apgar score
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 89-98
Fatemeh Mirzaie ◽  
Khadije Rezaie Keikhaie ◽  
Mahin Badakhsh ◽  
Bahareh Khajehpourbahareh ◽  
Samira Ghofrani ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hua He ◽  
Yongfu Yu ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
Carsten Lyng Obel ◽  
Fei Li ◽  

Objectives:The associations of long-term risks of the full spectrum of mental disorders with clinically reassuring but suboptimal score range 7–9 remain unclear. This study investigated these associations during up to 38 years of follow-up.Methods:In a nationwide cohort study of 2,213,822 singletons born in Denmark during 1978–2015, we used cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of mental disorders with a 95% CI.Results:A total of 3,00,679 (13.6%) individuals were diagnosed with mental disorders. The associations between suboptimal Apgar score 7–9 and mental disorders differed by attained age. In childhood (≤ 18 years), declining Apgar scores were associated with increased risks of overall mental disorders with HRs (95% CI) of 1.13(1.11-1.15), 1.34 (1.27–1.41), and 1.48 (1.31–1.67) for Apgar scores of 7–9, 4–6, and 1–3, respectively, compared with a score of 10. A dose-response association was seen even within the score range from 9 to 7 (HR 1.11 [95% CI: 1.08–1.13], 1.14 [1.10–1.18], and 1.20 [1.14–1.27], respectively). Of note, individuals with scores of 7–9 had increased risks of organic disorders (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05–1.53), neurotic disorders (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03–1.11), and a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability (1.87, 1.76–1.98), childhood autism (1.13, 1.05–1.22) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1.10, 1.06–1.15). In early adulthood (19–39 years), suboptimal Apgar scores 7–9 were not associated with the risks of overall and specific mental disorders.Conclusion:Infants born with clinically reassuring but suboptimal 5-min scores 7–9 are at increased risks of a wide spectrum of mental disorders in childhood.

Ishak Kartal ◽  
Aslihan Abbasoglu ◽  
Seyithan Taysi

Objective As newborns are exposed to oxidative stress during delivery, cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status. In this study, we aimed to show the relationship between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and cut umblical cord milking (C-UCM) techniques with total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and peroxynitrite levels. Study Design Sixty-nine term infants were selected with APGAR score of 7 and above in the first and fifth minutes. The mothers of all infants had uncomplicated pregnancy, had no congenital anomaly, and delivered by cesarean section. Newborns were randomised to one of three groups: ECC (n: 23), DCC (n: 23) or C-UCM (n: 23). After all newborn babies were taken under radiant heater, blood samples were collected from the umbilical cord. The plasma samples were then frozen and stored at -80 °C until analysis and TOC, TAC and peroxynitrite levels were studied. Results The ages of the mothers participating in the study were between 17 and 42, with an average of 29.14 ± 6.28. 30 (43.5%) of the babies were girls and 39 (56.5%) were boys. The 5th minute APGAR score of the babies in early cord clamping group was significantly lower than the babies in delayed cord clamping and cut cord milking group (p = 0.034; p = 0.034; p <0.05). The TOC, OSI and Peroxynitrite measurements of three groups did not differ statistically. The TAC value of the C-UCM group was significantly higher than the patients with the ECC and DCC group (p = 0.002; p = 0.019; p <0.05). Conclusion C-UCM and DCC would be feasible methods by increasing antioxidant status and providing protective effect on the future health of the term newborns,

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Melissa Chao ◽  
Carlo Menon ◽  
Mohamed Elgendi

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound impacts on healthcare systems worldwide, particularly regarding the care of pregnant women and their neonates. The use of the Apgar score—a discrete numerical index used to evaluate neonatal condition immediately following delivery that has been used ubiquitously as a clinical indicator of neonatal condition and widely reported in the literature for decades—has continued during the pandemic. Although health systems adopted protocols that addressed pregnant women and their neonates during the pandemic, limited research has assessed the validity of Apgar scores for determining neonatal conditions in the context of COVID-19. Therefore, this scoping review was conducted on the first 2 years of the pandemic and included mothers with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and their resulting positive or negative neonates. In total, 1,966 articles were assessed for eligibility, yielding 246 articles describing 663 neonates. Neonates who tested negative had median Apgar scores of 9 and 9 at 1 and 5 mins, respectively, while test-positive neonates had median Apgar scores of 8 and 9 at the same time points. The proportions of test-negative neonates with Apgar scores below 7 were 29 (4%) and 11 (2%) at 1 and 5 mins, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.327, χ2 = 0.961). These proportions were even lower for positive neonates: 22 (3%) and 11 (2%) at 1 and 5 mins, respectively, which was not statistically significant (p = 1, χ2 = 0). The low proportion of Apgar scores below 7 suggests that low Apgar scores are likely to be associated with severe maternal COVID-19 symptoms during delivery rather than neonatal COVID-19. Therefore, this study indicated that Apgar scores are poor indicators of neonatal COVID-19 status.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Rafaelle Cristine Oliveira Cordeiro ◽  
Daniela Marques de Lima Mota Ferreira ◽  
Heloísio dos Reis ◽  
Vivian Mara Gonçalves de Oliveira Azevedo ◽  
Airan dos Santos Protázio ◽  

