delayed cord clamping
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Ishak Kartal ◽  
Aslihan Abbasoglu ◽  
Seyithan Taysi

Objective As newborns are exposed to oxidative stress during delivery, cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status. In this study, we aimed to show the relationship between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and cut umblical cord milking (C-UCM) techniques with total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and peroxynitrite levels. Study Design Sixty-nine term infants were selected with APGAR score of 7 and above in the first and fifth minutes. The mothers of all infants had uncomplicated pregnancy, had no congenital anomaly, and delivered by cesarean section. Newborns were randomised to one of three groups: ECC (n: 23), DCC (n: 23) or C-UCM (n: 23). After all newborn babies were taken under radiant heater, blood samples were collected from the umbilical cord. The plasma samples were then frozen and stored at -80 °C until analysis and TOC, TAC and peroxynitrite levels were studied. Results The ages of the mothers participating in the study were between 17 and 42, with an average of 29.14 ± 6.28. 30 (43.5%) of the babies were girls and 39 (56.5%) were boys. The 5th minute APGAR score of the babies in early cord clamping group was significantly lower than the babies in delayed cord clamping and cut cord milking group (p = 0.034; p = 0.034; p <0.05). The TOC, OSI and Peroxynitrite measurements of three groups did not differ statistically. The TAC value of the C-UCM group was significantly higher than the patients with the ECC and DCC group (p = 0.002; p = 0.019; p <0.05). Conclusion C-UCM and DCC would be feasible methods by increasing antioxidant status and providing protective effect on the future health of the term newborns,

Inmaculada Lara-Cantón ◽  
Shiraz Badurdeen ◽  
Janneke Dekker ◽  
Peter Davis ◽  
Calum Roberts ◽  

Abstract Blood oxygen in the fetus is substantially lower than in the newborn infant. In the minutes after birth, arterial oxygen saturation rises from around 50–60% to 90–95%. Initial respiratory efforts generate negative trans-thoracic pressures that drive liquid from the airways into the lung interstitium facilitating lung aeration, blood oxygenation, and pulmonary artery vasodilatation. Consequently, intra- (foramen ovale) and extra-cardiac (ductus arteriosus) shunting changes and the sequential circulation switches to a parallel pulmonary and systemic circulation. Delaying cord clamping preserves blood flow through the ascending vena cava, thus increasing right and left ventricular preload. Recently published reference ranges have suggested that delayed cord clamping positively influenced the fetal-to-neonatal transition. Oxygen saturation in babies with delayed cord clamping plateaus significantly earlier to values of 85–90% than in babies with immediate cord clamping. Delayed cord clamping may also contribute to fewer episodes of brady-or-tachycardia in the first minutes after birth, but data from randomized trials are awaited. Impact Delaying cord clamping during fetal to neonatal transition contributes to a significantly earlier plateauing of oxygen saturation and fewer episodes of brady-and/or-tachycardia in the first minutes after birth. We provide updated information regarding the changes in SpO2 and HR during postnatal adaptation of term and late preterm infants receiving delayed compared with immediate cord clamping. Nomograms in newborn infants with delayed cord clamping will provide valuable reference ranges to establish target SpO2 and HR in the first minutes after birth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S482-S483
Samsiya Ona ◽  
Stephanie Purisch ◽  
Anne E. Reed-Weston ◽  
Shai Bejerano ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Sophie G. Groene ◽  
Lisanne S.A. Tollenaar ◽  
Lotte E. van der Meeren ◽  
Femke Slaghekke ◽  
E. Joanne Verweij ◽  

