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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-123
Author(s):  
Vivek Ahuja ◽  
Raghav Singhal ◽  
Paraag Kumar

Background: Liver diseases are a cause of worldwide morbidity .The course is usually long and has no signs before the development of late stage disease. The only indicative markers are liver enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) during asymptomatic period. There is a paucity of data from our subcontinent regarding the prevalence, risk factors and etiology of asymptomatic chronically raised liver enzymes.The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and etiology associated with unexplained chronically raised liver transaminases in patients attending OPD in a tertiary care hospital.Methods:This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology, MMIMSR, Mullana from July 2019-Dec 2020 in 50 patients who presented with chronically raised liver enzymes. Detailed comprehensive history, physical examination and investigation was done to identify etiology and risk factors associated with raised liver enzymes.Results:566 patients were screenedfor inclusion in the study. The prevalence of raised transaminases in asymptomatic patients was 9.4%. NAFLD was the most common etiology of raised liver transaminases, seen in 70 % of patients followed by Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B. Dyslipidemia was the most important risk factor associated with NAFLD.Conclusion:NAFLD should be kept in mind while dealing patients with unexplained transaminitis. Earlier detection could help halt the progression to chronic liver disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 325-332
Author(s):  
Shaoli Sarker

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral difficulties in children with ASD using sleep disturbance treatments. Methods: We selected a total 41 children with sleep disorders as study population. The sleep services (behavioral sleep management techniques) were given by the child development center team of Dhaka Shishu Hospital comprising of physician , developmental therapist and psychologist. Children were split into eight groups and two gender divisions based on their age, and they were then studied over a period of 6 months . Sleep disorders were investigated both before and after intervention. Results: The results revealed that the children’s sleep dysfunction improved from before, with the lowest improvement percentage decreasing from 62.9 percent to 51.8 percent and the greatest improvement percentage increasing from 100 percent to 59.2 percent, whereas a sleep problem showed no change at all (sleepwalking). Conclusion: The study has tried and succeeded to an extent to intervene in the sleep dysfunction process of children with ASD in a tertiary care hospital. However, there is still much to learn about the clinical efficacy of these types of behavioral interventions in children with ASD who have sleep disruption.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 163-168
Author(s):  
Tushar Kanti Saha ◽  
Kallol Bhandari ◽  
Eashin Gazi ◽  
Arup Jyoti Rout ◽  
Samir Dasgupta

Thalassaemia is a disease of abnormal development of red blood cells which manifests as anaemia. This chronic disease may cause mental, social, financial burdens on the families, care givers and also on health care system.To assess the quality of life (QOL) of the caregivers of thalassaemic children and to identify the predictors of quality of their physical and mental health.Institution based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Thalassaemia Control Unit (TCU) of North Bengal Medical College (NBMC) from December 2018 to April 2019. Total 136 caregivers of children (≤12 years) with thalassaemia were included by complete enumeration method. Physical and mental health of the caregivers were reported in Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey. Collected data were entered into MS-Excel, analysed with the help of SPSS (Version 22).Mean age of caregivers was 34.3 (SD ± 1.4 years). Most of caregivers were female (89%) and had educational qualification up to Primary school (45.6%). Majority (70.6%) of the caregivers were the mothers of the children. Most of the study participants (60.3%) had favourable Physical health Component Summary (PCS) but 64.7% of the caregivers had unfavourable Mental health component Summary (MCS). Educational status was found to be the predictor for PCS but age and relationship with the child were the predictors for MCS.Counselling, psychotherapy, social support for family members or caregivers of the thalassaemic children and community involvement with their full participation should be emphasized to reduce stigma related to thalassaemia.