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of hypothermia in the delivery room, at admission, and 2 to 3 hours after admission in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), factors associated and possible relationship with morbidity and mortality in preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW). Methods: Cross-sectional study with data collection based on a retrospective review of medical records and including infants born in 2016 and 2017, with birth weights <1500g, and gestational ages <34 weeks. Data about VLBW preterm infants, maternal data and temperature in the delivery room were analyzed. Hypothermia was considered when axillary temperature <36°C. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test or G test, canonical and Spearman correlation, and logistic regression were used. Results: 149 newborns (NB) were included in the study. The prevalence of hypothermia in delivery room, at admission to the NICU and 2 to 3 hours after admission was 25.8%, 41.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The temperature of NBs was directly proportional to gestational age (p<0.010), birth weight (p<0.010), and Apgar score (p<0.050). There was an inverse association with hypothermia in the delivery room and cesarean delivery (OR 0.25; p=0.016). Conclusions: Hypothermia was a prevalent problem in the studied population. The neonatal temperature was directly proportional to gestational age, birth weight and Apgar score. Hypothermia was associated with maternal factors, such as cesarean delivery. It is necessary to implement and improve strategies for its prevention.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2328
Bogdan Doroftei ◽  
Radu Maftei ◽  
Ovidiu-Dumitru Ilie ◽  
Theodora Armeanu ◽  
Maria Puiu ◽  

Severe congenital myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy (EOMFC) is a rare genetic neuromuscular disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Here we presented a successful pregnancy obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF) using preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) in one young Romanian carrier couple that already lost mutation(s) within the TNN gene and whose first baby passed away due to multiple complications. It was delivered via emergency C-section at 36 weeks and fully dependent on artificial ventilation for a couple of months, weighing 2200 g and an APGAR score of 3. The aCGH + SNP analysis revealed an abnormal profile of the first newborn; three areas associated with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1 (q25.1–q25.3) of 6115 kb, 5 (p15.2–p15.1) of 2589 kb and 8 (q11.21–q11.23) of 4830 kb, a duplication of 1104 kb on chromosome 10 in the position q11.22, and duplication of 1193 kb on chromosome 16 in the position p11.2p11.1. Subsequently, we proceeded to test the parents and showed that both parents are carriers; confirmed by Sanger and NGS sequencing—father—on Chr2(GRCh37):g.179396832_179396833del—TTN variant c.104509_104510del p.(Leu34837Glufs*12)—exon 358 and mother—on Chr2(GRCh37):g.179479653G>C—TTN variant c.48681C>G p.(Tyr16227*)—exon 260. Their first child died shortly after birth due to multiple organ failures, possessing both parent’s mutations; weighing 2200 g at birth and received an APGAR score of 3 following premature delivery via emergency C-section at 36 weeks. Two embryos were obtained following the IVF protocol; one possessed the mother’s mutation, and the other had no mutations and was normal (WT). In contrast with the first birth, the second one was uneventful. A healthy female baby weighing 2990 g was delivered by C-section at 38 weeks, receiving an APGAR score of 9.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (3) ◽  
pp. 231-237
İrem Şenyuva ◽  
Şirin Küçük

Objective The present study aimed to examine the histopathological diagnosis of the umbilical artery discordance in cases with single or multiple umbilical cord entanglement and pregnancy outcomes. Methods The vascular structure of the umbilical cord, histopathological findings of the placenta and obstetric outcomes were retrospectively examined in 50 cases. The cases were divided into two groups by the number of cord entanglement (single-multiple) and their histopathological findings and neonatal Apgar scores were assessed. Results Out of 50 cases, 38 (76%) had single and 12 (24%) had multiple cord entanglement. In 50 cases, the mean gestational age was 39.16±1.06 weeks, neonatal Apgar scores were 8.7±0.58 at 1 minute and 9.64±0.56 at 5 minute. No statistically significant difference was detected between single and multiple groups in terms of gestational age (p=0.79), 1-minute Apgar score (p=0.832) and 5-minute Apgar score (p=0.656). In histopathological examination, the diameters of umbilical arteries 1 and 2 were found to be 0.11±0.12, 0.09±0.05 µm, respectively in the single group (p=0.756) and 0.13±0.14, 0.06±0.02 µm, respectively in the multiple group (p=0.131). When the umbilical arterial diameters were compared by group, the diameter of the umbilical artery 2 was detected 0.09±0.05 µm in the single and 0.06±0.02 µm in the multiple group and statistically significant difference was detected (p=0.037). Out of 50 cases, placental hypoxia finding was detected as chorangiosis only in 10 cases (2 multiple, 8 single). Conclusion Umbilical artery discordance was detected in cases with multiple umbilical cord entanglement. However, poor pregnancy outcome was not observed in any of the cases. When multiple cord entanglement is seen during obstetric examination, umbilical artery discordance must be remembered and investigated, and also maternal-fetal condition should be considered.

Anna Cantarutti ◽  
Federico Rea ◽  
Matteo Franchi ◽  
Benedetta Beccalli ◽  
Anna Locatelli ◽  

Background: Limited evidence is available on the safety and efficacy of antimicrobials during pregnancy, with even less according to the trimester of their use. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between exposure to antibiotics therapy (AT) during pregnancy and short-term neonatal outcomes. Methods: We considered 773,237 deliveries that occurred between 2007–2017 in the Lombardy region of Italy. We evaluated the risk of neonatal outcomes among infants that were born to mothers who underwent AT during pregnancy. The odds ratios and the hazard ratios, with the 95% confidence intervals, were estimated respectively for early (first/second trimester) and late (third trimester) exposure. The propensity score was used to account for potential confounders. We also performed subgroup analysis for the class of AT. Results: We identified 132,024 and 76,921 singletons that were exposed to AT during early and late pregnancy, respectively. Infants born to mothers with early exposure had 17, 11, and 16% increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and low Apgar score, respectively. Infants that were exposed in late pregnancy had 25, 11, and 13% increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and low Apgar score, respectively. The results were consistent in the subgroup analysis. Conclusion: Our results suggested an increased risk of several neonatal outcomes in women exposed to ATs during pregnancy, albeit we were not able to assess to what extent the observed effects were due to the infection itself. To reduce the risk of neonatal outcomes, women that are prescribed AT during pregnancy should be closely monitored.

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