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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Haroon ◽  
M. J. Iqbal ◽  
W. Hassan ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
H. Ahmed ◽  

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Junfeng Zhong ◽  
Junfeng Hu ◽  
Linling Mao ◽  
Gang Ye ◽  
Kai Qiu ◽  

ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy of intravenous (IV) lidocaine with standard analgesics (NSAIDS, opioids) for pain control due to any cause in the emergency department.MethodsThe electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar were explored from 1st January 2000 to 30th March 2021 and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV lidocaine with a control group of standard analgesics were included.ResultsTwelve RCTs including 1,351 patients were included. The cause of pain included abdominal pain, renal or biliary colic, traumatic pain, radicular low back pain, critical limb ischemia, migraine, tension-type headache, and pain of unknown origin. On pooled analysis, we found no statistically significant difference in pain scores between IV lidocaine and control group at 15 min (MD: −0.24 95% CI: −1.08, 0.61 I2 = 81% p = 0.59), 30 min (MD: −0.24 95% CI: −1.03, 0.55 I2 = 86% p = 0.55), 45 min (MD: 0.31 95% CI: −0.66, 1.29 I2 = 66% p = 0.53), and 60 min (MD: 0.59 95% CI: −0.26, 1.44 I2 = 75% p = 0.18). There was no statistically significant difference in the need for rescue analgesics between the two groups (OR: 1.45 95% CI: 0.82, 2.56 I2 = 41% p = 0.20), but on subgroup analysis, the need for rescue analgesics was significantly higher with IV lidocaine in studies on abdominal pain but not for musculoskeletal pain. On meta-analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between the two study groups (OR: 1.09 95% CI: 0.59, 2.02 I2 = 48% p = 0.78).ConclusionIV lidocaine can be considered as an alternative analgesic for pain control in the ED. However, its efficacy may not be higher than standard analgesics. Further RCTs with a large sample size are needed to corroborate the current conclusions.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Lersi D. Durán ◽  
Ana Margarida Almeida ◽  
Ana Cristina Lopes ◽  
Margarida Figueiredo-Braga

Digital interventions are important tools to promote mental health literacy among university students. “Depression in Portuguese University Students” (Depressão em Estudantes Universitários Portugueses, DEEP) is an audiovisual intervention describing how symptoms can be identified and what possible treatments can be applied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this intervention. A random sample of 98 students, aged 20–38 years old, participated in a 12-week study. Participants were recruited through social media by the academic services and institutional emails of two Portuguese universities. Participants were contacted and distributed into four study groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4): G1 received the DEEP intervention in audiovisual format; G2 was given the DEEP in text format; G3 received four news articles on depression; G4 was the control group. A questionnaire was shared to collect socio-demographic and depression knowledge data as a pre-intervention method; content was then distributed to each group following a set schedule; the depression knowledge questionnaire was then administered to compare pre-intervention, post-intervention and follow-up literacy levels. Using the Scheffé and Least Significant Difference (LSD) multiple comparisons test, it was found that G1, which received the DEEP audiovisual intervention, differed significantly from the other groups, with higher depression knowledge scores in post-intervention stages. The DEEP audiovisual intervention, compared to the other formats used (narrative text format; news format), proved to be an effective tool for increasing depression knowledge in university students.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Leila Khani ◽  
Mir Hadi Jazayeri ◽  
Reza Nedaeinia ◽  
Mahmood Bozorgmehr ◽  
Seyed Masood Nabavi ◽  

Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica syndrome disease (NMOSD) are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis and treatments for these two conditions are very different. Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells are immune cells with an important role in shaping the immune response. B cells are involved in antigen presentation as well as antibody and cytokine production. There is conflicting evidence of the roles of NK, NKT, and B cells in the two conditions. We aimed to compare the frequency of CD3−CD16+CD56+NK, CD3+ CD56+ NKT, and CD5+CD19+ B cells in the peripheral blood and serum Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with MS and NMOSD. Methods CD19+CD5+ B, CD3− CD16+CD56+ NK, and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells were quantitated by flow cytometry in 15 individuals with Interferon-Beta (IFN-β) treated relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), 15 untreated RRMS, and 15 NMOSD patients as well as 30 healthy controls (HC). Serum IL-10 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The percentage of CD3−CD56+CD16+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of IFN-treated MS (1.81 ± 0.87) was significantly lower than for untreated RRMS (4.74 ± 1.80), NMOSD (4.64 ± 1.26) and HC (5.83 ± 2.19) (p < 0.0001). There were also differences for the percentage of CD3−CD16+ and CD3−CD56+ cells (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0007; respectively). IFN-treated RRMS (2.89 ± 1.51) had the lowest proportion of CD3+CD56+ among the study groups (p < 0.002). Untreated RRMS (5.56 ± 3.04) and NMOSD (5.47 ± 1.24) had higher levels of CD3+CD56+ than the HC (3.16 ± 1.98). The mean percentage of CD19+CD5+ B cells in the peripheral blood of untreated RRMS patients (1.32 ± 0.67) was higher compared to the patients with NMOSD (0.30 ± 0.20), HC (0.5 ± 0.22) and IFN-treated RRMS (0.81 ± 0.17) (p < 0.0001). Serum interleukin-10 was significantly higher in the IFN-treated RRMS (8.06 ± 5.39) and in HC (8.38 ± 2.84) compared to untreated RRMS (5.07 ± 1.44) and the patients with NMOSD (5.33 ± 2.56) (p < 0.003). Conclusions The lower proportion of CD3−CD56+ CD16+ NK and CD3+CD56+ cells in peripheral blood of IFN-treated RRMS compared to other groups suggests the importance of immunomodulation in patients with RRMS disorder. Based on the differences in CD19+CD5+ B cells and serum IL-10 between patients and HC, supplementary assessments could be of value in clarifying their roles in autoimmunity.

