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2109 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 108-115 ◽  
Binu Ninan ◽  
Umamaheswari Balakrishnan ◽  
Asiff Mohamed ◽  
Munusamy Manjula ◽  

Asma Al-Turkait ◽  
Lisa Szatkowski ◽  
Imti Choonara ◽  
Shalini Ojha

Abstract Purpose To describe drug utilisation patterns in neonatal units. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) for neonatal units in England and Wales including infants born at 23 to 44 weeks’ gestational age (GA) from 01 January 2010 to 31 December 2017. Results The cohort included 17,501 (3%) extremely preterm infants; 40,607 (7%) very preterm infants; 193,536 (31%) moderate-to-late preterm infants; and 371,606 (59%) term infants. The number of unique drugs received by an infant (median (IQR)) increased with decreasing GA: 17 (11–24) in extremely preterm, 7 (5–11) in very preterm, 3 (0–4) in moderate-to-late preterm, and 3 (0–3) in term infants. The two most frequently prescribed drugs were benzylpenicillin and gentamicin in all GA groups, and caffeine in extremely preterm. Other frequently used drugs among preterm infants were electrolytes, diuretics and anti-reflux medications. Among infants <32 weeks’ GA, the largest increase in use was for surfactant (given on the neonatal unit), caffeine and probiotics, while domperidone and ranitidine had the largest decline. Conclusion Antibiotics, for all GAs and caffeine, among preterm infants, are the most frequently used drugs in neonatal medicine. Preterm infants are exposed to a high burden of drugs, particularly antibiotics. Changing patterns in use reflect the emergence of evidence in some areas but several non-evidence-based drugs continue to be used widely. Improvements are needed to ensure rational drug use on neonatal units. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03773289). Date of registration 21 Dec 2018.

Ishak Kartal ◽  
Aslihan Abbasoglu ◽  
Seyithan Taysi

Objective As newborns are exposed to oxidative stress during delivery, cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status. In this study, we aimed to show the relationship between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and cut umblical cord milking (C-UCM) techniques with total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and peroxynitrite levels. Study Design Sixty-nine term infants were selected with APGAR score of 7 and above in the first and fifth minutes. The mothers of all infants had uncomplicated pregnancy, had no congenital anomaly, and delivered by cesarean section. Newborns were randomised to one of three groups: ECC (n: 23), DCC (n: 23) or C-UCM (n: 23). After all newborn babies were taken under radiant heater, blood samples were collected from the umbilical cord. The plasma samples were then frozen and stored at -80 °C until analysis and TOC, TAC and peroxynitrite levels were studied. Results The ages of the mothers participating in the study were between 17 and 42, with an average of 29.14 ± 6.28. 30 (43.5%) of the babies were girls and 39 (56.5%) were boys. The 5th minute APGAR score of the babies in early cord clamping group was significantly lower than the babies in delayed cord clamping and cut cord milking group (p = 0.034; p = 0.034; p <0.05). The TOC, OSI and Peroxynitrite measurements of three groups did not differ statistically. The TAC value of the C-UCM group was significantly higher than the patients with the ECC and DCC group (p = 0.002; p = 0.019; p <0.05). Conclusion C-UCM and DCC would be feasible methods by increasing antioxidant status and providing protective effect on the future health of the term newborns,

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 408-411
Tripti Sharma ◽  
Mohit Ajmera ◽  
Gopikishan Sharma ◽  
Amrita Mayenger

