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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Ghafar ◽  
S. Khwaja ◽  
M. Zahid ◽  
S. I. Hussain ◽  
A. Karim ◽  

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-“B” & “O”, blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic’s patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-33
Xiumei Zhang

ABSTRACT Introduction: Heart rate and blood pressure are important physiological indicators that reflect cardiovascular function, and they are widely used because they are convenient and practical to measure. Objective: To study the characteristics of cardiovascular changes in athletes under different training conditions. Methods: Thirty-four male students majoring in physical education in universities (group A) and 22 male non-sports majors (group B) with no formal training history were randomly selected. Heart rate before and after exercise and heart rate recovery rate at different stages of the recovery period were compared. Results: As regards heart rate changes in the recovery phase after loading, both groups showed a continuous decline, although the drop in heart rate of group A was slightly lower than that of group B (153.03± 15.88 beats/min, dropped to 110.69± 15.78 beats/minute, 171.00± 14.67 beats/minute dropped to 122. 82± 13.77 beats/min, respectively). However, the heart rate recovery rate of group A (59.40%) was significantly higher than that of group B (49.42%) (P<0.05). Conclusions: Physical exercise plays a significant role in promoting physical fitness and its effect on improving cardiovascular function is especially evident. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-36
Jiyan Chen

ABSTRACT Introduction: Improving cardiovascular function is one of the main training goals of many sports. Objective: To understand the characteristics of the cardiovascular response of athletes under different training conditions. Methods: Thirty male basketball students were enrolled. The subjects were divided into A and B groups according to their years of training, with 15 students in each group. Exercise fatigue tests were performed, starting at a low intensity and gradually increasing the load to a relatively high degree of fatigue. Results: The RMSSD value was 42.82±31.41ms in group A and 46.48±35.26ms in group B undera low fatigue state. The LF/HF value of the athletes in group A was 2.86±1.47 and the LF/HF value of the athletes in group B was 2.94±1.68. The RMSSD value was 40.78±31.17ms and 32.37±36.42ms for groups A and B, respectively, undera high fatigue state. Conclusions: Athletes with more years of training can mobilize more cardiac reserves to meet the increase in exercise load in a fatigue state and have better autonomic nervous regulation in the process of reaching a higher degree of fatigue state. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. U. Asghar ◽  
A. Rahman ◽  
Z. Hayat ◽  
M. K. Rafique ◽  
I. H. Badar ◽  

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 113-118
Kai-Yun Zhang ◽  
Jia-Rui Yang ◽  
Wei-Qiang Qiu ◽  

AIM: To explore the efficacy of the orthokeratology lens for anisometropic myopia progression. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AL) were collected from 50 children (10.52±1.72y) who visited Peking University Third Hospital from July 2015 to August 2020. These children's one eyes (Group A) received monocular orthokeratology lenses at first, after different durations (12.20±6.94mo), their contralateral eyes (Group B) developed myopia and receive orthokeratology as well. The data in 1-year of binocular period were recorded. AL growth rate (difference of follow-up and baseline per month) were compared between two groups by paired t test. Interocular differences of AL were compared by Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: During monocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.008±0.022 mm/mo) was significantly slower than that of the Group B (0.038±0.018 mm/mo; P&#x003C;0.0001). However, during binocular period, the AL growth rate of the Group A (0.026±0.014 mm/mo) was significantly faster than that of the Group B (0.016±0.015 mm/mo; P&#x003C;0.0001). The AL difference between both eyes was 0.6 (0.46) mm, then significantly decreased to 0.22 (0.39) mm when started binocular treatment (P&#x003C;0.0001). However, it was significantly increased to 0.30 (0.32) mm after a year (P&#x003C;0.0001), but still significantly lower than baseline (P&#x003C;0.0001). CONCLUSION: The orthokeratology lens is efficient for control the AL elongation of monocular myopia eyes and reduce anisometropia. For the condition that the contralateral eyes develop myopia and receive orthokeratology lens later, there is no efficiency observed on control interocular difference of AL during binocular treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-54
Dwarika Prasad Bajgai ◽  
Bela Agrawal ◽  
Abadhesh Yadav

Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic oral disease characterized by progressive buildup of constricting collagen bands in the cheeks and adjacent structures of the mouth due to chewing of areca nut. This can severely restrict mouth opening and tongue movement causing pain and burning sensation in the mouth. Aims: This study evaluates the efficacy of pentoxifylline in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Methods: A hospital-based study, conducted in the dental outpatient department of Nepalgunj Medical College from October 2019 to September 2020. Forty-nine patients who were diagnosed histopathologically with oral submucous fibrosis were included. The patients were divided into two groups. In group A, patients were given, 200 mg thrice daily for first 30 days, then dose hiked to 400 mg thrice daily for two more months. Group B patients received treatment with multi-vitamin capsules (B-complex one capsule before sleep daily) for three months. All patients were followed up for six months and were assessed for maximum inter-incisor opening, pain on opening of mouth and burning sensation. Results: There was no statistical difference in mouth opening at baseline and first follow up. The mouth opening was significantly more in group A compared to group B from second follow up which persisted till third follow up (p <0.05). Pain and burning sensation significantly reduced in group A compared to group B from 2nd follow up which persisted till 3rd follow up (p <0.05). Few patients had nausea, dyspepsia and vomiting during treatment in group A which resolved within a few days without the need for cessation of the drug. Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms of oral submucous fibrosis like mouth opening, pain and burning sensation, thereby improving the quality of life of the affected individuals.

