preterm infants
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Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Domenico M. Romeo ◽  
Martina Ricci ◽  
Federica Mirra ◽  
Ilaria Venezia ◽  
Maria Mallardi ◽  

Background and Objectives: Preterm infants are at higher risk of neurodevelopmental impairment both at preschool and school ages, even in the absence of major neurological deficits. The early identification of children at risk is essential for early intervention with rehabilitation to optimize potential outcomes during school years. The aim of our study is to assess cognitive outcomes at preschool age in a cohort of low-risk very preterm infants, previously studied at 12 and 24 months using the Griffiths scales. Materials and Methods: Sixty-six low-risk very preterm infants born at a gestational age of <32 weeks were assessed at 12 and 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (second edition) and at preschool age with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence (third edition) (WPPSI-III). Results: At 12 and 24 months and at preschool age, low-risk very preterm infants showed scores within normal ranges with similar scores in males and females. A statistically significant correlation was observed in the general developmental quotient between 12 and 24 months; a further significant correlation was observed between the early cognitive assessments and those performed at preschool age, with a better correlation using the assessments at 24 months. Conclusion: The present study showed a favourable trajectory of cognitive development in low-risk very preterm infants, from 12 months to preschool age.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 341-349
Ajmery Sultana Chowdhury

Background: Oxygen saturation measures the quantity of haemoglobin in the blood that is saturated with oxygen. Hemoglobin is a component of red blood cells that binds oxygen and transports it to outlying tissues. Oxygen is commonly used throughout the world in neonatal units. Injudicious use of Oxygen may not maintain appropriate oxygen status rather can lead to hypoxemia or hyperoxemia, both of the conditions are injurious to neonatal health. Objective: To assess the oxygen saturation in neonate after birth.Methods:A cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Neonatology BSMMU, Shahbag, Dhaka, Lab Aid Specialized Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 317 patients were selected according to selection criteria. The parents were interviewed with a specific pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire and some information were gathered by document review. All neonate both term and late preterm (˃34weeks) who would not be anticipated for resuscitation was included.Results:A total 317 neonate were selected according to selection criteria. Among the study subjects more than half were male (57.1%). Rests were female (42.9%). Average gestational age of the study subjects was 37.47± 1.16 (SD) with the range of 34-40. On the other hand average birth weight was 2.88±0.46 (SD) with the minimum birth weight 2.0 kg and maximum weight 4.2 kg. Illustrates the median (IQR) heart rate from one to ten min for preterm versus term births. At one to three minutes and at five minutes after birth preterm infants had significantly lower SpO2 measurements. From six to 10 minutes after birth and four minutes after birth there was no significant difference between SpO2 measurements for mode of delivery. Paired sample t test showed that average SpO2 was less in 1 minute[88.42±4.8(SD)] than in 5 minute [94.25±3.5(SD)] and statistically this differences were highly significant (t=24.44, p=0.000). Pearson correlation showed high positive correlation (p=0.000) and correlation co-efficient r=0.479. Correlation was significant at the 0.01 level.Conclusion:It is “normal” to have low oxygen saturation measurements in the first minutes after birth. It takes time for infants to reach oxygen saturation levels described as “normal” in the later postnatal period. Oxygen saturation increased with time i.e., it was more in 5 minutes than in 1 minute and similarly more in 10 minutes than in 5 minutes. Conversely heart rate was found more in one minute than to five and ten minutes. Oxygen saturation was ≥ 90% within 3 to 4 minutes. Significant changes were found in Oxygen saturation by mode of delivery in three minutes & in heart rate by two minutes after birth. At one to ten minutes after birth preterm infants had lower SpO2 measurements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 860
Isabella A. Joubert ◽  
Michael Otto ◽  
Tobias Strunk ◽  
Andrew J. Currie

Preterm infants are at increased risk for invasive neonatal bacterial infections. S. epidermidis, a ubiquitous skin commensal, is a major cause of late-onset neonatal sepsis, particularly in high-resource settings. The vulnerability of preterm infants to serious bacterial infections is commonly attributed to their distinct and developing immune system. While developmentally immature immune defences play a large role in facilitating bacterial invasion, this fails to explain why only a subset of infants develop infections with low-virulence organisms when exposed to similar risk factors in the neonatal ICU. Experimental research has explored potential virulence mechanisms contributing to the pathogenic shift of commensal S. epidermidis strains. Furthermore, comparative genomics studies have yielded insights into the emergence and spread of nosocomial S. epidermidis strains, and their genetic and functional characteristics implicated in invasive disease in neonates. These studies have highlighted the multifactorial nature of S. epidermidis traits relating to pathogenicity and commensalism. In this review, we discuss the known host and pathogen drivers of S. epidermidis virulence in neonatal sepsis and provide future perspectives to close the gap in our understanding of S. epidermidis as a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality.

2022 ◽  
Axel Largent ◽  
Josepheen De Asis‐Cruz ◽  
Kushal Kapse ◽  
Scott D. Barnett ◽  
Jonathan Murnick ◽  

Asma Al-Turkait ◽  
Lisa Szatkowski ◽  
Imti Choonara ◽  
Shalini Ojha

Abstract Purpose To describe drug utilisation patterns in neonatal units. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) for neonatal units in England and Wales including infants born at 23 to 44 weeks’ gestational age (GA) from 01 January 2010 to 31 December 2017. Results The cohort included 17,501 (3%) extremely preterm infants; 40,607 (7%) very preterm infants; 193,536 (31%) moderate-to-late preterm infants; and 371,606 (59%) term infants. The number of unique drugs received by an infant (median (IQR)) increased with decreasing GA: 17 (11–24) in extremely preterm, 7 (5–11) in very preterm, 3 (0–4) in moderate-to-late preterm, and 3 (0–3) in term infants. The two most frequently prescribed drugs were benzylpenicillin and gentamicin in all GA groups, and caffeine in extremely preterm. Other frequently used drugs among preterm infants were electrolytes, diuretics and anti-reflux medications. Among infants <32 weeks’ GA, the largest increase in use was for surfactant (given on the neonatal unit), caffeine and probiotics, while domperidone and ranitidine had the largest decline. Conclusion Antibiotics, for all GAs and caffeine, among preterm infants, are the most frequently used drugs in neonatal medicine. Preterm infants are exposed to a high burden of drugs, particularly antibiotics. Changing patterns in use reflect the emergence of evidence in some areas but several non-evidence-based drugs continue to be used widely. Improvements are needed to ensure rational drug use on neonatal units. Registration (NCT03773289). Date of registration 21 Dec 2018.

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