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to study the effect of different stages of lumber puncture (LP) procedure on oxygen saturation (SpO2) in newborn baby. Materials and Methods: It was a 1-year, prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Forty neonates were included who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. SpO2 was measured during the different stages of LP in the recruited newborns and comparison was done between SpO2 changes in LP duration of <5 min and more than 5 min groups and the effect on SpO2 in preterm and term babies during LP. Results: Mean SpO2 during baseline, flexion, needle insertion, immediate repositioning, and 5 min after procedure were 94.5, 91.82, 88.92, 94.7, and 95.38, respectively. When compare to baseline, drop in SpO2 was found during flexion and needle insertion with p = 0.0025 and <0.0001, respectively. While comparing Mean SpO2 during different phases between duration of LP >5 min versus <5 min group, the saturation was less during flexion positioning with maximum fall at the time of needle insertion in LP duration >5 min. The regain of saturation during repositioning was more in LP <5 min versus duration >5 min group. Comparing between LP duration >5 min versus <5 min group, fall in SpO2 from baseline (5 min before LP procedure) was more in LP duration >5 min group during flexion and needle insertion phase. Hypoxemia is more in preterm than term neonates during flexion and during needle insertion, supine repositioning. Furthermore, hypoxia recovered after 5 min of supine repositioning more in term infants. Conclusions: Significant hypoxia was associated in newborn in flexion and needle insertion phase of lumbar puncture, especially in preterm newborns and those with prolonged duration of procedure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yuta Shinya ◽  
Masahiko Kawai ◽  
Fusako Niwa ◽  
Yasuhiro Kanakogi ◽  
Masahiro Imafuku ◽  

AbstractThere is growing evidence that preterm children are at an increased risk of poor executive functioning, which underlies behavioural and attention problems. Previous studies have suggested that early cognitive flexibility is a possible predictor of later executive function; however, how it develops in infancy and relates to the later neurobehavioural outcomes is still unclear in the preterm population. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate oculomotor response shifting in 27 preterm and 25 term infants at 12 months and its relationship with general cognitive development and effortful control, which is a temperamental aspect closely associated with executive function, at 18 months. We found that moderate to late preterm and term infants significantly inhibited previously rewarded look responses, while very preterm infants did not show significant inhibition of perseverative looking at 12 months. Moreover, lower inhibition of perseverative looking was significantly associated with lower general cognitive development and attentional shifting at 18 months. These findings suggest that the early atypical patterns of oculomotor response shifting may be a behavioural marker for predicting a higher risk of negative neurobehavioural outcomes, including attention-related problems in preterm children.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-26
Lise Dubois ◽  
Cindy Feng ◽  
Brigitte Bédard ◽  
Yamei Yu ◽  
Zhong-Cheng Luo ◽  

Abstract Objective: To assess relationships between breastfeeding, rapid growth in the first year of life, and overweight/obesity status at age 2. Design: As part of an observational, longitudinal study beginning in early pregnancy, multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess associations between breastfeeding duration (total and exclusive) and rapid weight gain (RWG) between birth and age 1, and to determine predictors of overweight/obesity status at age 2. Setting: 9 hospitals located in the province of Quebec, Canada. Participants: 1599 term infants participating in the 3D Cohort Study Results: Children having RWG in the first year and those having excess weight at age 2 accounted for 28% and <10%, respectively. In multivariable models, children breastfed <6 months and from 6 months to <1 year were, respectively, 2.5 times (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.76-3.41) and 1.8 times (OR: 1.78; 1.29-2.45) more likely to show RWG up to age 1 compared to children breastfed ≥ 1 year. Children exclusively breastfed < 3 months had significantly greater odds of RWG in the first year (OR: 1.94; 1.25-3.04) compared to children exclusively breastfed for ≥6 months. Associations between breastfeeding duration (total or exclusive) and excess weight at age 2 were not detected. RWG in the first year was found to be the main predictor of excess weight at age 2 (OR: 6.98; 4.35-11.47). Conclusions: The potential beneficial effects of breastfeeding on rate of growth in the first year of life suggest that interventions promoting breastfeeding are relevant for obesity prevention early in life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Keqin Liu ◽  
Jiaxin Tao ◽  
Jixin Yang ◽  
Yufeng Li ◽  
Yanwei Su ◽  