Abstract We report a case of a monochorionic diamniotic twin with an uncomplicated pregnancy, but with an unexpected large intertwin hemoglobin (Hb) difference at birth. Twin 1 was delivered vaginally and had an uneventful neonatal course. The umbilical cord of Twin 1 was clamped approximately 5 min after birth. After the birth of Twin 1, Twin 2 developed severe bradycardia and showed limited cardiac output on ultrasound, for which an emergency cesarean section was performed. A full blood count revealed an Hb of 20.1 g/dL for Twin 1 and 10.2 g/dL for Twin 2 (intertwin difference 9.9 g/dL). Reticulocyte counts were similar, 40‰ and 38‰, respectively. Placental examination revealed 10 vascular anastomoses, including one arterio-arterial anastomosis with a diameter of 1.4 mm. Additionally, a large chorangioma was present on the placental surface of Twin 2. There was no color difference on the maternal side of the placenta. Based on the reticulocyte count ratio and the placental characteristics, twin anemia polycythemia sequence was ruled out as the cause of the large intertwin Hb difference. In this report, we discuss the various potential causes that could explain the large intertwin Hb difference including the role of delayed cord clamping in Twin 1, and the role of a large chorangioma, which may have attracted blood from the fetal circulation of Twin 2.

Georg M Schmölzer ◽  
Calum T Roberts ◽  
Douglas A Blank ◽  
Shiraz Badurdeen ◽  
Suzanne L Miller ◽  

BackgroundThe feasibility and benefits of continuous sustained inflations (SIs) during chest compressions (CCs) during delayed cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping; PBCC) are not known. We aimed to determine whether continuous SIs during CCs would reduce the time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improve post-asphyxial blood pressures and flows in asystolic newborn lambs.MethodsFetal sheep were surgically instrumented immediately prior to delivery at ~139 days’ gestation and asphyxia induced until lambs reached asystole. Lambs were randomised to either immediate cord clamping (ICC) or PBCC. Lambs then received a single SI (SIsing; 30 s at 30 cmH2O) followed by intermittent positive pressure ventilation, or continuous SIs (SIcont: 30 s duration with 1 s break). We thus examined 4 groups: ICC +SIsing, ICC +SIcont, PBCC +SIsing, and PBCC +SIcont. Chest compressions and epinephrine administration followed international guidelines. PBCC lambs underwent cord clamping 10 min after ROSC. Physiological and oxygenation variables were measured throughout.ResultsThe time taken to achieve ROSC was not different between groups (mean (SD) 4.3±2.9 min). Mean and diastolic blood pressure was higher during chest compressions in PBCC lambs compared with ICC lambs, but no effect of SIs was observed. SIcont significantly reduced pulmonary blood flow, diastolic blood pressure and oxygenation after ROSC compared with SIsing.ConclusionWe found no significant benefit of SIcont over SIsing during CPR on the time to ROSC or on post-ROSC haemodynamics, but did demonstrate the feasibility of continuous SIs during advanced CPR on an intact umbilical cord. Longer-term studies are recommended before this technique is used routinely in clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
pp. 097321792110607
Chinmay Chetan ◽  
Nishant Banait ◽  
Vikramaditya Athelli ◽  
Bhvya Gupta ◽  
Prince Pareek ◽  

Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO) in 2014 recommended delayed cord clamping (DCC) in all babies who cry immediately after birth. Despite many benefits, there are concerns of increased rate of phototherapy in babies receiving DCC. This study was done to determine the increment in the rate of phototherapy required in infants managed with DCC vs infants managed with early cord clamping (ECC). Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India. All the infants born between January 2018 and July 2018, for whom ECC was done, were compared with infants who were born between January 2019 and July 2019, after DCC policy was adopted. All the infants with birth weight ≥2 kg and gestation ≥35 weeks, who were with their mother, were included. Baseline characteristics were compared for both the groups. American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for treatment of neonatal jaundice were used to determine the need for phototherapy. Number of infants in both the groups who required phototherapy were compared. Results: The ECC group had 565 infants while DCC group had 731 infants. There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the 2 groups. Jaundice requiring phototherapy was noted in 31% of infants in the ECC group, compared to 45% in infants in the DCC group (relative risk: 1.47 [1.27-1.71] [ P < .001]). Conclusion: In this study, DCC increased the need for phototherapy by 47% in late preterm and term infants. Randomized control trials with larger sample size are required to confirm this finding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Tai-Ho Hung ◽  
Ya-Chun Chuang ◽  
Lulu Huang