Author(s):  
Shashivadhanan ◽  
Abhishek Mishra

: Skull base fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in head injury. Anterior cranial Fossa (ACF) skull base fracture, leading to Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) Rhinorrhea is one of the most commonly encountered presentation in ACF base fractures. The key to successful management of such cases lies in early diagnosis and surgical management before it leads to meningitis and avoidable mortality.To evaluate the cases of post traumatic CSF rhinorrhea and analyze the parameters utilized to guide the management strategies. An attempt was made to come up with guidelines for its management in a tertiary care hospital.This was a retrospective study in which all cases of traumatic CSF Rhinorrhea admitted to Tertiary care hospital were included. Patients were divided into three groups. First group was conservatively managed in which the rhinorrhea and serial imaging findings showed favourable response.In thesecond group patients were subjected to endoscopic repair by the ENT surgeon based on anatomical considerations. The third group included patients who were had failed the trial of conservative management and the site of leak did not favor endoscopic repair.The outcomes in all these groups were analyzed and conclusions drawn.A total of 54 patients were included in the study which was conducted between Jan 2014 to 2020. 24 were successfully managed conservatively,10 were managed with endoscopic repair and 20 were managed by bifrontal craniotomy and pedicled pericranial ACF Base repair. There was one case from the first group who developed CSF leak after one month necessitating ACF base repair. There was no recurrence reportedin the cases managed endoscopically, whereas one case subjected to craniotomy had recurrence requiring lumbar drain placement. With each transcranial surgery there was a refinement in the technique further minimizing complications. We have elaborated on the surgical nuances to ensurebetter outcomes. : Pedicledpericranial flap ACF base repair is an elegant approach which requires an understanding of the mechanism of CSF leak from skull base fractures. This procedure can easily be mastered and when performed correctly provides best results for cases where there are multiple ACF defects, those not accessible by endoscope and also in those cases where imaging is not able to localize the exact site of defect leading to CSF rhinorrhea. Anosmia is an in evitable complication of this procedure. However, the trade off between mortality resulting from meningitis versus anosmia makes it a viable and attractive treatment option.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 333-340
Author(s):  
Md. RashidoonNabi Khan

Background: Among the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension is one of the major reason. Intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a pressure buildup around the brain. It can happen unexpectedly, as a result of a severe head injury, stroke, or brain abscess could be occurred. It could also be a chronic, long-term condition, known as IIH. It results in the signs and symptoms of a brain tumor. Which is also known as benign intracranial hypertension. Cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, is the fluid that surrounds the spinal cord and brain. CSF can accumulate if too much fluid is produced or not enough is reabsorbed. This can induce symptoms similar to a brain tumor. Intracranial Hypertension can be classified into three categories, they are Acute, Chronic and Idiopathic. IIH is recognized when the increased intracranial pressure cannot be explained by any other underlying cause.Aim: The aim of the study was to observe idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients in a select tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh.Methods:This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery, Sylhet M. A. G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The study duration was from January 2012 to December 2020. A total number of 47 participants had been recruited as study population.Results:Male: female ratio was 1:10.75, and 91% of the total participants were female. 40.43% of the participants were aged between 21-30 years. 46.81% were overweight and 34.04% were obese. Most common symptom was nausea, followed by visual impairment and double vision.Conclusion:The prevalence of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension is much higher among the female. Female and high BMI are significant risk factors of IIH. It is more prevalent among young adults, and results on various vision related symptoms.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Syed Muhammad Ishaque ◽  
Muhammad Sadiq Achackzai ◽  
Zia Ud Din ◽  
Shahid Pervez

Objectives: To determine frequency of esophageal malignancy in Balochistan and to evaluate its correlation with predisposing and dietary factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020, at two tertiary care hospital of Quetta which caters to the entire population of province. The total number of 207 cases of esophageal biopsies were received and morphological diagnosis done by H&E staining. Results: Out of 207 (N) esophageal biopsies cases, malignancy were observed in 65%, chronic esophagitis in 19%, benign esophageal lesion in 1% and other esophageal lesions were observed in less than 4% of samples. Association with aggravating factors included tea 80.5%, use of drugs 64%, spicy food 57%, salted food 53%, quid & tobacco taken orally and through nose 44% and cigarette smoking 21.5%. The protective factors include fresh fruit 90%, fish 64% and milk 55% which were never or occasionally taken, meat chicken and beef intake was 63% & 53% and vegetable intake was 52%, but 72.5% of cases never used alcohol and mutton meat was not used by 50%. Conclusion: Esophageal cancer was associated in those groups of people which may regard as having high risk factors. These include increased intake of spicy/salted food, hot beverages, drugs, quid and smoked tobacco, coupled with low intake of fruits and vegetables, lack of awareness and low socioeconomic status. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4612 How to cite this:Ishaque SM, Achakzai MS, Ziauddin, Pervez S. Correlation of predisposing factors and Esophageal Malignancy in high risk population of Baluchistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4612 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 156-162
Author(s):  
Mausumi Basu ◽  
Ripan Saha ◽  
Subhra Samujjwal Basu ◽  
Vineeta Shukla ◽  
Ankita Mishra ◽  
...  