Abstract Background Preterm infants have higher nutrition needs than term infants. The effectiveness of various feeding supplementation was assessed by the improvement of health outcomes in single specific systematic reviews (SRs). The aim of this review was to comprehensively describe the effectiveness of feeding supplementation in promoting health outcomes of preterm infants. Methods A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, EMBASE, Science Direct, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Wiley online library. SRs selection followed clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pairs of reviewers independently applied the criteria to both titles/abstracts and full texts. Screening and data extraction were performed by using the advanced tables. The methodological quality of SRs and the quality of the evidence were carried out according to the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation guidelines (GRADE) respectively. A qualitative synthesis of evidence is presented. Results Seventeen SRs were included in the review. Fifteen kinds of feeding supplementation were reported in the SRs. In preterm infants, the effectiveness of feeding supplementation in addition to regular breast-feeding was mainly shown in six aspects: physical health, neurodevelopment, biochemical outcomes, other health outcomes, morbidity and all-cause mortality. And the effectiveness of the interventions on health outcomes in preterm infants was found by most systematic reviews. The methodological quality of all the included SRs was high, and most of the evidences was of low or very low quality. Conclusions Our results will allow a better understanding of the feeding supplementation in preterm infants. Although the feeling supplements may improve the health outcomes of in preterm infants, the existing evidence is uncertain. Therefore, the clinical use of these supplements should be considered cautiously and more well-designed RCTs are still needed to further address the unsolved problems of the included SRs.

Mert Kobaş ◽  
Erim Kızıldere ◽  
Işıl Doğan ◽  
Aslı Aktan-Erciyes ◽  
Ö. Ece Demir-Lira ◽  

2022 ◽  
Zhonggui Xiong ◽  
Feimin Sun ◽  
Zeyuan Xia

Abstract Objective: It was to explore the growth rates and influence factors of length and weight of preterm and full-term infants in urban areas of Hubei province to provide reference for child health and related clinical field.Methods: A birth cohort study was used to analyze the growth rates and influence factors of length and weight of preterm and full-term infants in urban areas of Hubei province by multivariate regression analysis.Results: The growth rates of length and weight of preterm infants were significantly lower than those of full-term infants from birth to 3 months (P < 0.05), and gradually caught up to the level of full-term infants after 3 months (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, there were some influence factors which had significant differences by the contribution to the growth rates of length and weight of preterm and full-term infants. It was proposed that the perinatal factors were attached more importance to the growth rates of preterm infants.Conclusion: This study was to investigate the growth rates and influence factors of length and weight of preterm and full-term infants, and to take effective intervention measures to promote growth and development of preterm infants in urban areas of Hubei province.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Jørgen Linde ◽  
Anne Lee Solevåg ◽  
Joar Eilevstjønn ◽  
Ladislaus Blacy ◽  
Hussein Kidanto ◽  

Background: ST-segment changes to the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) may indicate fetal acidosis. No large-scale characterization of ECG morphology immediately after birth has been performed, but ECG is used for heart rate (HR) assessment. We aimed to investigate ECG morphology immediately after birth in asphyxiated infants, using one-lead dry-electrode ECG developed for HR measurement. Methods: Observational study in Tanzania, between 2013–2018. Near-term and term infants that received bag-mask ventilation (BMV), and healthy controls, were monitored with one-lead dry-electrode ECG with a non-diagnostic bandwidth. ECGs were classified as normal, with ST-elevations or other ST-segment abnormalities including a biphasic ST-segment. We analyzed ECG morphology in relation to perinatal variables or short-term outcomes. Results: A total of 494 resuscitated and 25 healthy infants were included. ST-elevations were commonly seen both in healthy infants (7/25; 28%) and resuscitated (320/494; 65%) infants. The apparent ST-elevations were not associated with perinatal variables or short-term outcomes. Among the 32 (6.4%) resuscitated infants with “other ST-segment abnormalities”, duration of BMV was longer, 1-min Apgar score lower and normal outcomes less frequent than in the resuscitated infants with normal ECG or ST-elevations. Conclusions: ST-segment elevation was commonly seen and not associated with negative outcomes when using one-lead dry-electrode ECG. Other ST-segment abnormalities were associated with prolonged BMV and worse outcome. ECG with appropriate bandwidth and automated analysis may potentially in the future aid in the identification of severely asphyxiated infants.

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