Clara Hernández Tienda ◽  
Bonaventura Majolo ◽  
Teresa Romero ◽  
Risma Illa Maulany ◽  
Putu Oka Ngakan ◽  

AbstractWhen studying animal behavior in the wild, some behaviors may require observation from a relatively short distance. In these cases, habituation is commonly used to ensure that animals do not perceive researchers as a direct threat and do not alter their behavior in their presence. However, habituation can have significant effects on the welfare and conservation of the animals. Studying how nonhuman primates react to the process of habituation can help to identify the factors that affect habituation and implement habituation protocols that allow other researchers to speed up the process while maintaining high standards of health and safety for both animals and researchers. In this study, we systematically described the habituation of two groups of wild moor macaques (Macaca maura), an Endangered endemic species of Sulawesi Island (Indonesia), to assess the factors that facilitate habituation and reduce impact on animal behavior during this process. During 7 months, we conducted behavioral observations for more than 7,872 encounters and an average of 120 days to monitor how macaque behavior toward researchers changed through time in the two groups under different conditions. We found that both study groups (N = 56, N = 41) became more tolerant to the presence of researchers during the course of the habituation, with occurrence of neutral group responses increasing, and minimum distance to researchers and occurrence of fearful group responses decreasing through time. These changes in behavior were predominant when macaques were in trees, with better visibility conditions, when researchers maintained a longer minimum distance to macaques and, unexpectedly, by the presence of more than one researcher. By identifying these factors, we contribute to designing habituation protocols that decrease the likelihood of fearful responses and might reduce the stress experienced during this process.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Panagiotis Fistouris ◽  
Christian Scheiwe ◽  
Juergen Grauvogel ◽  
István Csók ◽  
Juergen Beck ◽  

<b><i>Object:</i></b> The initial amount of subarachnoid and ventricular blood is an important prognostic factor for outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this comparative study of an unselected aSAH-population, we assess the modifiability of these factors by implementation of blood clearance by cisternal lavage. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> All patients with aSAH treated in our department between October 2011 and October 2019 (8 years, <i>n</i> = 458) were included in our study. In the first 4-year period (BEFORE, <i>n</i> = 237), patients were treated according to international guidelines. In the second 4-year period (AFTER, <i>n</i> = 221), cisternal lavage methods were available and applied in 72 high-risk patients (32.5%). The cisternal and ventricular blood load was recorded by the Hijdra score. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the prognostic significance of risk factors, including blood load, in relation to common aSAH characteristics in both study groups. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Worse neurological outcomes (mRS &#x3e; 3) occurred in the BEFORE population with 41.45% versus 30.77% in the AFTER cohort, 6 months after aSAH (HR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.08–2.34, <i>p</i> = 0.01). Admission WFNS grade, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), herniation signs, concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, and the development of delayed cerebral infarction were strongly associated with poor outcome in both study groups. Intraventricular and cisternal blood load and, particularly, a cast fourth ventricle (Cast 4) represented strong prognosticators of poor neurological outcome in the BEFORE cohort. This effect was lost after implementation of cisternal lavage (AFTER cohort). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Cisternal and ventricular blood load – in particular: a Cast 4 – represent important prognosticators in patients with aSAH. They are, however, amenable to modification by blood clearing therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 309-316
Vaibhav Vashishta ◽  
Rakesh Kaul ◽  
Ankita Singh ◽  
Sudhir Kapoor ◽  
Sulabh Grover ◽  

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the white spot lesions around orthodontic bracket macroscopically using two different bonding agents – one with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) (Aegis Ortho) and one without ACP (Transbond XT). Materials and Methods: The study comprises 10 patients from 14 to 23 years of age. Patients were divided into control and study groups. Forty premolar teeth were then observed (20 teeth in each group). Bonding procedure was done and brackets were positioned on all four 1st pre-molars teeth and pre-treatment photographs were taken. The experimental material used was Aegis Ortho composite (study group) and Transbond XT (control group). Debonding procedure (by Wing deformation technique) was performed after 16 weeks which led to adhesive fracture at composite resin adhesive bracket interface leaving essentially all adhesive on the enamel. Then, follow-up photographs were taken to evaluate each. Results: Aegis Ortho containing ACP used for bonding purpose, provided lesser enamel demineralization than Transbond XT. Conclusion: Aegis Ortho for orthodontic bonding is significantly more beneficial and reliable, however, further investigations are also required to understand its clinical performance better.