The Government of India launched “COVID-19 vaccination drive” on 16th January, 2021 and health care workers were the first to be prioritised for vaccination. However, the uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy of the vaccine was the major concern amongst them. These led to vaccine hesitancy and ultimately drop out.To estimate the proportion of drop out of COVID-19 vaccination among vaccine-hesitant health care workers (HCWs) of a tertiary care hospital and to find out their perception and other background characteristics responsible for drop out. A facility based descriptive type of observational study, cross-sectional in design was carried out among 329 HCWs of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata from 16th March- 12thApril, 2021using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The study population selected by simple random sampling technique. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS v25.0 in the form of descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. About 44.1% of the study population didn’t take the COVID-19 vaccine. Socio-demographic factors like age, gender, religion, education, occupation,perception regarding necessity of vaccination, vaccine efficacy, dose and contraindication, safety in humans and role in future infections were significantly associated with drop out. There was a high proportion of vaccine drop out among health care workers. Different modifiable perceptions with socio-demographic factors had played important roles in COVID-19 vaccination drop out. As the global threat of COVID-19 continues, greater efforts through campaigns that target HCWs are needed to improve the intention of professionals’ vaccine acceptance.


Author(s):  
Simone Brefka ◽  
Gerhard Wilhelm Eschweiler ◽  
Dhayana Dallmeier ◽  
Michael Denkinger ◽  
Christoph Leinert

Abstract Background Delirium is a frequent psychopathological syndrome in geriatric patients. It is sometimes the only symptom of acute illness and bears a high risk for complications. Therefore, feasible assessments are needed for delirium detection. Objective and methods Rapid review of available delirium assessments based on a current Medline search and cross-reference check with a special focus on those implemented in acute care hospital settings. Results A total of 75 delirium detection tools were identified. Many focused on inattention as well as acute onset and/or fluctuating course of cognitive changes as key features for delirium. A range of assessments are based on the confusion assessment method (CAM) that has been adapted for various clinical settings. The need for a collateral history, time resources and staff training are major challenges in delirium assessment. Latest tests address these through a two-step approach, such as the ultrabrief (UB) CAM or by optional assessment of temporal aspects of cognitive changes (4 As test, 4AT). Most delirium screening assessments are validated for patient interviews, some are suitable for monitoring delirium symptoms over time or diagnosing delirium based on collateral history only. Conclusion Besides the CAM the 4AT has become well-established in acute care because of its good psychometric properties and practicability. There are several other instruments extending and improving the possibilities of delirium detection in different clinical settings.


Author(s):  
Nalia Gurgel-Juarez ◽  
Karen Mallet ◽  
Mary Egan ◽  
Dylan Blacquiere ◽  
Anik Laneville ◽  
...  

Purpose: Stroke impacts independent activities, particularly personal care such as oral hygiene. Existing guidelines lack details about how to provide effective oral care. This study explores the frequency of oral care based on staff adherence to oral care policies. Method: As part of a quality improvement initiative, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 30 consecutive stroke admissions to an acute care hospital. Patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemic stroke were eligible. Sources of information included a decision support database and an electronic chart review. Data collection included length of hospitalization, stroke type, presence of infections, oral mechanism exam, dysphagia evaluations, and daily personal care provision by nursing staff (e.g., oral care and bathing). Results: Twenty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. They had a mean age of 74 years, and 52% were men. Most had supratentorial stroke (86%) with comparable frequencies of right (48%) and left (52%) hemisphere lesions. In over half of the cases, provision of oral care was not documented at any point during the patients' hospitalization ( Mdn = 128 hr). Pericare and bathing were about twice and 4 times more frequent than oral care, respectively. Conclusions: Oral care after stroke is challenging. Existing oral care recommendations from stroke guidelines lack sufficient detail and warrant reconsideration for optimal and routine implementation particularly in acute settings. Education around oral care and associated protocols are necessary to advance oral care practices and improve stroke recovery.


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