uncomplicated pregnancy
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Ishak Kartal ◽  
Aslihan Abbasoglu ◽  
Seyithan Taysi

Objective As newborns are exposed to oxidative stress during delivery, cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status. In this study, we aimed to show the relationship between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and cut umblical cord milking (C-UCM) techniques with total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and peroxynitrite levels. Study Design Sixty-nine term infants were selected with APGAR score of 7 and above in the first and fifth minutes. The mothers of all infants had uncomplicated pregnancy, had no congenital anomaly, and delivered by cesarean section. Newborns were randomised to one of three groups: ECC (n: 23), DCC (n: 23) or C-UCM (n: 23). After all newborn babies were taken under radiant heater, blood samples were collected from the umbilical cord. The plasma samples were then frozen and stored at -80 °C until analysis and TOC, TAC and peroxynitrite levels were studied. Results The ages of the mothers participating in the study were between 17 and 42, with an average of 29.14 ± 6.28. 30 (43.5%) of the babies were girls and 39 (56.5%) were boys. The 5th minute APGAR score of the babies in early cord clamping group was significantly lower than the babies in delayed cord clamping and cut cord milking group (p = 0.034; p = 0.034; p <0.05). The TOC, OSI and Peroxynitrite measurements of three groups did not differ statistically. The TAC value of the C-UCM group was significantly higher than the patients with the ECC and DCC group (p = 0.002; p = 0.019; p <0.05). Conclusion C-UCM and DCC would be feasible methods by increasing antioxidant status and providing protective effect on the future health of the term newborns,

2021 ◽  
Aaron Barron ◽  
Samprikta Manna ◽  
Colm McElwain ◽  
Andrea Musumeci ◽  
Fergus McCarthy ◽  

Abstract Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common and serious hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, which affects 3-5% of first-time pregnancies and is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Prenatal exposure to PE is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in affected offspring, although the cellular and molecular basis of this are largely unknown. In this study we examined the effects of exposure to maternal serum from women with PE or a healthy uncomplicated pregnancy on the survival, neurite growth and mitochondrial function of SH-SY5Y cells. We report that cells exposed to PE serum exhibited increased neurite growth and mitochondrial respiration, two important neurodevelopmental parameters, compared to those treated with control serum. Levels of the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 were significantly elevated in the PE sera, and cells exposed to PE serum displayed increased phospho-STAT3 levels which is a key intracellular mediator of IL-6 signalling. Finally, we show that treating these cells with IL-6 alone is sufficient to induce a similar neurite growth and respiratory phenotype to PE serum-exposed cells. This suggests that elevated IL-6 seen in maternal serum in PE may be responsible at least in part for its inducing increased neurite growth and mitochondrial respiration in SH-SY5Y cells. Overall, this study demonstrates that there are circulating factors in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia that affect neuronal development and oxygen consumption differently to that of a healthy uncomplicated pregnancy, and that immune dysregulation via elevated IL-6 may be important in mediating these effects.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Sophie G. Groene ◽  
Lisanne S.A. Tollenaar ◽  
Lotte E. van der Meeren ◽  
Femke Slaghekke ◽  
E. Joanne Verweij ◽  

Abstract We report a case of a monochorionic diamniotic twin with an uncomplicated pregnancy, but with an unexpected large intertwin hemoglobin (Hb) difference at birth. Twin 1 was delivered vaginally and had an uneventful neonatal course. The umbilical cord of Twin 1 was clamped approximately 5 min after birth. After the birth of Twin 1, Twin 2 developed severe bradycardia and showed limited cardiac output on ultrasound, for which an emergency cesarean section was performed. A full blood count revealed an Hb of 20.1 g/dL for Twin 1 and 10.2 g/dL for Twin 2 (intertwin difference 9.9 g/dL). Reticulocyte counts were similar, 40‰ and 38‰, respectively. Placental examination revealed 10 vascular anastomoses, including one arterio-arterial anastomosis with a diameter of 1.4 mm. Additionally, a large chorangioma was present on the placental surface of Twin 2. There was no color difference on the maternal side of the placenta. Based on the reticulocyte count ratio and the placental characteristics, twin anemia polycythemia sequence was ruled out as the cause of the large intertwin Hb difference. In this report, we discuss the various potential causes that could explain the large intertwin Hb difference including the role of delayed cord clamping in Twin 1, and the role of a large chorangioma, which may have attracted blood from the fetal circulation of Twin 2.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Mariam Lotfy Mohamed ◽  
Salwa Adel Mohamed ◽  
Amal Mohamed Elshahat

