part of 0 U campus and available bore well/open well information. Subsequently, information from the three sources was integrated for a better understanding of the geological situation and the interrelationship of its various constituents to determine possible locations of groundwater resources.   The significant findings comprised the identification of three major dykes, two running E-W and the third running NE-SW. A major N-S linear exposure of granitic rocks, as also several criss-crossing fractures in the southern side of the campus, along with the prevailing drainage pattern for the entire campus area were mapped. Based on these findings and supporting geophysical/hydrogeological data, a geological/lithological map of Osmania University campus was prepared and prospective groundwater zones have been identified.

2022 ◽  
Fatemeh Geravand ◽  
Seiyed Mossa Hosseini ◽  
Mehran Maghsoudi ◽  
Mojtaba Yamani

Abstract Karst groundwater resources in the Zagros Mountains are vital for supplying of different demands in the region which need to sustainable management and protection. Quantitative and qualitative characterization of karst aquifers in this region were understudied due to lack of site-specific logging-data and speleological investigations. In this study, a state-of-the-art of the statistical methods developed to characterize karst aquifer based on analyses of the spring recession hydrograph and spring water quality are presented. These methods including Manging’s method for classification of karst aquifers, relationships of precipitation and discharge data, groundwater quality index (GQI), hydrochemical diagrams (Piper, Durov and Gibbs), and Saturation index (SI), Chloro-Alkaline indices (CAI). 42 major karst springs mainly located in folded part of Zagros region (western Iran) are selected for application of the reviewed methods. Results indicated that the saturated zone exerts almost main control over the discharge of 76% of the studied springs. The base-flow contributes as between 80.0% to 100% of total water storage in the study aquifers. 78.5% of the studied aquifers have a high karstification degree. An insignificant lag-time is observed between the precipitation on the karst basin and spring discharge. The hydrochemical diagrams show that the waters are dominated by HCO3 and Ca and the majority of the waters are alkaline, with originate from silicate minerals weathering. Such repeatable methods adopted in this study can provide crucial information of the karst aquifers, especially those suffer scarcity of aquifer hydrodynamic data.

Fattoum Bouchemal ◽  
Samia Achour

This study is part of the more general framework for diagnosis of the quality of water resources in the Biskra area and its suitability for irrigation. This work reports the results of an analysis of physicochemical groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were collected from 12 boreholes in different aquifers exploited in the area, and used for drinking and domestic purposes. The results showed that the water of the limestone aquifer (Maastrichtian) is better than other aquifers (phreatic, Miopliocene, Lower Eocene). This affects more particularly the pH, conductivity (mineralization), total hardness, and concentration of the major elements. As far as the same aquifers (phreatic, Miopliocene, Lower Eocene), present water which classified mediocre highly mineralized for irrigation because EC > 2250 μS/cm (class 4). The Maastrichtian aquifer presents a poor water quality (class 3), according to the Riverside classification.

Solid Earth ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 41-64
Berit Schwichtenberg ◽  
Florian Fusseis ◽  
Ian B. Butler ◽  
Edward Andò

Abstract. Phyllosilicates are generally regarded to have a reinforcing effect on chemical compaction by dissolution–precipitation creep (DPC) and thereby influence the evolution of hydraulic rock properties relevant to groundwater resources and geological repositories as well as fossil fuel reservoirs. We conducted oedometric compaction experiments on layered NaCl–biotite samples to test this assumption. In particular, we aim to analyse slow chemical compaction processes in the presence of biotite on the grain scale and determine the effects of chemical and mechanical feedbacks. We used time-resolved (4-D) microtomographic data to capture the dynamic evolution of the porosity in layered NaCl–NaCl/biotite samples over 1619 and 1932 h of compaction. Percolation analysis in combination with advanced digital volume correlation techniques showed that biotite grains influence the dynamic evolution of porosity in the sample by promoting a reduction of porosity in their vicinity. However, the lack of preferential strain localisation around phyllosilicates and a homogeneous distribution of axial shortening across the sample suggests that the porosity reduction is not achieved by pore collapse but by the precipitation of NaCl sourced from outside the NaCl–biotite layer. Our observations invite a renewed discussion of the effect of phyllosilicates on DPC, with a particular emphasis on the length scales of the processes involved. We propose that, in our experiments, the diffusive transport processes invoked in classical theoretical models of DPC are complemented by chemo-mechanical feedbacks that arise on longer length scales. These feedbacks drive NaCl diffusion from the marginal pure NaCl layers into the central NaCl–biotite mixture over distances of several hundred micrometres and several grain diameters. Such a mechanism was first postulated by Merino et al. (1983).