Endocrines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-52
Eleni Karlafti ◽  
Triantafyllos Didangelos ◽  
Emmanouil Benioudakis ◽  
Evangelia Kotzakioulafi ◽  
Georgia Kaiafa ◽  

Moxonidine is a centrally acting, anti-hypertensive medication that exerts additional metabolic properties. It is unknown whether its effects are mediated by neurotransmitters or sympathetic tone regulators, including Neuropeptide Y (NPY). In this study, we evaluated the effects of moxonidine administration on serum NPY in humans. Methods: Ninety individuals with mild or moderate arterial hypertension that required monotherapy were categorized in three age and gender-matched groups according to their Body Mass Index (BMI) as normal weight (n = 30), overweight (n = 30), and obese (n = 30). Moxonidine was administered in therapeutic doses of up to 0.6 mg daily for 12 weeks, and clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were recorded. Results: In all three groups, a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate was shown. After treatment, BMI, 24 h urine catecholamines and catecholamines’ metabolites, and serum total cholesterol were also reduced. Most importantly, we found a decrease in serum NPY levels in all study groups, with the largest mean decrease in the group of obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight. Conclusions: Moxonidine administration results in improvement in cardio-metabolic parameters, as well as a decrease in serum NPY levels, which therefore represents it being a potent agent against obesity-associated hypertension. Its involvement in energy balance regulation warrants further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Rodolfo Guardado-Mendoza ◽  
Miguel Angel Garcia-Magaña ◽  
Liz Jovanna Martínez-Navarro ◽  
Hilda Elizabeth Macías-Cervantes ◽  
Rodolfo Aguilar-Guerrero ◽  

AbstractTo evaluate the effect of the combination of linagliptin and insulin on metabolic control and prognosis in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hyperglycemia. A parallel double-blind randomized clinical trial including hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia, randomized to receive 5 mg linagliptin + insulin (LI group) or insulin alone (I group) was performed. The main outcomes were the need for assisted mechanical ventilation and glucose levels during hospitalization. Subjects were screened for eligibility at hospital admission if they were not with assisted mechanical ventilation and presented hyperglycemia, and a total of 73 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia were randomized to the LI group (n = 35) or I group (n = 38). The average hospital stay was 12 ± 1 vs 10 ± 1 days for the I and LI groups, respectively (p = 0.343). There were no baseline clinical differences between the study groups, but the percentage of males was higher in the LI group (26 vs 18, p = 0.030). The improvements in fasting and postprandial glucose levels were better in the LI group that the I group (122 ± 7 vs 149 ± 10, p = 0.033; and 137 ± 7 vs 173 ± 12, p = 0.017, respectively), and insulin requirements tended to be lower in the LI group than the I group. Three patients in the LI group and 12 in the I group required assisted mechanical ventilation (HR 0.258, CI 95% 0.092–0.719, p = 0.009); 2 patients in the LI group and 6 in the I group died after a follow-up of 30 days (p = 0.139). No major side effects were observed. The combination of linagliptin and insulin in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia reduced the relative risk of assisted mechanical ventilation by 74% and improved better pre and postprandial glucose levels with lower insulin requirements, and no higher risk of hypoglycemia.This study is registered at, number NCT04542213 on 09/03/2020.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 338
Vicente Faus-Llácer ◽  
Dalia Pulido Ouardi ◽  
Ignacio Faus-Matoses ◽  
Celia Ruiz-Sánchez ◽  
Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho ◽  

The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the dentin removal capacity of Endogal Kids and Reciproc Blue NiTi alloy endodontic reciprocating systems for root canal treatments in primary second molar teeth via a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan. Materials and Methods: Sixty root canal systems in fifteen primary second molar teeth were chosen and classified into one of the following study groups: A: EK3 Endogal Kids (n = 30) (EDG) and B. R25 Reciproc Blue (n = 30) (RB). Preoperative and postoperative micro-CT scans were uploaded into image processing software to analyze the changes in the volume of root canal dentin using a mathematical algorithm that enabled progressive differentiation between neighboring pixels after defining and segmenting the root canal systems in both micro-CT scans. Volumetric variations in the root canal system and the root canal third were calculated using a t-test for independent samples or a nonparametric Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Statistically significant differences (p = 0.0066) in dentin removal capacity were found between the EDG (2.89 ± 1.26 mm3) and RB (1.22 ± 0.58 mm3) study groups for the coronal root canal third; however, no statistically significant differences were found for the middle (p = 0.4864) and apical (p = 0.6276) root canal thirds. Conclusions: Endogal and Reciproc Blue NiTi endodontic reciprocating systems showed similar capacity for the removal of root canal dentin, except for the coronal root canal third, in which the Reciproc Blue NiTi endodontic reciprocating system preserved more root canal dentin tissue.

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