Abstract Background Fetal hypoxia is one of the major causes of high perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. Doppler ultrasound tests such as cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) evaluation are commonly used to assess blood flow disturbances in placento-umbilical and feto-cerebral circulations. A low cerebroplacental ratio has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of stillbirth regardless of the gestation or fetal weight. We conducted this study to assess the fetal cerebroplacental ratio in prediction of adverse intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in a term, uncomplicated pregnancy to reduce fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Results It was found that neonates with CPR ≤1.1 had significantly higher frequencies of cesarean delivery (CS) for intrapartum fetal compromise compared to those with CPR >1.1 (p=0.043). Neonates with CPR ≤1.1 had significantly lower Apgar score at 1 min and 5 min than those with CPR >1.1 (p=0.004) and (p=0.003), respectively. Neonates with CPR ≤1.1 had significantly higher rates of NICU admission than those with CPR <1.1 (p=0.004). Conclusion The cerebroplacental ratio shows the highest sensitivity in the prediction of fetal heart rate abnormalities and adverse neonatal outcome in uncomplicated pregnancies at term. The cerebroplacental ratio index is useful in clinical practice in antenatal monitoring of these women in order to select those at high risk of intra- and postpartum complications.

BMC Urology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Brent Cleveland ◽  
Michael Borofsky

Abstract Background Nephrocalcinosis is often asymptomatic but can manifest with renal colic or hematuria. There is no reported association between nephrocalcinosis and renal vascular malformations, which may also be a source of hematuria. We herein present a case of a patient with hematuria related to nephrocalcinosis and renal papillary varicosities. These varicosities were diagnosed and successfully treated with flexible ureteroscopy and laser fulguration. Case presentation A 24-year-old female with a history of epilepsy (on zonisamide), recent uncomplicated pregnancy, and new diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis presented with right flank pain and intermittent gross hematuria. Imaging revealed intermittent right sided hydronephrosis. A cystoscopy identified hematuria from the right ureteral orifice. Diagnostic flexible ureteroscopy revealed numerous intrapapillary renal stones and varicose veins of several renal papillae. A 200 μm holmium laser fiber was used to unroof these stones and fulgurate the varicosities with resolution of her symptoms for several months. She later presented with left-sided symptoms and underwent left ureteroscopy with similar findings and identical successful treatment. Conclusion Unilateral hematuria from discrete vascular lesions of the renal collecting system may be obscured by other benign co-existing conditions, such as nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. Although a simultaneous presentation is rare, flexible ureteroscopy with laser fulguration offers an ideal diagnostic and therapeutic modality for these concurrent conditions if symptoms arise.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (11) ◽  
pp. 1268
Radu Botezatu ◽  
Sandra Raduteanu ◽  
Anca Marina Ciobanu ◽  
Nicolae Gica ◽  
Gheorghe Peltecu ◽  

Wharton’s jelly is a specialized connective tissue surrounding and protecting umbilical cord vessels. In its absence, the vessels are exposed to the risk of compression or rupture. Because the condition is very rare and there are no available antepartum investigation methods for diagnosis, these cases are usually discovered after delivery, frequently after in utero fetal demise. We report the fortunate case of a 29-year-old nulliparous woman, with an uncomplicated pregnancy, admitted at 39 weeks in labor where a persistently abnormal cardiotocographic trace led to delivery by cesarean section of a healthy 3500 g newborn. After delivery, a Wharton’s jelly anomaly was identified at the abdominal umbilical insertion (umbilical cord vessels, approximately 1 cm in length, were completely uncovered by Wharton’s jelly), which required surgical thread elective ligation. In the presence of a persistently abnormal CTG trace, in a pregnancy with no clinical settings suggestive of either chronic or acute fetal hypoxemia, the absence of Wharton’s jelly should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. em336
Saule Issenova ◽  
Gani Bodykov ◽  
Balzira Bishekova ◽  
Bakytkhan Kabul ◽  
Aizhan Saparaliyeva ◽  

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 3083-3083
Christineil Thompson ◽  
Mira A Kohorst ◽  
Aruna Rangan ◽  
Jessica M Bortnova ◽  
Tavanna R Porter ◽  