Background: Despite reports of the beneficial effects, such as increasing hemoglobin level and iron store in the neonatal period, of delayed cord clamping, or umbilical cord milking after delivery in healthy term-born infants, the duration of delayed clamping or rounds of milking in most previous reports were determined arbitrarily and varied widely across different studies.Methods: We prospectively recruited 80 women with normal singleton pregnancies at 38–40 weeks' gestation. Participants were classified according to the mode of delivery and randomly assigned to either collecting blood from the placenta by umbilical cord drainage (CD) or cord milking (CM), with the placenta left in the uterus. The volume of blood collected, the duration of CD, and the number of rounds of CM were recorded.Results: Collected placental residual blood volume positively correlated with birth weight, placental weight, and length of the cord. When 80% of the total placental residual blood volume collected was set as the threshold, more than 80% of women who delivered vaginally reached this level within 60 s of CD or seven repetitions of CM. This amount of blood could be obtained within 120 s of CD or after seven repetitions of CM in more than 80% of women who underwent cesarean delivery.Conclusion: In most women, regardless of birth weight and placental weight, more than 80% of placental residual blood volume could be collected by CD within 60 s after vaginal delivery, 120 s after cesarean delivery, and seven repetitions of CM in both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (5) ◽  
pp. 1811-15
Ghulam Sabir ◽  
Ayesha Raja ◽  
Saira Mahboob ◽  
Saima Shoukat ◽  
Ali Kashif ◽  

Objective: To assess the feasibility of umbilical cord milking as an alternative to delayed cord clamping during caserean section by comparing neonatal outcomes. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anesthesiology, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from Mar to Oct 2018. Methodology: A total of 384 cases (n=192 in each group) were included in our study. In group A, the half-length of umbilical cord was milked thrice by the operating surgeon before clamping and cutting it. In group B the umbilical cord was cut 90 second after delivery of the baby. The outcomes were: APGAR score at one and five minutes after delivery, haemglobin and haematocrit 4 hours after delivery of baby. Requirement of oxygen and ventilatory support during the 24 hours after birth were also noted. Results: Our two study groups didn’t vary in their demographic profile. The difference between the APGAR score at one and five minutes was not statistically significant, (p>0.05). The diffrence in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels of the neonates 4 hours after delivery were insignificant (p-value 0.27 and 0.14 respectively). Conclusion: Milking of the umbilical cord can be used as an alternative to the recommended technique of delayed umbilical cord clamping, especially when immediate resuscitation of the newborn is needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 36-45
D. R. Sharafutdinova ◽  
E. N. Balashova ◽  
А. R. Kirtbaya ◽  
A. Yu. Ryndin ◽  
J. M. Golubtsova ◽  

Anemia of prematurity is one of the most common and serious problems of neonatology. The main focus is to prevent of anemia in preterm infants. The aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of umbilical cord milking/delayed cord clamping and erythropoietin therapy in reducing red blood cell transfusions in extremely and very low birth weight infants. This clinical study was approved by the Commission on ethics of biomedical research (Protocol No. 12 November 17, 2016) and approved by the Scientific Council of National Medical Research Center for obstetrics, gynecology and perinatology named academician V.I. Kulakov of the ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation (Protocol No. 19 of November 29, 2016). Analysis of 482 extremely and very low birth weight infants was conducted (from 2008 to 2018). Umbilical cord milking or delayed umbilical cord clamping, both, and in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy, decreasing the phlebotomy losses significantly reduces the need for transfusions of red blood cells in extremely and very low birth weight infants. The effectiveness of erythropoietin therapy, time of its start and various treatment schemes remain controversial, therefore further researches are necessary.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Jasmine Y. Nakayama ◽  
Cria G. Perrine ◽  
Heather C. Hamner ◽  
Ellen O. Boundy

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