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 154
Claudia Ochoa-Noriega ◽  
Juan F. Velasco-Muñoz ◽  
José A. Aznar-Sánchez ◽  
Belén López-Felices

Mexico, as many countries, relies on its aquifers to provide at least 60% of all irrigation water to produce crops every year. Often, the water withdrawal goes beyond what the aquifer can be replenished by the little rainfall. Mexico is a country that has experienced a successful process of regional development based on the adoption of intensive agricultural systems. However, this development has occurred in an unplanned way and displays shortcomings in terms of sustainability, particularly in the management of water resources. This study analysed the case of Costa de Hermosillo, which is one of the Mexican regions in which this model of intensive agriculture has been developed and where there is a high level of overexploitation of its groundwater resources. Based on the application of a qualitative methodology involving different stakeholders (farmers, policymakers, and researchers), the main barriers and facilitators for achieving sustainability in water resources management have been identified. A series of consensus-based measures were contemplated, which may lead to the adoption of sustainable practices in water management. Useful lessons can be drawn from this analysis and be applied to other agricultural areas where ground and surface water resources are overexploited, alternative water sources are overlooked, and where stakeholders have conflicting interests in water management.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261651
Gabriel J. Bowen ◽  
Jessica S. Guo ◽  
Scott T. Allen

A wide range of hydrological, ecological, environmental, and forensic science applications rely on predictive “isoscape” maps to provide estimates of the hydrogen or oxygen isotopic compositions of environmental water sources. Many water isoscapes have been developed, but few studies have produced isoscapes specifically representing groundwaters. None of these have represented distinct subsurface layers and isotopic variations across them. Here we compiled >6 million well completion records and >27,000 groundwater isotope datapoints to develop a space- and depth-explicit water isoscape for the contiguous United States. This 3-dimensional model shows that vertical isotopic heterogeneity in the subsurface is substantial in some parts of the country and that groundwater isotope delta values often differ from those of coincident precipitation or surface water resources; many of these patterns can be explained by established hydrological and hydrogeological mechanisms. We validate the groundwater isoscape against an independent data set of tap water values and show that the model accurately predicts tap water values in communities known to use groundwater resources. This new approach represents a foundation for further developments and the resulting isoscape should provide improved predictions of water isotope values in systems where groundwater is a known or potential water source.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Anurag Verma ◽  
Prabhakar Sharma

Growing dependence on groundwater to fulfill the water demands has led to continuous depletion of groundwater levels and, consequently, poses the maintenance of optimum groundwater and management challenge. The region of South Bihar faces regular drought and flood situations, and due to the excessive pumping, the groundwater resources are declining. Rainwater harvesting has been recommended for the region; however, there are no hydrogeological studies concerning groundwater recharge. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a managed aquifer recharge technique to store excess water in the aquifer through borewells to meet the high-water demand in the dry season. Therefore, this paper presents the hydrogeological feasibility for possible ASR installations in shallow aquifers of South Bihar with the help of flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging. For modeling, the well logging data of two shallow borewells (16- and 47-m depth) at Rajgir, Nalanda, were used to obtain the transmissivity and thickness of the aquifers. The estimated transmissivities were 804 m2/day with an aquifer thickness of 5 m (in between 11 and 16 m) at Ajatshatru Residential Hall (ARH) well. They were 353 and 1,154 m2/day with the aquifer thicknesses of 6 m (in between 16 and 22 m) and 2 m (in between 45 and 47 m), respectively, at Nalanda University Campus (NUC) well. Despite the acceptable transmissivities at these sites, those aquifers may not be fruitful for the medium- to large-scale (more than 100-m3/day injection rate) ASR as the thickness of the aquifers is relatively small and may not efficiently store and withdraw a large amount of water. However, these aquifers can be adequate for small (up to 20-m3/day injection rate) ASR, for example, groundwater recharge using rooftop water. For medium- to large-scale ASR, deeper aquifers need to be further explored on these sites or aquifers with similar characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Omeed H. Al-Kakey ◽  
Arsalan A. Othman ◽  
Broder J. Merkel ◽  

Excessive extraction, uncontrolled withdrawal of groundwater, and unregulated practices have caused severe depletion of groundwater resources in the Erbil basin, Iraq. This situation has had a number of negative consequences on human settlement, agricultural activities, clean water supply, and the environment. Runoff harvesting and artificial groundwater recharge play a significant role in the sustainable management of water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. This study aims to: (1) delineate groundwater recharge zones using multiple thematic layers that control the groundwater recharge process, and (2) identify prospective sites and structures to perform artificial groundwater recharge. In order to generate a potential map for groundwater recharge zones, seven thematic layers are considered in this study, namely, topographic position index, geomorphology, lithology, land cover, slope, drainage-length density, and lineament-length density. After that, the analytic hierarchy process was applied to weight, rank, and reclassify these seven thematic layers. All maps are then integrated within the ArcGIS environment for delineating groundwater recharge zones. Accordingly, the resulting map categorizes the study area into five zones: extremely high, high, moderate, low, and extremely low potential for groundwater recharge. As expected, areas along the Greater Zab river show the highest possibility for groundwater recharge. Likewise, rugged eastern hills demonstrate an encouraging capacity for artificial aquifer recharge, whereas the least effective area is represented by built-up land. Based on the generated map, two dams are proposed as promising artificial recharge structures for harvesting runoff water east of Erbil city. Lastly, the resulting map of the potential groundwater recharge zones is verified using static water level data, where the coefficient of determination (R2) achieved a satisfactory result (0.73). These findings provide crucial evidence for implementing a sustainable management plan of surface and groundwater resources. The applied method is eventually valid for regions where appropriate and adequate field data availability is a serious issue.

2022 ◽  
pp. 118083
Dahyann Araya ◽  
Joel Podgorski ◽  
Michael Kumi ◽  
Patrick A. Mainoo ◽  
Michael Berg

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