Abstract The εγδβ thalassemias (EGDBT) are infrequently occurring deletions of the β globin gene cluster on chromosome 11. EGDBTs can be an unsuspected cause of severe neonatal anemia that resolves during the first year of life into a normal Hb A2 thalassemic phenotype, presumed to be due to an imbalance of β-like chains during development. First described in 1972, they are categorized into two groups, both with loss of the five DNase I hypersensitivity sites upstream of the β gene (HBB) called the locus control region (LCR). In group 1 deletions, all or most of the β globin gene cluster including HBB is deleted; in group 2 deletions, removal of the LCR silences an intact HBB. Large deletions that do not involve LCR but remove the embryonic (HBE) and fetal genes (HBG2/HBG1) [LCR(ε Gγ Aγ) 0δβ] have not been reported. It is not known whether a deletion with intact LCR as well as δ and β genes would similarly manifest as neonatal anemia that resolves into a normocytic phenotype with normal hemoglobin fraction percentages after infancy. Four individuals with an LCR(ε Gγ Aγ) 0δβ deletion have been evaluated. These include monochorionic, diamniotic twin girls whose newborn screen (NBS) returned significant for Hb A percentage greater than Hb F for both twins. NBS was repeated two weeks later with the same result. The newborns were induced late pre-term (36 weeks and 6 days) after an uncomplicated pregnancy, including no features of twin to twin transfusion. Both infants had no anemia and bilirubin levels remained in the low to low-intermediate risk zones. Neither twin received transfusions or phototherapy during admission. At a follow up visit at 20 months of age a hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed which showed borderline Hb A2 and no Hb F in both twins (Table 1). Ferritin levels were low-normal in Twin A (14 µg/L) and low in Twin B (9 µg/L). Both infants were found to have a heterozygous large deletion affecting HBE, HBG2, HBG1, and HBBP1 loci by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), a method that uses multiple DNA probe pairs to determine the size of the DNA segment deleted. MLPA deletion/duplication testing on the α genes was negative. No β globin variants were identified by DNA sequencing. An evaluation was performed on the 25 year-old healthy mother and showed similar findings including the heterozygous large deletion. Mother and infants continue to be asymptomatic with normal red cell indices for age (Table 1). The fourth was an unrelated 40-year-old female with mild anemia screened by hemoglobin electrophoresis for obstetric evaluation who was found to have borderline Hb A2 (see table 1). MLPA showed a heterozygous deletion involving the same loci. Again, no β globin variants were identified by DNA sequencing. All four cases showed the same MLPA pattern except one non-specific probe commonly altered in common gamma gene conversion events. Long range sequencing performed on one case confirmed a single contiguous 32,599 bp deletion that matched the MLPA data (g.5262276-5294875). The detected deletion has not been reported in literature and differs from EGDBT mutations in that the LCR is intact. As the LCR controls expression of the entire gene cluster, this mutation is expected to display different phenotypic features than classic EGDBT. HBD and HBB are not deleted and therefore adequate transcription of Hb A2 and Hb A are expected with no imbalance of α/β chains after the neonatal period. It is postulated this finding explains the decreased Hb F levels in the NBS test result. The Hb A2 increase is likely a product of this deletion and does not indicate β-thalassemia. The heterozygous absence of HBE and HBG2/HBG1 may result in upregulation of HBD and HBB expression through loss of FKLF and FKLF-2 binding. In addition, HBB-EKLF binding would have less competition as the gamma promoter elements have been heterozygously deleted. In summary, in contrast to classic EGDBTs which cause transient severe neonatal anemia and resolve to normal Hb A2 thalassemic indices, this novel LCR(ε Gγ Aγ) 0δβ deletion was associated with normal CBC values with an absence of severe neonatal anemia, inverted Hb F/Hb A percentages at birth and borderline Hb A2 levels. Figure 1 Figure 1. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. e050963
Qianyang Huang ◽  
Shiying Hao ◽  
Jin You ◽  
Xiaoming Yao ◽  
Zhen Li ◽  

ObjectiveThis study aimed to develop a blood test for the prediction of pre-eclampsia (PE) early in gestation. We hypothesised that the longitudinal measurements of circulating adipokines and sphingolipids in maternal serum over the course of pregnancy could identify novel prognostic biomarkers that are predictive of impending event of PE early in gestation.Study designRetrospective discovery and longitudinal confirmation.SettingMaternity units from two US hospitals.ParticipantsSix previously published studies of placental tissue (78 PE and 95 non-PE) were compiled for genomic discovery, maternal sera from 15 women (7 non-PE and 8 PE) enrolled at ProMedDx were used for sphingolipidomic discovery, and maternal sera from 40 women (20 non-PE and 20 PE) enrolled at Stanford University were used for longitudinal observation.Outcome measuresBiomarker candidates from discovery were longitudinally confirmed and compared in parallel to the ratio of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) using the same cohort. The datasets were generated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assays.ResultsOur discovery integrating genomic and sphingolipidomic analysis identified leptin (Lep) and ceramide (Cer) (d18:1/25:0) as novel biomarkers for early gestational assessment of PE. Our longitudinal observation revealed a marked elevation of Lep/Cer (d18:1/25:0) ratio in maternal serum at a median of 23 weeks’ gestation among women with impending PE as compared with women with uncomplicated pregnancy. The Lep/Cer (d18:1/25:0) ratio significantly outperformed the established sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in predicting impending event of PE with superior sensitivity (85% vs 20%) and area under curve (0.92 vs 0.52) from 5 to 25 weeks of gestation.ConclusionsOur study demonstrated the longitudinal measurement of maternal Lep/Cer (d18:1/25:0) ratio allows the non-invasive assessment of PE to identify pregnancy at high risk in early gestation, outperforming the established sFlt-1/PlGF ratio test.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 ◽  
pp. S53-S54
İbrahim Eker ◽  
Yeter Düzenli Kar ◽  
Nilgün Eroğlu ◽  
Özge Vural ◽  
Mehmet Yılmazer

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