Biagio Rapone ◽  
Elisabetta Ferrara ◽  
Luigi Santacroce ◽  
Skender Topi ◽  
Antonio Gnoni ◽  

Background: the establishment of periodontitis is regulated by the primary etiological factor and several individual conditions including the immune response mechanism of the host and individual genetic factors. It results when the oral homeostasis is interrupted, and biological reactions favor the development and progression of periodontal tissues damage. Different strategies have been explored for reinforcing the therapeutic effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment of periodontal tissue damage. Gaseous ozone therapy has been recognized as a promising antiseptic adjuvant, because of its immunostimulating, antimicrobial, antihypoxic, and biosynthetic effects. Then, we hypothesized that the adjunct of gaseous ozone therapy to standard periodontal treatment may be leveraged to promote the tissue healing response. Methods: to test this hypothesis, we conducted a prospective randomized study comparing non-surgical periodontal treatment plus gaseous ozone therapy to standard therapy. A total of 90 healthy individuals with moderate or severe generalized periodontitis were involved in the study. The trial was conducted from September 2019 to October 2020. Forty-five patients were randomized to receive scaling and root-planning (SRP) used as conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy plus gaseous ozone therapy (GROUP A); forty-five were allocated to standard treatment (GROUP B). The endpoint was defined as the periodontal response rate after the application of the ozone therapy at 3 months and 6 months, defined as no longer meeting the criteria for active periodontitis. Statistical analysis was performed employing SPSS v.18 Chicago: SPSS Inc. Results: periodontal parameters differed significantly between patients treated with the two distinct procedures at 3 months (p ≤ 0.005); a statistically significant difference between groups was observed from baseline in the CAL (p ≤ 0.0001), PPD (p ≤ 0.0001) and BOP (p ≤ 0.0001) scores. Conclusions: The present study suggests that SRP combined with ozone therapy in the treatment of periodontitis revealed an improved outcome than SRP alone.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-29
Feeroz Alam Khan ◽  
Prabir Maharjan

Introduction: Undescended testis is one of the commonest presentations in pediatric population. Conventionally, high ligation of the hernia sac was done after vas and vessels were dissected in order to prevent post-operative hernia. However, recent studies have shown that hernia sac ligation was unnecessary. Aims: To evaluate the role of hernia sac ligation during orchidopexy to prevent the development of postoperative hernia and to compare the mean operative time with and without sac ligation. Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted with a total of 94 patients with undescended testis, age ranging from six months to 16 years were included in the study from November 2018 to May 2021. Cases were randomly divided into two groups. In Group A cases, orchidopexy was carried out with sac ligation, while in Group B, the hernia sac was not ligated. Mean operative time was recorded in each case. All the patients were followed up at one, four and eight weeks post-operatively and examined for postoperative hernia. Results: Of the total 94 cases, there were 18 bilateral and 76 unilateral cases of which 56 were right-sided and 22 left-sided. Most of the patients (45) of the study were between six months and 2 years. None of the patients of either group developed post-operative hernia or any significant complications. The mean operative time for group A and B were 36.72 and 46.96 minutes respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that ligation of processus vaginalis was unnecessary during orchidopexy and sac ligation consumed more operative time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Yaxuan Wang ◽  
Guoyan Qi ◽  
Ying Yang

Objectives: To investigate the clinical features of patients with myasthenia gravis complicated with and without hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 2083 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) admitted in Center of Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis Hebei Province between January 2013 and July 2020 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into two groups: Group-A and Group-B, with 108 MG patients complicated with hyperthyroidism in Group-A and 1975 MG patients without thyroid disease in Group-B. The age of onset, gender, Osserman classification, acetylcholine receptor antibody and thymus status of the two groups were analyzed in the two groups. Independent-sample t test was used for intra-group comparison, and χ2 test was utilized for comparison of enumeration data. P<0.05 indicates a statistically significant difference. Results: The age of onset in Group-A was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.000), the number of female patients was significantly higher than that in Group-B (p=0.037), and the level of Achrabs titer was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.000). The incidence of thymoma in Group-A was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.012), while the incidence of thymic hyperplasia was significantly higher than that in Group-B (p=0.000). Conclusion: Patients with MG complicated with hyperthyroidism are mainly female, with a lower age of onset, a lower level of acetylcholine receptor antibody, a lower incidence of thymoma, and a higher incidence of thymic hyperplasia. The clinical features of such patients are remarkably different from those of MG without thyroid disease. doi: How to cite this:Wang Y, Qi G, Yang Y. Analysis of clinical features of myasthenia gravis complicated with hyperthyroidism. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 630-633
Kiran Kumar L ◽  
M S Smitha Gowda

The most common atopic ocular condition in clinical practice is allergic conjunctivitis. One of the preferred treatment options for allergic Conjunctivitis is anti histamines eye drops. The study purpose is to compare the clinical efficacy between topical alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% in allergic conjunctivitis patients.A prospective, randomized, open label, parallel group, comparative study was conducted on 60 Patients with bilateral allergic conjunctivitis (30 in each group) after taking an informed written consentand was evaluated from May 2018 to November 2018. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of 30 each, group A received topical Alcaftadine 0.25% twice daily and patients in Group B received topical olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% twice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated on first visit (baseline) followed by 7 and 14 day after starting the treatment. At each visit signs and symptoms were evaluated and rated using a scale from 0-3(0-Absent, 1- mild, 2 moderate and 3- severe). The change from baseline in the mean scores of itching, hyperemia, photophobia and tearing on day 14 is the primary outcome variable.: The signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis were reduced by 2 weeks from baseline after using both the drugs. Relative significant efficacy was achieved in alcaftadine group for Itching, hyperemia and photophobia, but not for tearing (p=0.3). When compared to 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride, 0.25% alcaftadine is more effective in reducing the symptoms of all types of allergic conjunctivitis except those mentioned in exclusion criteria.

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